National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1975. World Food and Nutrition Study: Enhancement of Food Production for the United States : a Report of the Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources, Commission on Natural Resources, National Research Council, Prepared for the NRC Study on World Food and. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18644.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1975. World Food and Nutrition Study: Enhancement of Food Production for the United States : a Report of the Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources, Commission on Natural Resources, National Research Council, Prepared for the NRC Study on World Food and. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18644.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1975. World Food and Nutrition Study: Enhancement of Food Production for the United States : a Report of the Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources, Commission on Natural Resources, National Research Council, Prepared for the NRC Study on World Food and. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18644.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1975. World Food and Nutrition Study: Enhancement of Food Production for the United States : a Report of the Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources, Commission on Natural Resources, National Research Council, Prepared for the NRC Study on World Food and. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18644.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1975. World Food and Nutrition Study: Enhancement of Food Production for the United States : a Report of the Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources, Commission on Natural Resources, National Research Council, Prepared for the NRC Study on World Food and. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18644.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1975. World Food and Nutrition Study: Enhancement of Food Production for the United States : a Report of the Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources, Commission on Natural Resources, National Research Council, Prepared for the NRC Study on World Food and. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18644.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1975. World Food and Nutrition Study: Enhancement of Food Production for the United States : a Report of the Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources, Commission on Natural Resources, National Research Council, Prepared for the NRC Study on World Food and. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18644.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1975. World Food and Nutrition Study: Enhancement of Food Production for the United States : a Report of the Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources, Commission on Natural Resources, National Research Council, Prepared for the NRC Study on World Food and. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18644.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1975. World Food and Nutrition Study: Enhancement of Food Production for the United States : a Report of the Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources, Commission on Natural Resources, National Research Council, Prepared for the NRC Study on World Food and. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18644.
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Page R9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1975. World Food and Nutrition Study: Enhancement of Food Production for the United States : a Report of the Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources, Commission on Natural Resources, National Research Council, Prepared for the NRC Study on World Food and. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18644.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1975. World Food and Nutrition Study: Enhancement of Food Production for the United States : a Report of the Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources, Commission on Natural Resources, National Research Council, Prepared for the NRC Study on World Food and. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18644.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1975. World Food and Nutrition Study: Enhancement of Food Production for the United States : a Report of the Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources, Commission on Natural Resources, National Research Council, Prepared for the NRC Study on World Food and. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18644.
×
Page R12
Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1975. World Food and Nutrition Study: Enhancement of Food Production for the United States : a Report of the Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources, Commission on Natural Resources, National Research Council, Prepared for the NRC Study on World Food and. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18644.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1975. World Food and Nutrition Study: Enhancement of Food Production for the United States : a Report of the Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources, Commission on Natural Resources, National Research Council, Prepared for the NRC Study on World Food and. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18644.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

WORLD FOOD AND NUTRITION STUDY Enhancement of Food Production for the United States A Report of the 9- Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources Commission on Natural Resources National Research Council prepared for the NRC Study on World Food and Nutrition NAS-NAE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES NOV 1 7 1Q75 Washington, D.C. 1975 ' l3'^ LIBRARY

NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the Committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 75-37121 International Standard Book Number 0-309-02435-8 Order from National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va. 22161 ler NnP Available from: Printing and Publishing Office National Academy of Sciences 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 ,00

