Air defense. Defense against air-breathing attacking weapons, such as manned bombers or cruise missiles.
Antiballistic missile (ABM) system. A weapon system for intercepting and destroying strategic ballistic missiles and their warheads in flight.
Antiballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty. A ratified treaty of “unlimited duration” between the United States and the Soviet Union, adopted in 1972 and amended in 1974, strictly limiting each side's antiballistic missile (ABM) systems in order to prevent the deployment of nationwide ABM defenses or a base for such a defense. Each country is restricted to a single deployment area incorporating 100 ABM interceptor launchers. The treaty prohibits the development, testing, and deployment of space-based, sea-based, air-based, and mobile land-based systems and components. Certain qualitative and quantitative limits regulate fixed land-based systems and restrain future improvements of ABM technologies. Specific provisions also restrain the upgrading of air-defense systems and radars for antiballistic missile defense. Compliance is monitored by national technical means of verification. A Standing Consultative Commission was established to resolve compliance issues.
Ballistic missile. A missile system that spends a large part of its flight in free flight in a “ballistic” trajectory.
Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE). Begun in 1972, the conference adopted a Final Act in 1975 (also called the Helsinki
Page 64Final Act) that, among other provisions, contained agreements for confidence-building measures (CBMs) designed to reduce tensions and the possibility of misperception by making the military environment more predictable through the imposition of operational constraints on military movements and exercises. The 35 CSCE members include Eastern and Western Europe, the Soviet Union, the United States, and Canada.
Confidence-building measures (CBMs). Negotiated or unilateral measures undertaken to increase “transparency” and demonstrate a nation's lack of belligerent or hostile intent, as distinguished from measures that actually control or reduce military capabilities.
Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) Treaty. An agreement signed by 22 countries (NATO, the Soviet Union, and Eastern Europe) in November 1990 that place limits on a range of conventional weapons. Within 40 months of the treaty's entry into force, all weapons above treaty limits must be destroyed or, in a few cases, converted to noncombat roles, under strict guidelines.
Cruise missile. A pilotless, jet-propelled guided missile flying in the atmosphere. Cruise missiles may be armed with conventional or nuclear warheads and launched from an aircraft (air-launched cruise missiles, ALCMs), a submarine or surface ship (sea-launched cruise missiles, SLCMs), or a land-based platform (ground-launched cruise missiles, GLCMs).
Download. Procedures for the removal of some of the warheads from multiple-warhead missiles so that missiles may be counted as carrying fewer warheads within certain prescribed limits.
Dual-capable. Weapons systems, such as fighter aircraft and cruise missiles, that may deliver either nuclear or conventional munitions.
East-West Military Doctrine Seminar. Seminar held in early 1990 as part of CSCE regime involving high-level military officers and officials from NATO, the Warsaw Pact, and other European nations. Additional seminars are planned.
European Community. The three organizations—the European Coal and Steel Community (1951), the European Economic Community (1957), and the European Atomic Energy Community (1957)—created to promote the political and economic integration of Europe. Now comprising 12 nations, the EC plans to abolish all trade barriers among members by 1992.
Fissile material. A material fissionable by neutrons of all energies, including fast neutrons; for example, uranium-235 and plutonium-239.
Full-scope safeguards. The requirement in the Nonproliferation Treaty that nonnuclear weapons states that are parties to the treaty submit all their peaceful nuclear activities to safeguards administered by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Safeguards are various procedures de
Page 65signed to detect and thereby deter the diversion of materials from civilian nuclear power activities for possible use in nuclear weapons.
Harden. To protect a potential target or warhead against the blast, heat, electromagnetic pulse, and radiation effects of nuclear explosions.
Intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs). A fixed or mobile land-based rocket-propelled vehicle capable of delivering a warhead to intercontinental ranges of more than 5,500 kilometers. An ICBM consists of a booster, one or more reentry vehicles, possibly penetration aids, and, in the case of a MIRVed missile, a postboost vehicle (see ballistic missile).
Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty. Agreement between the United States and the Soviet Union that entered into force in June 1988 calling for the global elimination of U.S. Pershing II missiles and intermediate-range ground-launched cruise missiles and the elimination of all Soviet intermediate-range nuclear missiles. Verification is by national technical means, perimeter portal monitoring, and onsite inspection. It was the first agreement to eliminate an entire class of nuclear weapons.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). A United Nations organization, founded in 1956, whose purpose is to promote peaceful uses of nuclear technology, maintain health and safety standards for the nuclear industry and the environment, and detect and thereby deter any diversion of nuclear materials to a weapons program.
