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Options for Scientific Ocean Drilling The Final Report of the Committee on Ocean Dr Geological Sciences Bo Commission on Physical Sciences, â¢y Mathematics and Resources National Research Council \ NAS-NAZ NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 198^ LIBRARY
C, / NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the Councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the Committee responsible for this report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its congressional charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Tne National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences. This report is based on work under Grant No. ODP-8121406 from the National Science Foundation, whose support is gratefully acknowledged. Opinions, findings, and recommendations expressed herein do not necessarily reflect the views of the Foundation. Available from Office of Scientific Ocean Drilling National Science Foundation Washington, DC 20550 Office of Earth Sciences National Research Council National Academy of Sciences 2101 Constitution Ave. Washington, DC 20418
GEOLOGICAL SCIENCES BOARD William R. Dickinson, University of Arizona, Chairman Samuel S. Adams, Fugro Rocky Mountain Inc., Golden, Colorado Lloyd S. Cluff, Woodward-Clyde Consultants, San Francisco Walter R. Eckelmann, Exxon Corporation, New York City Michel T. Halbouty, The Halbouty Center, Houston, Texas William W. Hay, Joint Oceanographic Institutions Inc., Washington, D.C. Melvin J. Hill, Gulf Oil Corporation, Houston, Texas Carrol Ann Hodges, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park William C. Luth, Sandia National Laboratories Charles J. Mankin, Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman V. Rama Murthy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis Jack E. Oliver, Cornell University Stephen C. Porter, University of Washington, Seattle James W. Schopf, University of California, Los Angeles E-an Zen, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia Liaison Members Leon L. Beratan, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Robin Brett, National Science Foundation Philip Cohen, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia Kenneth Daugherty, Defense Mapping Agency, Washington, DC Paul R. Fisher, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Bruce B. Hanshaw, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia John G. Heacock, Office of Naval Research Linn Hoover, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia George A. Kolstad, Department of Energy John F. Lance, National Science Foundation, Washington, DC Dallas L. Peck, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia Mark Settle, National Aeronautics & Space Administration, Washington,DC A. G. Unklesbay, American Geological Institute, Falls Church, Virginia Kenneth N. Weaver, Maryland Geological Survey Frank J. Wobber, Department of Energy Ex-Officio John C. Crowell, University of California, Santa Barbara W. Gary Ernst, University of California, Los Angeles Staff Joseph W. Berg, Jr., Executive Secretary William E. Benson, Senior Staff Officer Roy E. Hanson, Senior Staff Officer ill
COMMITTEE ON OCEAN DRILLING /v Francis G. Stehli, University of Florida, Chairman John C. Harms, Marathon Oil Company John Hower, Jr., University of Illinois Harold L. James, U.S. Geological Survey Charles D. Masters, U.S. Geological Survey Charles B. Officer, Dartmouth College William M. Sackett, University of South Florida Charles A. Salotti, Gulf Research and Development Peter J. Wyllie, University of Chicago Staff William E. Benson, Senior Staff Officer iv
COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND RESOURCES Herbert Friedman, National Research Council, Cochairman Robert M. White, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Cochairman Stanley I. Auerabach, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Elkan R. Blout, Harvard Medical School William Browder, Princeton University Bernard F. Burke, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Herman Charnoff, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Walter R. Eckelmann, Exxon Corporation Joseph L. Fisher, Office of the Governor, Commonwealth of Virginia James C. Fletcher, University of Pittsburgh William A. Fowler, California Institute of Technology Gerhart Friedlander, Brookhaven National Laboratory Edward A. Frieman, Science Applications, Inc. Edward D. Goldberg, Scripps Institution of Oceanography Konrad B. Krauskopf, Stanford University Charles J. Mankin, Oklahoma Geological Survey Walter H. Munk, University of California, San Diego Norton Nelson, New York University Medical Center Daniel A. Okun, University of North Carolina George E. Pake, Xerox Research Center David Pimentel, Cornell University Charles K. Reed, National Research Council Hatten S. Yoder, Jr., Carnegie Institution of Washington Raphael G. Rasper, Acting Executive Director
CONTENTS Introduction 1 Background 1 The Case for Future Drilling 3 Program Options 10 Further Considerations 13 Conclusions and Recommendations 14 Selected References 16 vii