Biographical Sketches of Committee Members
JEREMY TRAVIS (Chair) is president of John Jay College of Criminal Justice. Prior to his appointment in 2004, Mr. Travis served 4 years as a senior fellow affiliated with the Justice Policy Center at the Urban Institute in Washington, DC, where he launched a national research program focused on prisoner reentry into society. From 1994 to 2000, he directed the National Institute of Justice, the research arm of the U.S. Department of Justice. He was deputy commissioner for legal matters for the New York City Police Department (NYPD) from 1990 to 1994, chief counsel to the U.S. House Judiciary Subcommittee on Criminal Justice in 1990, special advisor to New York City Mayor Edward I. Koch from 1986 to 1989, and special counsel to the police commissioner of the NYPD from 1984 to 1986. Before joining city government, he served as law clerk to then-U.S. Court of Appeals Judge Ruth Bader Ginsburg, currently a member of the U.S. Supreme Court. He was executive director of the New York City Criminal Justice Agency from 1977 to 1979 and served 6 years at the Vera Institute of Justice. Mr. Travis has taught courses on criminal justice, public policy, history, and law at Yale College, New York University Wagner Graduate School of Public Service, New York Law School, The George Washington University, and John Jay College of Criminal Justice. He is the author of But They All Come Back: Facing the Challenges of Prisoner Reentry (Urban Institute Press, 2005), co-editor (with Christy Visher) of Prisoner Reentry and Crime in America (Cambridge University Press, 2005), and co-editor (with Michelle Waul) of Prisoners Once Removed: The Impact of Incarceration and Reentry on Children, Families, and Communities (Urban Institute Press, 2003). He is chair of the Committee on Law and Justice
of the National Research Council and a member of the Board of Trustees of the Urban Institute. He earned a J.D., cum laude, from the New York University School of Law; an M.P.A. from the New York University Wagner Graduate School of Public Service; and a B.A., cum laude, in American studies from Yale College.
BRUCE WESTERN (Vice Chair) is professor of sociology, the Daniel and Florence Guggenheim professor of criminal justice policy and management and the director of the Malcolm Wiener Center for Social Policy at Harvard University. Before going to Harvard, Dr. Western was a member of the Sociology Department at Princeton University from 1993 to 2007. He has edited or authored several books including Between Class and Market: Postwar Unionization in the Capitalist Democracies (1997), Imprisoning America: The Social Effects of Mass Incarceration (edited with Mary Patillo and David Weiman, 2004), and The Great Recession (edited with David Grusky and Christopher Wimer 2011). The 2006 book, Punishment and Inequality in America, examines the causes, scope, and consequences of the growth in incarceration rates in the United States from the 1970s to the 2000s. The book won the Albert J. Reiss Award for distinguished scholarly publication of the Crime, Law, and Deviance Section of the American Sociological Association, and the Michael Hindelang Award from the American Society for Criminology. Western was a Jean Monnet fellow at the European University Institute, a visiting fellow at the Russell Sage Foundation, a Guggenheim fellow, and an elected member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He received his B.A. (Hons.) in government from the University of Queensland, Australia, and his Ph.D. in sociology from the University of California, Los Angeles.
JEFFREY A. BEARD was appointed as secretary of the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation by Governor Edmond G. Brown, Jr., on December 27, 2012. He is responsible for the management of the Corrections Department, which houses 132,785 adult inmates and 870 juveniles, supervises 57,755 parolees, and has more than 50,000 employees and a budget of $9 billion. He will also serve as chairman of both the Board of State and Community Corrections and the Prison Industry Board. He began his criminal justice career in 1972 with the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections (PaDoC) as a corrections counselor. He served in various positions within the PaDoC, including superintendent in two institutions, one of which he activated in 1987 and another that he took over after two serious riots in November 1989. He then served as deputy commissioner and executive deputy secretary until he was appointed secretary of the PaDoC by Governor Tom Ridge in January 2001. He was reappointed by Governor Ed Rendell in February 2003 and February 2007. He remained
with the PaDoC until August 2010, when he retired as secretary of corrections. During his retirement, he served as a consultant and/or instructor to the National Institute of Corrections, corrections agencies, and various companies on correctional matters, security, performance measures, mental health issues, evidence-based programs, and assessment. In early 2011, he became a professor of practice with the Justice Center for Research at Pennsylvania State University. In this capacity, he served as an advisor and consultant. He holds a B.S. in psychology and an M.Ed and Ph.D. in counseling, all from Pennsylvania State University.