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OFFICE Or THE PRESIDENT 2IOI CONSTITUTION AVTNUE WASHINGTON. D C 2O*'6 November 10, 1975 The President The White House Washington, D. C. My dear Mr. President: In December 1974 you wrote "to enlist the aid of the National Academy of Sciences in a major effort to lessen the grim prospect that future generations of peoples around the world will be confronted with chronic shortages of food and with the debilitating effects of malnutrition." You requested that, "...in cooperation with the Department of Agriculture and other governmental agencies you (the National Academy of Sciences) make an assessment of this problem and develop specific recommendations on how our research and development capabilities can best be applied to meeting this major challenge." This request was most welcome. Indeed, the Acad- emy, together with the National Science Foundation, had already begun to address these questions. In Sep- tember 1975, under our joint auspices, an overview was provided in a report entitled Population and Food: Crucial Issues, prepared by a committee chaired by Dr. Daniel G. Aldrich, Jr. of the University of Cali- fornia at Irvine. The terms of reference of the new undertaking were established in discussions with an inter-agency committee; a contract signed in June 1975 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation provided the supporting funds for a study by our National Research Council, the report of which is to be submitted within two years. We also agreed to provide in November 1975 an interim report to assist government agencies in the formulation of their pro- grams for FY 1977. At this time I am pleased to trans- mit that report which consists of two essentially independent documents. -111-

The President November 10, 1975 Page Two Last year, in a report entitled Agricultural Pro- duction Efficiency, prepared by a committee of the Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources of our National Research Council, attention was directed to the limitations now affecting further increase in American agricultural production. Already well versed in these problems and aware that, for the foreseeable future, the world will need and welcome all the food that the United States can produce, BARR, chaired by Professor Sylvan Wittwer of Michi- gan State University, was in excellent position to prepare Enhancement of Food Production for the United States. This thorough report provides detailed find- ings and recommendations concerning research prior- ities for improving and increasing food production by American agriculture, thereby enlarging the world's food supply. To elucidate the nature and magnitude of research expressly designed to assist in coping with world food and nutrition problems, as you requested, there was brought into being a Steering Committee chaired by Professor Harrison Brown of the California Institute of Technology, and. administratively based in the Com- mission on International Relations of the National Research Council. Their work to date, addressed to this large and complex challenge, is summarized in Interim Report: World Food and Nutrition Study. This report identifies areas of research deemed to be of particularly high priority for immediate expan- sion and support and suggests some organizational steps that would make the research efforts more effective. In this case, emphasis is given to that research, wherever conducted, which, if successful, could enhance food production in the developing coun- tries themselves. Finally, this statement also describes the scope of concerns to be addressed in the final report of the Committee. -iv-

The President November 10, 1975 Page Three Attached to this Interim Report is a special statement on Recommended Actions on Nutrition Research and Development which was prepared by a committee chaired by Professor Hamish Munro of Massachusetts Institute of Technology, under the auspices of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Assembly of Life Sciences of the National Research Council. This report, prepared for consideration by the Steering Committee, is here presented so that it may receive wider attention. The cooperation and assistance of various fed- eral agencies concerned with food and nutrition in the early stages of preparing this interim response to your request of last December were most helpful. We look forward to their continuing cooperation as well as to submission of a final report of this study in June 1977. Respectfully yours, Philip Handler President -v-

PREFACE This report on Enhancement of Food Production for the United States is a product of the Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources (BARR) which provided the leadership and coordination for the study. BARR is a board of the Commission on Natural Resources of the National Research Council (NRC). There were contributions from other NRC units. The recommendations presented here are based upon consideration of research and development needs that were assembled at workshops by informed professionals from government agencies, academia, private industry, philanthropic foundations, and international agricultural research centers. These recommendations reflect a belief that the world food problem is both immense and urgent, and that understanding of it is still evolving. It is further believed that the process of gaining, disseminating, and applying relevant new knowledge by individuals functioning in the agricultural systems of the U.S. and of the world is our best hope for the future. Sylvan H. Wittwer Chairman Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources -vii-

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources wishes to express its appreciation to all those who, in addition to the Board members themselves, contributed to this report either through providing input to the manuscript or reviewing parts of it. Their names are listed on the following pages. The Board gratefully acknowledges their contributions without implying that the contributors necessarily subscribe to the content of the report, including its recommendations. We are also grateful to Selma Baron, Joyce Dawson, Michele Moore, and Joan Spade of the Board staff, and to Walli McCoy, Estelle Miller, Vikky Jones, and other staff members of the Commission on Natural Resources for their various tireless efforts in preparation of the manuscript. Philip Ross Executive Secretary Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources -viii-

