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Appendix B STANDARD TERMINOLOGY OF FIRE STANDARDS ASMTM Designation: E 176 - 89a This standard ~ issued under the faced designation E 176; the number ~nunediately following the designation indicat" the year of original adoption or in the case of revision, the year of last revision. ~ number in parenthood indicat" the year of last reappro~ral. A superecapt epsilon (~) indicst" an edlitonal change ounce the lot region or reappro~ral. 1. Scope 1.1 This standard contains terms, related definitions, and descriptions of terms used or likely to be used in fire test standards and fire risk assessment standards. Descriptions of terms are special purpose definitions consistent with the standard definitions, written to ensure that fire test standards and fire risk assessment standards are properly understood and precisely interpreted. NOTE 1 For additionalinformation,referto ASTM Policy on Fire Standards.2 2. Referenced Documents 2.1 ASTM Standards: E 1 19 Test Methods for Fire Tests of 63 Building Construction and Materials E 152 Methods of Fire Tests of Door Assemblies: E 163 Methods of Fire Tests of Window Assemblies, E 800 Guide for Measurement of Gases Present or Generated During Fires: E SI4 Test Method for Fire Tests of Through-Penetration Fire Stops 3. Significance and Use 3.1 DefinitionsTerms and related definitions given in Section 4 are intended for use uniformly and consistently in all fire test standards and fire risk assessment standards. The purpose of such use is to promote clear understanding and interpretation of standards in which they are used.
64 3.2 Description of Terms: 3.2.1 As indicated in Section 1, terms and their descriptions are intended to provide a precise understanding and interpretation of fire test standards and fire risk assessment standards in which they appear. 3.2.2 A specific description of a given term is applicable to the standard or standards in which the term is described and used. 3.2.3 Different descriptions of the same term, appearing respectively in two or more standards, are acceptable provided each one is consistent with and not in conflict with the standard definition for the same term, that is, concept. 3.2.4 Each standard in which a term is used in a manner specially defined (see 1.1 and Section 5) should list the term and its description under the subheading, Descriptions of Terms. 4. Standard Definitions 4.1 Terms and their standard definitions within the scope of this standard are given in Sections 4 and 5 in alphabetical order. 4.2 Each definition that has been recommended by TCG-Ol. for adoption by ASTM technical committees has the expression "(TCG-O1~ immediately after the definition. 4.3 Discussions associated with definitions are listed in the Annex. Specific discussion paragraphs in the Annex are referenced in the appropriate definitions, for example "(See discussion in Annex Al.~.. afterglow, n emission of light, usually subsiding, from a material undergoing combustion, but occurring after flaming has ceased (TCG-01~. (1986~5 burn, v to undergo combustion. (1989) burning velocity, n speed of a plane (two-dimensional) flame front, normal to its surface and relative to the unburned, gaseous-and-fuel, oxidizer mixture. (1982) char, vto form carbonaceous material during pyrolysis or during incomplete combustion (TCC~-O1~. (1979) char, Carbonaceous material formed by pyrolysis or incomplete combustion (TCG-01~. (1979) combustible, adj~apable of undergoing combustion. (1985) DISCUSSION The tenn combustible h often deliniited to specific fire-~v~ conditions. For example, building materials are considered combustible if they are capable of undergoing combustion in air at pressures and temperatures that might occur during a fire in a building. Similarly, some matenab that ~ not combustible under such conditions may be combwtibb when Purposed to higher temperatures and prewar - , or to an oxen-enriched environment. Matenals that are not combustible in bulls form may be combustible in finely divided fonn. (1985) combustion chemical process of oxidation that occurs at a rate fast enough to produce temperature rise and usually light either as a glow or flame. (See also glow and smoldering.) (1989) environment, nas related to fire, the conditions and surroundings that may influence the behavior of a material, or assembly when it is exposed to ignition sources of fire. (1989) fire, nondestructive burning, as manifested by any or all of the following: light, flame, heat, smoke. (1988) fire endurance, nmeasure of the elapsed time during which a material or assemblage continues to exhibit fire resistance. (See discussion in Annex Al.~.) (1986) fire exposure the heat flux of a fire, with or without direct flame impingement, to which a material, product, building element, or assembly is exposed (TCG-Ol). (1979)