ROBERT D. CRUTCHFIELD is a professor of sociology at the University of Washington. His current research focuses on neighborhoods and crime, social inequality as a cause of crime, and racial inequality in the criminal justice system. He has written extensively on labor markets and crime and on racial and ethnic disparities in prosecution, sentencing, and imprisonment. He is a fellow of the American Society of Criminology and a past vice president of that organization, and he has served as chair of the American Sociological Association’s Crime, Law, and Deviance Section. From 2005 to 2011, he served on the National Research Council’s Committee on Law and Justice. Prior to his academic career, he was a juvenile probation officer and an adult parole officer in Pennsylvania. He also served on the Washington State Juvenile Sentencing Commission. He holds a B.A. from Thiel College, Greenville, Pennsylvania, and an M.A. and Ph.D. from Vanderbilt University.
TONY FABELO is division director of research at the Council of State Governments (CSG) Justice Center. He is in charge of designing, developing, and implementing a research agenda for the Justice Center. He also provides technical assistance to state and local governments to help them increase public safety and make more efficient uses of state and local taxpayer dollars. Before joining CSG, he was a senior research associate with the JFA Institute. He worked with the Texas Criminal Justice Policy Council between 1984 and 2003, and was appointed by Governor Ann Richards to head this state research and evaluation agency in 1991. He continued to serve as director under Governor George W. Bush and Governor Rick Perry. During his tenure on the council, he advised five governors from both sides of the aisle. In his different capacities in Texas, he has assisted every legislature since 1985 in developing criminal justice policies, including crafting the major Justice Reinvestment initiative adopted by the Texas legislature in 2007. The U.S. Attorney General appointed him to the Office of Justice Programs Science Advisory Panel in 2010. He received his B.A. in political science from Loyola University and his M.A. and Ph.D. from the University of Texas at Austin.
MARIE GOTTSCHALK is a professor in the Department of Political Science at the University of Pennsylvania. She specializes in American politics, with a focus on criminal justice, health policy, the U.S. political economy, organized labor, the welfare state, and the comparative politics of public policy. She is the author of, among other works, The Prison and the Gallows: The Politics of Mass Incarceration in America (Cambridge, 2006), which won the 2007 Ellis W. Hawley Prize from the Organization of American Historians, and The Shadow Welfare State: Labor, Business, and the Politics of Health Care in the United States (Cornell, 2000). She is a former editor and journalist and was a university lecturer for 2 years in the People’s Republic of China. In 2001-2002, she was a visiting scholar at the Russell Sage Foundation in New York; and in 2009, she was named a distinguished lecturer in Japan by the Fulbright Program. She formerly served on the American Academy of Arts and Sciences national task force on the challenge of mass incarceration. Her latest book, Caught: The Prison State and the Lockdown of American Politics, will be published by Princeton University Press in fall 2014. She holds a B.A. in history from Cornell University, an M.P.A. from Princeton University’s Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, and an M.A. and Ph.D. in political science from Yale University.
CRAIG W. HANEY is distinguished professor of psychology and director of the Program in Legal Studies at the University of California, Santa Cruz. His research concerns the application of social psychological principles and data to various legal, constitutional, and civil rights issues. He has specialized in the assessment of institutional environments, especially the psychological effects of incarceration, as well as the study of criminogenic social histories of persons accused or convicted of serious violent crimes. He has toured and inspected correctional institutions across the country and conducted research on the psychological effects of different forms of imprisonment. His research, writing, and testimony have been cited in numerous opinions that address the constitutionality of various conditions of prison confinement. He writes widely about criminal justice issues, the psychology of imprisonment, and both the determinants and consequences of American prison policy. His book Death by Design: Capital Punishment as a Social Psychological System (Oxford, 2005) received the Herbert Jacobs Prize from the Law & Society Association as that year’s most outstanding book on law and society, and Reforming Punishment: Psychological Limits to the Pains of Imprisonment (APA Books, 2006), was nominated for a National Book Award. He holds a B.A. from the University of Pennsylvania and a J.D. and Ph.D. (in psychology) from Stanford University.
