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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Acronyms." National Research Council. 2014. Opportunities for High-Power, High-Frequency Transmitters to Advance Ionospheric/Thermospheric Research: Report of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18620.
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F

Acronyms

AFRL Air Force Research Laboratory
AIM atmosphere ionosphere magnetosphere
AIT artificial ionospheric turbulence
AMISR Advanced Modular Incoherent Scatter Radar
API artificial periodic irregularity
APL artificial plasma layer
 
BRIOCHE Basic Research on Ionospheric Characteristics and Effects
 
CEDAR Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions
CLUSTER European space agency mission using four identical spacecraft to probe Earth’s magnetosphere in three dimensions
CME coronal mass ejection
CNES Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (space agency of France)
CPCP cross-polar-cap (or transpolar) potential
 
DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
dBW power ratio in decibels (dB) of the measured power referenced to 1 watt
DEMETER Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emission Transmitted From Earthquake Regions
DMSP Defense Meteorological Satellite Program
DOD Department of Defense
DSX (Air Force) Demonstration and Science Experiments
 
EISCAT European Incoherent Scatter Association
EIW Earth-ionosphere waveguide
ELF extremely low frequency
EM electromagnetic
EMIC Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron (waves)
ePOP enhanced Polar Outflow Probe
EPSCoR Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research
ERC Engineering Research Center
ERG Energization and Radiation in Geospace
ERP effective radiated power
 
FAI field aligned irregularity
FAST Fast Auroral Snapshot
 
GHz gigahertz
GIMA Geophysical Institute Magnetometer Array
GPS Global Positioning System
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Acronyms." National Research Council. 2014. Opportunities for High-Power, High-Frequency Transmitters to Advance Ionospheric/Thermospheric Research: Report of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18620.
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GRACE Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment
GW gigawatt
 
HAARP High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program
HF high frequency (radar)
 
IAR ionospheric Alfven resonator
ICD ionospheric current drive
IM ionospheric modifications
IRI ionospheric research instrument
ISR incoherent scatter radar
ITM ionosphere thermosphere magnetosphere
 
LWA Long Wavelength Array
 
MEO medium Earth orbit
MI magnetosphere-ionosphere
MLT mesosphere and lower troposphere
MS magnetosonic
MUIR Modular UHF Ionosphere Radar
 
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NRC National Research Council
NRL Naval Research Laboratory
NSF National Science Foundation
 
O&M Operations and Maintenance
 
PFISR Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar ISR (silent P)
PI principal investigator
PMC polar mesospheric cloud
PMSE polar mesosphere summer echo
 
RAX Radio Aurora Explorer
Resonance Russian-led mission using four similar spacecraft to measure plasma parameters of the Earth’s inner magnetosphere.
RF radio frequency
RIA radio-induced aurora
RISR Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar
ROM rough order of magnitude
 
SAID subauroral ion drift
SAPS subauroral polarization stream
SAW/SA shear Alfvén wave
SBIR Small Business Innovation Research
SEE stimulated electromagnetic emission
SPEAR Space Plasma Exploration by Active Radar
SRI Stanford Research Institute International
STC Science and Technology Center
SuperDARN Super Dual Auroral Radar Network
SWMI solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Acronyms." National Research Council. 2014. Opportunities for High-Power, High-Frequency Transmitters to Advance Ionospheric/Thermospheric Research: Report of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18620.
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TARANIS Tool for the Analysis of Radiations from Lightnings and Sprites
TEC total electron content
THEMIS Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms
 
UHF ultrahigh frequency
ULF ultralow frequency
 
VHF very high frequency
VIPIR Versatile Interferometric Pulsed Ionospheric Radar
VLA Very Large Array
VLF very low frequency
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Acronyms." National Research Council. 2014. Opportunities for High-Power, High-Frequency Transmitters to Advance Ionospheric/Thermospheric Research: Report of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18620.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Acronyms." National Research Council. 2014. Opportunities for High-Power, High-Frequency Transmitters to Advance Ionospheric/Thermospheric Research: Report of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18620.
×
Page67
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Acronyms." National Research Council. 2014. Opportunities for High-Power, High-Frequency Transmitters to Advance Ionospheric/Thermospheric Research: Report of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18620.
×
Page68
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Acronyms." National Research Council. 2014. Opportunities for High-Power, High-Frequency Transmitters to Advance Ionospheric/Thermospheric Research: Report of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18620.
×
Page69
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Acronyms." National Research Council. 2014. Opportunities for High-Power, High-Frequency Transmitters to Advance Ionospheric/Thermospheric Research: Report of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18620.
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Page70
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Opportunities for High-Power, High-Frequency Transmitters to Advance Ionospheric/Thermospheric Research is the summary of a workshop convened by the Space Studies Board of the National Research Council in May 2013. The request for this workshop was informed by the sponsors' awareness of the possibility that tight budgets would result in the Department of Defense's curtailment or even termination1 of support for the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP), which includes the world's highest-power and most capable high-frequency transmitter - "heater" - for ionospheric research. Although the workshop was organized to consider the utility of heaters in upper atmospheric research in general, it had a specific focus on the HAARP transmitter facility, which is located in a remote part of southeastern Alaska.

Research conducted by the ionospheric modifications community - a community that uses high-frequency transmitters to inject energy in the ionosphere and measure its effects using ground and space-based diagnostics - is focused on understanding the interaction of radio waves with the ionospheric plasma, the local consequences of heating in the ionosphere, and studies of non-linear plasma physics processes. The workshop provided a forum for information exchange between the comparatively small group of scientists engaged in programs of upper atmospheric research using high-power high-frequency radar transmitters and the larger ionospherethermosphere-magnetosphere research community.

This report examines the state of the art in active ionospheric and thermospheric research; considers the fundamental research areas in ionospheric science that can be addressed using high-power high-frequency-band transmitters; discusses emerging science questions that might benefit from active ionospheric experiments in the sub-auroral zone; and considers ways to combine similar facilities to perform global ionospheric science. The report also examines research opportunities that might arise from the relocation of the AMISR incoherent scatter radar from the Poker Flat Research Facility in Poker Flat, AK to Gakona, AK, the location of the HAARP facility.

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