National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"ENDNOTES." National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering. 1988. Toward a New Era in Space: Realigning Policies to New Realities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18717.
Page 24

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

24 sions in the future, and a varied space science and Earth remote sensing program. A more ambitious base program would also include a vigorous space applications program and support for space commercialization. Beyond the base program, far-reaching presidential goals for science or human exploration would necessarily lead to one or more special initiatives, recognizing that each could be expected to add approximately $3 billion to the NASA budget in years of peak expenditures. With a space station among these, the current budget would need to grow to approximately $14 billion to meet the peak spending years of the station, without reflecting any other growth in the NASA program. In summary, the new President has a historic opportunity to create a space program that will continue and expand the role of the United States as a lead- ing spacefaring nation. In the committee's judgment the decisions described above are essential to realizing that opportunity. ENDNOTES 1. After examining alternative space station configurations, a committee of the National Research Council found that none of the alternates that had been considered by NASA over many years or introduced from the out- side was "as satisfactory as the current configuration." Report of the Committee on the Space Station of the National Research Council (NRC). 1987. 2. National Commission on Space. Pioneering the Space Frontier. 1986. 3. NASA. Leadership and America's Future in Space, A Report to the NASA Administrator by Dr. Sally K. Ride. August 1987. 4. The White House. Presidential Directive on National Space Policy. February 11, 1988. 5. Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, NRC. Space Technology to Meet Future Needs. 1987. 6. NASA. Office of Space Science and Applications Strategic Plan 1988. April 6, 1988. 7. Space Science Board, NRC. Space Science in the Twenty-First Century. 1988. 8. Space Applications Board, NRC. Remote Sensing of the Earth from Space. 1985. 9. Space Applications Board, NRC. Industrial Applications of the Microgravity Environment. May 1988. 10. Congressional Budget Office. The NASA Program in the 1990s and Beyond. 1988.

Toward a New Era in Space: Realigning Policies to New Realities Get This Book
 Toward a New Era in Space: Realigning Policies to New Realities
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

The National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering assembled a group of experts in science, economics, engineering, and private technology-based enterprise to examine past space policies and their consequences and to recommend policies that should guide the national space program over the long term. Of special concern was the lack of national consensus regarding the long-term goals of the civil space program, which led to the loss of heavy launch capabilities, the fall of the Skylab, and, for lack of alternative launch vehicles, the prolonged absence of the United States from space following the Challenger accident. Without a durable framework to establish priorities, the U.S. space program has promised too much for the resources made available to it.

Toward a New Era in Space concludes that major changes are needed in the way the country and its leaders approach national space policy. The foundation of space policy is its sense of purpose—national goals that are imaginative, durable, and affordable. These goals and the programs to achieve them must recognize the growing capabilities of other nations and, through cooperation, accomplish objectives otherwise unobtainable. Major challenges also provide major opportunities. This report addresses those near-term decisions that can lead to a fruitful, consistent U.S. space program in the decades to come.


  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook,'s online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!