CHIEF JUDGE RICARDO H. HINOJOSA has served on the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Texas since 1983, and became Chief Judge of that District on November 13, 2009. From June 2003-present, Chief Judge Hinojosa has served on the United States Sentencing Commission, including serving as chair from August 2004-December 2008, acting chair from January 2009-October 2009, and vice chair from June 2013 to the present. He graduated Phi Beta Kappa with honors from the University of Texas at Austin in 1972 and received his law degree from Harvard Law School in 1975. He was selected to serve as a briefing attorney with the Texas Supreme Court from 1975-1976. He entered private practice with the firm of Ewers & Toothaker in McAllen, Texas, and became partner in 1979. Prior to becoming a federal judge, he served as member (1979-1983) and chairman (1981-1983) of the Pan American University Board of Regents. He serves as a member of the Fifth Circuit Judicial Council (2009-present) and as a member of the Budget Committee of the Judicial Conference of the United States (2003-present). He is a member of the American Law Institute (2011-present). He has also served as a member of the U.S. Supreme Court Fellows Commission (2004-2008) and as a member of the Committee on Defender Services of the Judicial Conference of the United States (1996-2002). He served as an adjunct professor at the University of Texas School of Law, teaching a federal sentencing seminar (2001-2003). In May 2011, Chief Judge Hinojosa was selected as the recipient of the 29th Annual Edward J. Devitt Distinguished Service to Justice Award.
GLENN C. LOURY is Merton P. Stoltz professor of the social sciences and professor of economics at Brown University. Previously, he taught economics at Harvard, Northwestern, and the University of Michigan. He has made scholarly contributions to the fields of welfare economics, game theory, industrial organization, natural resource economics, and the economics of income distribution. He has been a scholar in residence at Oxford University, Tel Aviv University, the University of Stockholm, the Delhi School of Economics, the Institute for the Human Sciences in Vienna, and the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton. He has received a Guggenheim Fellowship to support his work. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a fellow of the Econometric Society, and a member of the American Philosophical Association and was elected vice president of the American Economic Association for 1997. His book One by One, From the Inside Out: Essays and Reviews on Race and Responsibility in America won the 1996 American Book Award and the 1996 Christianity Today Book Award. He was chosen by his Boston University colleagues to present the prestigious University Lecture for the 1996-1997 academic year. He was recently elected as a member of the
Council on Foreign Relations and as a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He has published more than 200 essays and reviews on racial inequality and social policy. His recent work includes “Color-Blind Affirmative Action,” accepted for forthcoming publication in the Journal of Law, Economics and Organization (with Roland Fryer and Tolga Yuret); “Valuing Identity: Trans-Generational Justice: Compensatory vs. Interpretative Approaches,” in Reparations, edited by Jon Miller (Oxford University Press, 2006); and “Racial Stigma: Toward a New Paradigm for Discrimination Theory,” in Understanding Poverty, edited by A. Banerjee, R. Benabou, and D. Mookherjee (Oxford University Press, 2005). His books include The Anatomy of Racial Inequality (Harvard University Press, 2002) and Ethnicity, Social Mobility and Public Policy: Comparing the U.S. and the U.K. (Cambridge University Press, 2005). He received his B.A. in mathematics from Northwestern University and his Ph.D. in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
SARA S. MCLANAHAN is William S. Tod professor of sociology and public affairs at Princeton University and director of the Bendheim-Thoman Center for Research on Child Wellbeing. She is principal investigator of the Fragile Families Study and editor-in-chief of The Future of Children, a journal dedicated to providing research on policies designed to improve child health and well-being. She is a past president of the Population Association of America and has served on the boards of the American Sociological Association and the Population Association of America. She is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and currently serves on the boards of the William T. Grant Foundation, the Russell Sage Foundation, and the Robert Wood Johnson Health and Society Scholars Program. She is the author of many articles and books, including Fathers Under Fire: The Revolution in Child Support Enforcement (1998), Growing Up with a Single Parent (1994), and Single Mothers and Their Children: A New American Dilemma (1986). She earned her Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Texas at Austin.