65 fire gasesthe airborne products emitted by a material undergoing pyrolysis or combustion, which at the relevant temperature exist in the gas phase (TCG-OI). ~ 1979) fire hazard n-- the potential for harm associated w ith fire. (See discussion in Annex A 1 .2.) (1989) DISCIJSSION- ~ Fire may pow one or more types of hazard to people, anima4 or property. These hazards are associated with the environment and with a number of fire test respond characte~tice of materials, products, or a~embli" including but not linuted to ease of ignition, name spread, rate of heat relea - , emol`e generation and obscuration, toxicity of combustion products, and ease of e~ctingu~hment. (1989) fire hazard standard, non obsolete term, now replaced by the term fire rislc assessment standard. ~ 1982) fire performance characteristic, new response of a material, product, or assembly to a prescribed source of heat or flame under controlled fire conditions. Such characteristics include ease of ignition, flame spread, smoke generation, fire endurance, and toxicity of smoke. (See discussion in Annex Al.3.) (1982) Fire performance test, n a procedure that measures a response of a material product, or assembly to heat or flame under controlled fire conditions. (See discussion in Annex A ~ .4.) (1983) fireproof, adj-- an inappropriate and misleading term. Do not use. (See discussion in Annex Al.5.) fire resistance, n the property of a material or assemblage to withstand fire or give protection from it. (See discussion in Annex Al.6.) (1986) fire resistant, adj See fire resistive. the preferred term (TCG-O~). ~1983) fire resistive having fire resistance (TCG-OI). (1983) fire retardant, now deprecated term. Do not use. (1986) fire retardant, adj not a defined term. Use as a modifier only with defined compound terms: fire-retardant barrier, fire-retardant chemical, fire-retardant-coating, and fire- retardant treatment. ( 1986) fire-retardant barrier, now layer of material which, when secured to a combustible material or otherwise interposed between the material and a potential fire source, delays ignition and combustion of the material when the barrier is exposed to fire. (1986) fire-retardant chemical, now chemical, which when added to a combustible material, delays ignition and combustion of the resulting material when exposed to fire. (See discussion in Annex A1.7.) (1986) fire-retardant coating, now fluid-applied surface covering on a combustible material which delays ignition and combustion of the material when the coating is exposed to fire. (See also flame-retardant coating. Compare fire-retardant barrier.) ~1986) fire-retardant treatment, nthe use of a fire-retardant chemical or a fire-retardant coating. (See also flame-retardant treatment.) (1986) fire risk, n the probability that a fire will occur, and the potential for harm to life and damage to property resulting from its occurrence. (See discussion in Annex A1.~.) (1982) fire riffle assessment standard, Formerly fire hazard standard}a standardized method for assessing fire risk of a material, product or assembly in a specific environment or application. (See discussion in Annex Al.9.) (1982) fire test exposure severity measure of the degree of fire exposure, specifically in connection with Test Methods E 119, E 152, and E 163, the ratio of the area under the curve of average furnace temperature to the area under the standard time/temperature curve, each from the start of the test to the end or
66 time of failure, and above the base temperatures 68 F (20 C). (1976) flame, new hot, usually luminous zone of gas, of particulate matter in gaseous suspension, or both, that is undergoing combustion (TCG-O1~. (1979) flame front the leading edge of a flame propagating through a gaseous mixture or across the surface of a liquid or solid (TCG-O11. (1983) flameproof, adjourn inappropriate and misleading term, not to be used. (See discussion in Annex Al.10.) flame resistance the ability to withstand flame impingement or give protection from it (TCG-O! ). (! 983) flame resistant having flame resistance (TCG-01~. (1983) flame resistant See flame resistant. the preferred term (TCG-O1~. (1983) flame retardant, now deprecated term. Do not use. (1986) flame retardant, adj not a defined term. Use only as a modifier with defined compound terms: flame-retardant chemical, flame-retardant coating, and flame-retardant treatment. (1986) flame-retardant chemical, n a chemical, which when added to a combustible material, delays ignition and reduces flame spread of the resulting material when exposed to flame impingement. (See also fire- retardant chemical.) (1986) flame-retardant coating, new fluid-applied surface covering on a combustible material which delays ignition and reduces flame spread when the covering is exposed to flame impingement. (See also fire-retardant coating.) (1986) flame-retardant treatment, n the use of a flame-retardant chemical or a flame-retardant coating. (See also fire retardant treatment.) 1986) [lame speed, npropagation of a flame front per unit time through a gaseous fuel-and- oxidizer mixture relative to a fixed reference point. (1982) flame spread, n -See surface flame spread, Volumetric flame spread. (1989) flange spread Index, new number or classification indicating, a comparative measure derived from observations made during the progress of the boundary of a zone of flame under defined test conditions. (1986) flammable, adj subject to easy ignition and rapid flaming combustion. (1985) flash point the lowest temperature, corrected to 101.3 kPa (1.0 atmosphere) of pressure, of a sample at which application of an ignition source causes the vapor of a sample to ignite momentarily under specified conditions of test (TCG-Ol ) ( 19800 glow, n~l) the visible light emitted by a substance because of its high temperature. (2) visible light, other than from flaming, emitted by a solid undergoing combustion (TCG-O1~. (1989) heat stress, nonphysiological) adverse condition caused by exposure to elevated temperature, radiant heat flux, or combinations of these factors. (1988) ignition-- the initiation of combustion (TCG-O11. (1989) DISCUSSION The combustion may be evidenced by floor, flame, detonation, or acplosaon. The combustion may be sustained or transient. (1989) ignition temperature the lowest temperature at which sustained combustion of a material can be initiated under specified conditions. (1982) mass burning rate mass loss per unit time by materials burning under specified conditions (TCG-O1~. (1989)