BOARD ON AGRICULTURE AND RENEWABLE RESOURCES Sylvan H. Wittwer, Chairman Michigan State University Marion Clawson Resources for the Future, Inc. James H. Copp Texas ASM University William P. Flatt University of Georgia Robert P. Hanson University of Wisconsin Clifford M. Hardin Ralston Purina Company C.P. Idyll National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Frank H. Kaufert University of Minnesota Carl H. Krieger Campbell Institute for Food Research A. Carl Leopold University of Nebraska Roy L. Loworn U.S. Department of Agriculture Thomas C. Nelson U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Charles E. Palm Cornell University John A. Pino The Rockefeller Foundation Glenn W. Salisbury University of Illinois Gustav A. Swanson Colorado State University D. Wynne Thorne D. Wynne Thorne and Associates Logan, Utah Staff Philip Ross, Executive Secretary Selma P. Baron, Staff Assistant Joyce A. Dawson, Secretary William R. Hinshaw, Consultant Bille Hougart, Staff Officer A. Michele Moore, Secretary Joan P. Spade, Secretary -ix-

PERSONNEL OUTSIDE OF THE BOARD ON AGRICULTURE AND RENEWABLE RESOURCES WHO CONTRIBUTED TO THE STUDY ON ENHANCEMENT OF FOOD PRODUCTION FOR THE UNITED STATES Wayne Adams, USDA, ARS; Herbert R. Albrecht, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture; W. H. Allaway, USDA; Dale A. Anderson, USDA, ARS; Thomas J. Army, American Agricultural Industries, Inc.; Guy B. Baird, USAID; Robert S. Banduski, Michigan State University; H.L. Barrows, USDA, ARS; Thomas D. Bath, Environmental Protection Agency; Glenn Beck, USAID; Charles L. Beer, USDA; Herman Bouwer, USDA; Anson R. Bertrand, Texas Tech University; Nyle C. Brady, International Rice Research Institute; Leland W. Briggle, USDA, ARS; John L. Brooks, National Science Foundation; John C. Brown, USDA, ARS; William D. Buddemeier, University of Illinois; Norman Canfield, NOAA; Peter Carlson, Michigan State University; Eloise E. Clark, National Science Foundation; Norman R. Collins, Ford Foundation; J.B. Cordaro, Office of Technology Assessment; Edwin A. Crosby, National Canners Association; Pierre R. Crosson, Resources for the Future; Ralph W. Cummings, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-arid Tropics; Tony J. Cunha, California State Polytechnic University. Peter R. Day, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station; Wayne L. Decker, University of Missouri; Richard Dougherty, National Canners Association; Currie S. Downie, National Science Foundation; Matthew Drosdoff, Cornell University; Paul R. Eberts, Cornell University; Talcott W. Edminister, USDA, ARS; Fred Elliott, Michigan State University; Edward S. Epstein, NOAA; Harold J. Evans, Oregon State University; Paul J. Findlen, USDA; Walter L. Fishel, USDA, ARS; Ronald Freedman, University of Michigan; Michael Galli, USAID; Roger J. Gerrits, USDA, ARS; Martin Gibbs, Brandeis University; Edward H. Glass, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station; Edwin R. Goode, Jr., USDA, ARS; Willis A. Gortner, USDA, ARS; Dee Graham, Del Monte Research Center; James Grant, Overseas Development Council. Charles E. Hanrahan, USDA, ERS; James B. Hanson, ERDA; Ralph W. F. Hardy, E.I. duPont de Nemours and Co.; Dale Harpstead, Michigan State University; W. Lamar Harris, University of Maryland; Harry W. Hays, USDA, ARS; Gary H. Heichel, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station; Leon Hesser, USAID; Howard H. Hiatt, Harvard University; Harlow J. Hodgson, USDA, CSRS; William L. Hollis, National Agricultural Chemical Association; Robert W. House, Vanderbilt University; Irwin Hornstein, USAID; Cecil E. Howes, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; -x-