LAWRENCE M. MEAD is a professor of politics and public policy at New York University, where he teaches public policy and American government, and a visiting scholar at the American Enterprise Institute. He has been a visiting professor at Harvard, Princeton, and the University of Wisconsin and a visiting fellow at Princeton and the Hoover Institution at Stanford. He is an expert on the problems of poverty and welfare in the United States. Among academics, he was the principal exponent of work requirements in welfare. He is a leading scholar of the politics and implementation of welfare reform and work programs for men, and his many books and articles
on these subjects have helped shape social policy in the United States and abroad. He testifies regularly to Congress on poverty, welfare, and social policy. He received his B.A. in political science at Amherst College and his M.A. and Ph.D. in political science at Harvard University.
KHALIL GIBRAN MUHAMMAD is director of the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, The New York Public Library. He is a former professor of African American history at Indiana University. He spent 2 years as an Andrew W. Mellon postdoctoral fellow at the Vera Institute of Justice, a nonprofit criminal justice reform agency in New York City, before joining the faculty of Indiana University. He is the author of The Condemnation of Blackness: Race, Crime, and the Making of Modern Urban America, which won the American Studies Association John Hope Franklin Publication Prize, awarded annually to the best published book in American studies. As an academic, he is at the forefront of scholarship on the enduring link between race and crime that has shaped and limited opportunities for African Americans. He is now working on his second book, Disappearing Acts: The End of White Criminality in the Age of Jim Crow, which traces the historical roots of the changing demographics of crime and punishment so evident today. He has been an associate editor of The Journal of American History. He received a B.A. in economics from the University of Pennsylvania and a Ph.D. in American history from Rutgers University, specializing in twentieth century U.S. and African American history.
DANIEL S. NAGIN is Teresa and H. John Heinz III university professor of public policy and statistics in the Heinz College, Carnegie Mellon University. He is an elected fellow of the American Society of Criminology and of the American Society for the Advancement of Science and is the 2006 recipient of the American Society of Criminology’s Edwin H. Sutherland Award. His research focuses on the evolution of criminal and antisocial behaviors over the life course, the deterrent effect of criminal and noncriminal penalties on illegal behaviors, and the development of statistical methods for analyzing longitudinal data. His work has appeared in such diverse outlets as American Economic Review, American Sociological Review, Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Journal of Sociology, Archives of General Psychiatry, Criminology, Child Development, Psychological Methodology, Law & Society Review, Crime and Justice Annual Review, Operations Research, and Stanford Law Review. He is also the author of Group-based Modeling of Development (Harvard University Press, 2005). He received his Ph.D. from the H. John Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management, Carnegie Mellon University.
DEVAH PAGER is a professor of sociology and public policy at Harvard University. Previously, she was an associate professor of sociology and co-director of the Joint Degree Program in Social Policy at Princeton University and faculty associate of the Office of Population Research and the Woodrow Wilson School. Her research focuses on institutions affecting racial stratification, including education, labor markets, and the criminal justice system. Her recent research has involved a series of field experiments studying discrimination against minorities and those with criminal records in the low-wage labor market. Her book Marked: Race, Crime, and Finding Work in an Era of Mass Incarceration (University of Chicago, 2007) investigates the racial and economic consequences of large-scale imprisonment for contemporary U.S. labor markets. She holds master’s degrees from Stanford University and the University of Cape Town and a Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin—Madison.
ANNE MORRISON PIEHL is an associate professor of economics and director of the Program in Criminal Justice at Rutgers University and a research associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research. She conducts research on the economics of crime and criminal justice. Her current work analyzes the causes and consequences of the prison population boom; determinants of criminal sentencing outcomes; and the connections between immigration and crime, both historically and currently. She recently testified before the U.S. Sentencing Commission and the U.S. House of Representatives Subcommittee on Immigration and served on the New Jersey Commission on Government Efficiency and Reform Corrections/Sentencing Task Force. Before joining Rutgers in 2005, she was on the faculty of the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. She received her A.B. from Harvard University and her Ph.D. from Princeton University.