London Declaration. Statement on a “Transformed North Atlantic Alliance” released by the 16 heads of state attending a NATO summit in July 1990. Among other provisions, it proposed follow-up talks as soon as CFE was signed, announced that in the future NATO's forces would be smaller and restructured, announced that NATO would rely on a new nuclear weapons strategy that would be “truly weapons of last resort,” and proposed measures to make CSCE more prominent.
Multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle (MIRV). A package of two or more reentry vehicles with nuclear warheads that can be carried by a single ballistic missile and independently delivered to separate designated targets.
National technical means. Technical means of collecting intelligence or verifying compliance that does not intrude on national sovereignty of other countries. Examples include imagery or signal collection by satellites, over-the-horizon or line-of-sight radar observation, and air sampling and geophysical (seismic, acoustic, ionospheric, hydroacoustic, etc.) observations outside another country's territory.
NATO Strategy Review. Plans for fundamental restructuring of NATO forces and revision of doctrine in response to changes in European security environment. Preliminary approval given by defense ministers of mem
Page 66ber nations in May 1991, subject to approval at 1991 NATO summit meeting.
Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT). Multilateral agreement to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons negotiated by the United States, the Soviet Union, and Great Britain and signed by over 140 nations. The treaty requires nonnuclear weapons states not to develop, manufacture, or acquire nuclear weapons and to accept IAEA full-scope safeguards on all of their nuclear facilities. In turn, the nuclear weapons states agreed to share “the applications of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes” with nonnuclear weapon signatories on a “nondiscriminatory basis” and to negotiate in good faith an end to the arms race and toward nuclear disarmament.
Permissive action links (PALs). A coded switch that serves as a technical supplement to the administrative controls exercised over the release of nuclear weapons. When installed, they make enabling the weapon, or access to the warhead itself, dependent upon receiving a code from a higher command.
Plutonium. A man-made element produced by the irradiation of uranium-238 with neutrons in nuclear reactors. Plutonium has several isotopes, of which the fissionable isotope Pu-239 is used for nuclear weapons.
Short-range nuclear forces (SNF). Land-based nuclear weapons delivery systems with ranges up to 500 kilometers; not limited by the INF Treaty.
Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START). Negotiations between the United States and the Soviet Union initiated in 1982 to seek substantial reductions in strategic nuclear weapons. Agreement signed by President Bush and President Gorbachev in July 1991 will reduce U.S. and Soviet strategic forces by approximately 20-35 percent.
Strategic nuclear forces. Land-based missiles with ranges over 5,500 kilometers, modern submarine-launched ballistic missiles, and heavy bombers capable of intercontinental missions.
Submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM). A ballistic missile carried in and launched from a submarine, thereby achieving survivability for a missile force (see ballistic missile).
Survivability. The ability of a nation's forces and its command system to withstand a nuclear attack. This may be accomplished to varying degrees by hardening, mobility, or creating redundant systems to provide backup capabilities.
Tactical nuclear weapons. Weapons developed for use in battlefield operations, in combat with opposing military forces, as opposed to those designed for use against an opponent's homeland. (See strategic nuclear forces.)
Time-urgent target. A target whose value would be greatly diminished unless attacked promptly.
Transparency. Systematic provision of information on specific aspects of
Page 67activities in the military field under informal or formal international arrangements. Depending on the specific arrangements, information can be made available among nations or to a central repository.
Triad. The traditional term applied to the three components of U.S. and Soviet strategic forces: long-range bombers carrying either gravity bombs or ALCMs, land-based ICBMs, and submarine-based ballistic missiles.
Weapons-grade uranium. Uranium with a sufficiently high concentration of the fissionable isotope U-235 to make it suitable for use in a nuclear weapon.
Yield. The energy released by the explosion of a nuclear weapon. It is generally measured in TNT equivalent, that is, the weight of a “conventional” trinitrotoluene explosion capable of producing the same energy release. Nuclear yield is usually measured in kilotons (KT) or megatons (MT). In physical units, 1 KT = 4 × 1012 joules.