6-i noncombustible not combustible. Optical density of smoke, Dam measure of the attenuation of a light beam passing through smoke, expressed as the common logarithm of the ratio of the incident flux, I~' to the transmitted flux, I. (D = logy (10/~) (TCG-O1~. (1989) oxygen depletion' nin a fire, reduction of oxygen (O2) content of an atmosphere as a result of combustion. (1988) piloted ignition initiation of combustion as a result of contact of a material or its vapors with an external high energy source such as a flame, spark, electrical arc' or glowing wire. See also unpiloted ignition (TCG-O1~. (1982) pyrolysis-- irreversible chemical decomposition caused by heat, usually without oxidation. (1980) self-heating, now rise in the temperature of a material, assemblage, or product caused by internal, exothermic chemical reaction. (1985) seif-ignition- See spontaneous Ignition, the preferred term. (1985) smoke, n --the airborne solid and liquid particulates and gases evolved when a material undergoes pyrolysis or combustion (TCG-O1~. (1989) DISCUSSION~o-called chenuca1 smokes excluded from this definition. (19B9) smoke toxicity, nthe propensity of smoke to produce adverse biochemical or physiological effects. (See smoke.) ( 1988) smoldering, Combustion of a solid without flame. often evidenced by visible smoke. (1979) DISCUSSION~moldenng can be initiated bar small sources of ignition, especially in dwt, and may permit for an attended period of time after which a flame may be produced. (1979) spontaneous ignition-- initiation of combustion caused internal, chemical exothermic reaction. See also unpiloted ignition (TCG-01~. (1982) standard temperature/time curve (standard time/temperature curve) in fire testing, a graphical representation derived from prescribed time-temperature relationships and used to control furnace temperature with progressing time. ~ 1989) DISCUBSION~On. example ~ found in T - t Methods E 119. (19B9) superimposed load weights or forces applied to a specimen other than those associated with the weight of the specimen. (1979) surface flame spreadthe propagation of a flame away from the source of ignition across the surface of a liquid or a solid. Compare: volumetric flame spread and burning velocity. (1989) surface flame spread rate, n surface flame spread per unit time (TCG-Ol). (1981) temperature the thermal state of matter as measured on a defined scale (TCG-O1~. (1979) toxicity, n the propensity of a substance to produce adverse biochemical or physiological effects. (1988) unpiloted ignitioninitiation of combustion caused by absorption of energy from an external source other than a pilot source. See also piloted ignition and spontaneous ignition (TCG-OI). (1982) volumetric name spread, n--flame propagation through the volume of a gaseous mixture. (1989) 5. Descriptions of Terms (1981) 5.] Terms, their descriptions, and the standard(s) to which they apply are given below in alphabetical order
68 S. 1.1 batch sampling sampling over some time period in such a way as to produce a single test sample for analysis (E 800~. (1981) 5.1.2 combustion products~irborne effluent from a material undergoing combustion; Allis may also include pyrolysates (E BOO). (1981) 5.1.3 fire test, now procedure, not necessarily a standard test method, in which the response of materials to heat or flame (or both) under controlled conditions is measured or otherwise described (E 800~. (1981) 5.1.4 sample integrity- the unimpaired chemical composition of a test sample upon the extraction of said test sample for analysisz (E 800~. (1981 ) 5.1.5 sampling process whereby a test sample is extracted from a fire test environment (E 800~. (1981) 5.1.6 test assembl~the wall or floor into which the test samplers) is (are) mounted or installed (E 814~. (1981) 5.1.7 test sample the fire stop being tested (E DIM. (1981) 5.1.8 test sample a representative pert of the experimental environment (gases, liquids, or solids) for purposes of analysis (E 800~. (1981) l.This terminology is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee E-S on Fire Standards and is the r~pondbility of Subcommittee E05.31 on Terminology Ed Editorial. Current edition approved July 31, 1989. Published September 1989. Orginally published ~ E176-61 T. Last previous edition E176-89. 2.A~railable from ASTM Headquarters, 1916 Race Strut, Philadelphia, PA 19103. S. Annual Book of ~TM Stands, Vol. 04.07. d.TCG-01. Terminology Coordinating Group No. 1, convened under auspic" of the Committee on Tenninolo", consists of representati~r" of interested technical committed and the Committee on Terminology, to consider and recommend tar'= and definitions in the field of fire technology for the purpose of ~runimising redundancies and eliminating conflicts in such terminology. 5. Date indicates year of introduction or latest review or revision. 1