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Suzanne Landi, Rappo orteur Round dtable on Env vironmental Health H Science es, Research h, and Medicin ne Board on Population He ealth and Pub blic Health Prractice
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The workshop that is the subject of this workshop summary was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (HHSN26300013). The views presented in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the activity. This summary is based on the proceedings of a workshop that was sponsored by the Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine. It is prepared in the form of a workshop summary by and in the name of the rapporteur as an individually authored document. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-29478-2 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-29478-9 Additional copies of this workshop summary are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. For more information about the Institute of Medicine, visit the IOM home page at: www.iom.edu. Copyright 2014 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The serpent adopted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatliche Museen in Berlin. Suggested citation: IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2014. Including health in global frameworks for development, wealth, and climate change: Workshop summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
The National Acadeemy of Sciencces is a privatte, nonprofit, self-perpetuatiing society y of distinguish hed scholars enngaged in scienntific and enginneering researcch, dedicatted to the furth herance of scieence and technnology and to their use for tthe generall welfare. Upoon the authority y of the charteer granted to it by the Congreess in 1863, the Academ my has a man ndate that reqquires it to addvise the fedeeral governmment on scienttific and techniccal matters. Drr. Ralph J. Ciceerone is presideent of the National N Acadeemy of Sciencees. The National Acadeemy of Engin neering was eestablished in 1964, under tthe charterr of the Natioonal Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstan nding engineerss. It is autonomo ous in its adminnistration and iin the selectionn of its memmbers, sharing with the National Academyy of Sciences tthe responsibillity for adv vising the federral governmentt. The Nationall Academy of Engineering allso sponsors engineering g programs aim med at meetinng national neeeds, encouragges educatiion and researcch, and recogn nizes the superrior achievemeents of engineeers. Dr. C. D. D Mote, Jr., iss president of the t National Accademy of Enggineering. The Institute of Med dicine was estaablished in 19770 by the Natioonal Academy of Sciencees to secure th he services of eminent membbers of approppriate professioons in the examination e of policy matterrs pertaining too the health off the public. T The Institutte acts under th he responsibilitty given to the National Acaddemy of Sciencces by its congressional c charter c to be an n adviser to thee federal goverrnment and, uppon its ownn initiative, to identify i issues of medical carre, research, annd education. D Dr. Harvey y V. Fineberg is president of thet Institute off Medicine. The Na ational Resea w organizedd by the Natioonal Academy of arch Council was Sciencees in 1916 to associate the broad b communnity of sciencee and technoloogy with th he Academyâs purposes of fu urthering know wledge and advvising the fedeeral governnment. Function ning in accordance with geneeral policies determined by tthe Academ my, the Counccil has becomee the principall operating ageency of both tthe National Academy of o Sciences an nd the Nationaal Academy off Engineering in providiing services to t the govern nment, the puublic, and thee scientific aand engineeering communiities. The Coun ncil is administtered jointly byy both Academ mies and thee Institute of Medicine. M Dr. Ralph R J. Ciceroone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., aare chair an nd vice chair, respectively, r of the National Research Counncil. w www.nationall-academies.o org .
PLANNING COMMITTEE FOR THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT SPRING WEBINAR SERIES1 KRISTIE L. EBI, Independent Consultant, ClimAdapt, LLC, Los Altos, CA LUIZ A. GALVÃO, Area Manager, Sustainable Development and Environmental Health, Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DC BERNARD D. GOLDSTEIN, Professor Emeritus, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, PA ANDREW HAINES, Professor of Public Health and Primary Care, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK DEAN JAMISON, Senior Fellow at the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy, Washington, DC CHRISTOPHER J. L. MURRAY, Director, Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, Professor of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle CARLOS SANTOS-BURGOA, Coordinator of Occupational and Environmental Risks, Area of Sustainable Development and Environmental Health, Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DC JOHN D. SPENGLER, Professor, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 1 Institute of Medicine planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the workshop, identifying topics, and choosing speakers. The responsibility for the published workshop summary rests with the workshop rapporteur and the institution. v