JOSIAH D. RICH is a professor of medicine and epidemiology at Brown University and attending physician at the Miriam Hospital, with expertise in infectious diseases and addiction. He has authored more than 150 peer-reviewed publications, predominantly on the overlap among infectious diseases, addictions, and incarceration. He is principal investigator for several projects focused on incarcerated populations. He is the director and co-founder of the Center for Prisoner Health and Human Rights at the Miriam Hospital Immunology Center. He is also a co-founder of the nationwide Centers for AIDS Research (CFAR) Collaboration in HIV in Corrections (CFAR/CHIC) initiative. He has advocated for public health policy changes to improve the health of people with addiction, including improving legal access to sterile syringes and increasing drug treatment for the incarcerated and formerly incarcerated populations. He received his B.A. from Columbia
University, his M.D. from the University of Massachusetts, and his M.P.H. from the Harvard School of Public Health.
ROBERT J. SAMPSON is Henry Ford II professor of the social sciences at Harvard University and past president of the American Society of Criminology. Before joining the Harvard faculty in 2003, he taught at the University of Chicago and was a research fellow at the American Bar Foundation. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, and the American Society of Criminology and an elected member of the National Academy of Sciences. In June 2011, he and his colleague John Laub received the Stockholm Prize in Criminology. His main research interests focus on crime, the life course, neighborhood effects, and the social structure of the contemporary city. His most recent book—Great American City: Chicago and the Enduring Neighborhood Effect—was published in paperback by the University of Chicago Press in June 2013. He received an M.A. and Ph.D. from the State University of New York at Albany.
HEATHER ANN THOMPSON is an associate professor of history in the Department of African American Studies and the Department of History at Temple University. She is writing the first comprehensive history of the Attica Prison Rebellion of 1971 and its legacy for Pantheon Books. She has also written numerous scholarly articles on the current crisis of mass incarceration, including: “Why Mass Incarceration Matters: Rethinking Crisis, Decline and Transformation in Postwar American History” (Journal of American History, December 2010), “Downsizing the Carceral State: The Policy Implications of Prisoner Guard Unions” (Criminology and Public Policy, August, 2011), “Rethinking Working Class Struggle through the Lens of the Carceral State: Toward a Labor History of Inmates and Guards” (Labor: Working Class Studies of the Americas, Fall, 2011), and “Criminalizing Kids: The Overlooked Reason for Failing Schools” (Dissent, October, 2011). She earned a B.A. and M.A. in history from the University of Michigan and a Ph.D. in history from Princeton University.
MICHAEL TONRY is a professor of law at the University of Minnesota, specializing in criminal law. He teaches courses in criminal law, jurisprudence, and comparative law. In 1990, he was named Marvin J. Sonosky chair of law and public policy. From 1999 to 2004, he was also professor of law and public policy and director of the Institute of Criminology at Cambridge University. Since 2001, he has been a visiting professor at the University of Lausanne, Switzerland. He has also been a senior fellow of The Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement, Leiden, since 2003. From 2000 to 2010, he was editor of Criminology in
Europe. He edits Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, the Oxford University Press series Studies in Crime and Public Policy, the Oxford University Press series Oxford Handbooks on Criminology and Criminal Justice, and the Oxford University Press series Studies in Penal Theory and Philosophy (with Antony Duff). He received his A.B. from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; his LL.B. from Yale; and his Ph.D. (h.c.) from the Free University, Amsterdam.
AVELARDO VALDEZ is a professor in the School of Social Work at the University of Southern California. A primary focus of his research is on the relationship between substance abuse and violence and health issues among high-risk groups. His research projects have been among “hidden populations,” such as youth and prison gang members, injecting and noninjecting heroin users, and sex workers on the U.S./Mexico border. He is a recipient of federal grants from the National Institutes of Health and National Institute on Drug Abuse. He has published more than 75 journal articles and book chapters and academic publications, including two books. His most recent book is entitled Mexican American Girls and Gang Violence: Beyond Risk (2007). He obtained his Ph.D. in sociology at the University of California, Los Angeles.