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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2014. Developing a 21st Century Global Library for Mathematics Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18619.
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Developing a 21st Century Global
Library for Mathematics Research

Committee on Planning a Global Library of the Mathematical Sciences

Board on Mathematical Sciences and Their Applications

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
                         OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2014. Developing a 21st Century Global Library for Mathematics Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18619.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS     500 Fifth Street, NW     Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This project was supported by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation under grant number 2011-10-28. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organization that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number 13: 978-0-309-29848-3
International Standard Book Number 10: 0-309-29848-2

Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.

Suggested citation: National Research Council. 2014. Developing a 21st Century Global Library for Mathematics Research. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.

Copyright 2014 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2014. Developing a 21st Century Global Library for Mathematics Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18619.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2014. Developing a 21st Century Global Library for Mathematics Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18619.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2014. Developing a 21st Century Global Library for Mathematics Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18619.
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COMMITTEE ON PLANNING A GLOBAL LIBRARY OF THE MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES

INGRID DAUBECHIES, Duke University, Co-Chair

CLIFFORD A. LYNCH, Coalition for Networked Information, Co-Chair

KATHLEEN M. CARLEY, Carnegie Mellon University

TIMOTHY W. COLE, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

JUDITH L. KLAVANS, University of Maryland, College Park

YANN LeCUN, New York University

MICHAEL LESK, Rutgers University

PETER OLVER, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis

JIM PITMAN, University of California, Berkeley

ZHIHONG (JEFF) XIA, Northwestern University

Staff

MICHELLE SCHWALBE, Study Director

SCOTT WEIDMAN, Board Director

BARBARA WRIGHT, Administrative Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2014. Developing a 21st Century Global Library for Mathematics Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18619.
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BOARD ON MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

DONALD G. SAARI, University of California, Irvine, Chair

DOUGLAS ARNOLD, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis

GERALD G. BROWN, U.S. Naval Postgraduate School

LOUIS ANTHONY COX, JR., Cox Associates

CONSTANTINE GATSONIS, Brown University

MARK L. GREEN, University of California, Los Angeles

DARRYLL HENDRICKS, UBS Investment Bank

BRYNA KRA, Northwestern University

ANDREW W. LO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

DAVID MAIER, Portland State University

WILLIAM A. MASSEY, Princeton University

JUAN MEZA, University of California, Merced

JOHN W. MORGAN, Stony Brook University

CLAUDIA NEUHAUSER, University of Minnesota, Rochester

FRED ROBERTS, Rutgers University

CARL P. SIMON, University of Michigan

KATEPALLI SREENIVASAN, New York University

EVA TARDOS, Cornell University

Staff

SCOTT WEIDMAN, Director

NEAL GLASSMAN, Senior Program Officer

MICHELLE SCHWALBE, Program Officer

BARBARA WRIGHT, Administrative Assistant

BETH DOLAN, Financial Associate

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2014. Developing a 21st Century Global Library for Mathematics Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18619.
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Acknowledgments

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. The committee wishes to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Sara Billey, University of Washington

Thierry Bouche, Cellule MathDoc and Institut Fourier, Université de Grenoble

François G. Dorais, MathOverflow and Dartmouth College

Robion Kirby, University of California, Berkeley

Donald McClure, American Mathematical Society

Jason Rute, Pennsylvania State University

Terence Tao, University of California, Los Angeles

Eva Tardos, Cornell University

Heinz Weinheimer, Springer

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2014. Developing a 21st Century Global Library for Mathematics Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18619.
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its release. The review of this report was overseen by C. David Lever-more, University of Maryland, College Park. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

The committee also acknowledges the valuable contribution of the following individuals, who provided input at the meetings on which this report is based or by other means:

Patrick Allen, Northwestern University

Dean Baskin, Northwestern University

Anna Marie Bohmann, Northwestern University

Thierry Bouche, Cellule MathDoc and Institut Fourier, Université de Grenoble

Jim Crowley, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics

Yanxia Deng, Northwestern University

François G. Dorais, MathOverflow and Dartmouth College

Kris Fowler, University of Minnesota

Hongshaw Gai, Northwestern University

Paul Ginsparg, arXiv.org and Cornell University

Daniel Goroff, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation

Wayne Graves, Association for Computing Machinery

Elton Hsu, Northwestern University

Michael Kohlhase, Jacobs University

Chao Liang, Northwestern University

David Lipman, National Center for Biotechnology Information

Andrew McCallum, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

Donald McClure, American Mathematical Society

Andrew Odlyzko, University of Minnesota

Jeffrey Regier, University of California, Berkeley

Clark Robinson, Northwestern University

Herb Roitblat, OrcaTec

George Sell, University of Minnesota

Melissa Tacy, Northwestern University

Michael Trott, Wolfram|Alpha

John Wilkin, University of Michigan

Antony Williams, Royal Society of Chemistry

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2014. Developing a 21st Century Global Library for Mathematics Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18619.
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Like most areas of scholarship, mathematics is a cumulative discipline: new research is reliant on well-organized and well-curated literature. Because of the precise definitions and structures within mathematics, today's information technologies and machine learning tools provide an opportunity to further organize and enhance discoverability of the mathematics literature in new ways, with the potential to significantly facilitate mathematics research and learning. Opportunities exist to enhance discoverability directly via new technologies and also by using technology to capture important interactions between mathematicians and the literature for later sharing and reuse.

Developing a 21st Century Global Library for Mathematics Research discusses how information about what the mathematical literature contains can be formalized and made easier to express, encode, and explore. Many of the tools necessary to make this information system a reality will require much more than indexing and will instead depend on community input paired with machine learning, where mathematicians' expertise can fill the gaps of automatization. This report proposes the establishment of an organization; the development of a set of platforms, tools, and services; the deployment of an ongoing applied research program to complement the development work; and the mobilization and coordination of the mathematical community to take the first steps toward these capabilities. The report recommends building on the extensive work done by many dedicated individuals under the rubric of the World Digital Mathematical Library, as well as many other community initiatives. Developing a 21st Century Global Library for Mathematics envisions a combination of machine learning methods and community-based editorial effort that makes a significantly greater portion of the information and knowledge in the global mathematical corpus available to researchers as linked open data through a central organizational entity-referred to in the report as the Digital Mathematics Library. This report describes how such a library might operate - discussing development and research needs, role in facilitating discover and interaction, and establishing partnerships with publishers.

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