ROUNDTABLE ON ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES, RESEARCH, AND MEDICINE1 FRANK LOY (Chair), U.S. Representative to the 66th Session of the General Assembly of the United Nations, Washington, DC LYNN R. GOLDMAN (Vice-Chair), Dean, School of Public Health and Health Services, George Washington University, Washington, DC HENRY A. ANDERSON, State Health Officer, Wisconsin Division of Public Health, Madison JOHN M. BALBUS, Senior Advisor for Public Health, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD JAMES K. BARTRAM, Don and Jennifer Holzworth Distinguished Professor, Director of the Water Institute, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill LINDA S. BIRNBAUM, Director, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC LUZ CLAUDIO, Associate Professor, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY DENNIS J. DEVLIN, Senior Environmental Health Advisor, ExxonMobil Corporation, Irving, TX RICHARD A. FENSKE, Professor and Associate Chair, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle ALISTAIR FRASER, Vice President, Health, Royal Dutch Shell, The Hague, Netherlands LUIZ A. GALVÃO, Area Manager, Sustainable Development and Environmental Health, Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DC BERNARD D. GOLDSTEIN, Professor Emeritus, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, PA 1 Institute of Medicine forums and roundtables do not issue, review, or approve individual documents. The responsibility for the published workshop summary rests with the workshop rapporteur and the institution. vii
RICHARD J. JACKSON, Professor and Chair, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles SUZETTE M. KIMBALL, Deputy Director, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior, Reston, VA JAY LEMERY, Assistant Professor of Emergency Medicine, President, Wilderness Medical Society, University of Colorado, Aurora ANDREW MAGUIRE, Vice President for Environmental Health, Environmental Defense Fund, Washington, DC LINDA A. MCCAULEY, Dean and Professor, Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, GA AL MCGARTLAND, Office Director, National Center for Environmental Economics, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC DAVID M. MICHAELS, Assistant Secretary of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Washington, DC CANICE NOLAN, Senior Coordinator for Global Health, European Commission, Brussels, Belgium MARTIN A. PHILBERT, Dean, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor CHRISTOPHER J. PORTIER, Director, National Center for Environmental Health and Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA PAUL SANDIFER, Senior Science Advisor to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, Charleston, SC JOHN D. SPENGLER, Professor, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA LOUIS W. SULLIVAN, President Emeritus, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA ANNE M. SWEENEY, Professor, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Texas A&M University, College Station G. DAVID TILMAN, Director, Cedar Creek Ecosystem Science Reserve, Regents Professor, University of Minnesota, St. Paul PATRICIA VERDUIN, Chief Technology Officer, Global Research & Development, Colgate-Palmolive Company, Piscataway, NJ NSEDU OBOT WITHERSPOON, Executive Director, Childrenâs Environmental Health Network, Washington, DC viii
HAROLD ZENICK, Director, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC IOM Staff CHRISTINE COUSSENS, Study Director (until August 2013) ERIN RUSCH, Associate Program Officer SUZANNE LANDI, Research Associate HOPE HARE, Administrative Assistant ROSE MARIE MARTINEZ, Director, Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice ix
Reviewers This workshop summary has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Councilâs Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published workshop summary as sound as possible and to ensure that the summary meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this workshop summary: Hilary French, United Nations Environment Programme Canice Nolan, European Commission David Simpson, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Kimberly Thigpen Tart, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they did not see the final draft of the workshop summary before its release. The review of this summary was overseen by Johanna T. Dwyer, Tufts Medical Center. Appointed by the Institute of Medicine, she was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this workshop summary was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this summary rests entirely with the rapporteur and the institution. xi
Contents 1 INTRODUCTION 1 Overview of Sustainability, Millenium Development Goals, and Post-2015 Goals, 2 Structure of the Summary, 5 References, 6 2 HEALTH IN THE CONTEXT OF PROCESSES TO DEVELOP POST-2015 GOALS AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS 7 Opening, 7 The Global Thematic Consultation on Health and Incorporating Environmental Health into the Post-2015 Development Agenda, 8 Overview of the Report A New Global Partnership: Eradicate Poverty and Transform Economies Through Sustainable Development, 12 Response to Findings and Recommendations in the UN High-Level Panelâs Report, 16 Discussion, 20 References, 22 3 HEALTH IN THE CONTEXT OF SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC FRAMEWORKS 25 Opening, 25 Going Beyond GDP: Opportunities and Challenges, 26 Inclusive Wealth: Incorporation of Health Information, 29 Happiness and Public Policy, 33 Synthesis and Response, 36 Discussion, 38 References, 41 4 HEALTH IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE SCENARIOS 43 Opening, 43 Overview of the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways for Use in New Climate Change Scenarios, 44 Reflections on Scenario Planning, 51 xiii
xiv CONTENTS Engaging Key Partners and Institutions in Development and Disseminating Climate Change Scenarios, 55 Discussion, 57 References, 59 APPENDIXES A WEBINAR AGENDAS 61 B WEBINAR SPEAKER BIOSKETCHES 67