James M. lacono, USDA, ARS; Marvin E. Jensen, USDA; Glenn L. Johnson, Michigan State University; August E. Kehr, USDA, ARS; Donald Kennedy, Stanford University; Donald R. King, Department of State; James R. Kirk, Michigan State University; Waldemar Klassen, USDA, ARS; Albert A. Klingebeil, Consultant. Marvin Lamborg, C.F. Kettering Research Laboratory; Richard Lehman, Food and Drug Administration; Earl Leng, USAID; Gilbert A. Leveille, Michigan State University; Bernard Liska, Purdue University; Wilda Martinez, USDA, ARS; A. Colin McClung, The Rockefeller Foundation; Chester O. McCorkle, Jr., University of California; Ralph J. McCracken, USDA, ARS; James K. McDermott, USAID; John J. McKelvey, The Rockefeller Foundation; Frank Meissner, Inter-American Development Bank; Dale N. Moss, University of Minnesota; William M. Moulton, USDA, APHIS; Emil Mrak, University of California (Emeritus); Lewis B. Nelson, Tennessee Valley Authority; Robert O. Nesheim, Quaker Oats Company; John Nickel, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture; Louis C. Nickell, w.R. Grace Company; Edwin B. Oyer, Cornell University; Frank W. Parker, Consultant; George Parman, USAID; Maurice L. Peterson, University of California; Dean F. Peterson, Utah State University; David Pimentel, Cornell University; Donald L. Plucknett, USAID. Leroy C. Quance, USDA, ERS; Ronald C. Reeve, USDA, ARS; John L. Richardson, Jr., American University; Elijah B. Romanoff, National Science Foundation; Vernon W. Ruttan, Agricultural Development Council, Inc.; Richard L. Sawyer, International Potato Center; Robert M. Schaffner, Food and Drug Administration; Nevin Scrimshaw, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; James D. Shaffer, Michigan State University; Warren Shaw, USDA; Howard Sprague, USAID; Cecelia Spearing, National Science Foundation; James Tiedje, M-chigan State University; N. Edward Tolbert, Michigan State University; William H. Upholt, Environmental Protection Agency; Paul Waggoner, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station; Quentin M. West, USDA, ERS; Sterling Wortman, The Rockefeller Foundation; Bernard Zavos, NOAA; Israel Zelitch; Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station. -xi-

TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface Acknowledgments Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources Personnel Outside of BARR Who Contributed to the Study PART ONE Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 PART TWO Section I: Introduction Conclusions and Recommendations Operational Strategies for Science in U.S. Agriculture Technology Innovation Improvement for the World Food System Constraints on U.S. Agricultural Production and Research: Federal Regulations and Legislation Human Nutrition Introduction Chapter 6 Nutrition Research Section II; Natural Resources Base, Input Management, and the Environment Land Resource Water Resource Fertilizer Resource The Climatic and Weather Resource Energy Resource Crop and Livestock Protection Manpower Education and Training Programs Introduction Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Section III: Production of Food and Feed Crops Introduction Chapter 14 Photosynthetic Productivity Biological Nitrogen Fixation Crop Improvement Forage and Rangeland Improvement, Harvest and Processing Technology Chapter 15 Chapter 16 Chapter 17 vn viii ix x 3 8 21 37 48 55 57 65 67 73 83 88 94 104 114 117 119 124 131 140 -xii-

Section IV: Livestock, Poultry, and Fish Production Introduction Chapter 18 Reproduction Efficiency Chapter 19 Improved Efficiency of Livestock Production 20 Product Quality and Consumer Acceptability Fish Production Chapter Chapter 21 Section V; Food Science and Technology Introduction~~ Chapter 22 Losses in the Food System Chapter 23 Food Preservation and Processing Chapter 24 Distribution and Transportation 146 148 150 156 158 165 167 169 172 -xiii-

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