National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2014. Reducing the Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Phase Two: First Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18736.
×

REDUCING THE FUEL CONSUMPTION AND
GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS OF MEDIUM-
AND HEAVY-DUTY VEHICLES, PHASE TWO

FIRST REPORT

Committee on Assessment of Technologies and Approaches for Reducing the Fuel Consumption of
Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Phase Two

Board on Energy and Environmental Systems

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

Transportation Research Board

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2014. Reducing the Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Phase Two: First Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18736.
×

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by cooperative agreement DTNH22-12-H-00389 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-30237-1
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-30237-4

Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2014 by The National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2014. Reducing the Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Phase Two: First Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18736.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2014. Reducing the Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Phase Two: First Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18736.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2014. Reducing the Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Phase Two: First Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18736.
×

COMMITTEE ON ASSESSMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND APPROACHES FOR REDUCING THE FUEL CONSUMPTION OF MEDIUM- AND HEAVY-DUTY VEHICLES, PHASE TWO

ANDREW BROWN, JR., NAE,1 Delphi Corporation, Troy, Michigan, Chair

INES AZEVEDO, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

RODICA BARANESCU, NAE, University of Illinois at Chicago

THOMAS CACKETTE, California Air Resources Board (retired), Sacramento

NIGEL N. CLARK, West Virginia University, Morgantown

RONALD GRAVES, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Knoxville, Tennessee

DANIEL HANCOCK, NAE, General Motors (retired), Indianapolis, Indiana

W. MICHAEL HANEMANN, NAS,2 Arizona State University, Tempe

WINSTON HARRINGTON, Resources for the Future, Washington, D.C.

GARY MARCHANT, Arizona State University, Tempe

PAUL MENIG, Tech-I-M, Sherwood, Oregon

DAVID F. MERRION, Merrion Expert Consulting, Brighton, Michigan

AMELIA REGAN, University of California, Irvine

MIKE ROETH, North American Council for Freight Efficiency, Fort Wayne, Indiana

GARY W. ROGERS, Independent Consultant, Birmingham, Michigan

CHARLES K. SALTER, Independent Consultant, Chambersburg, Pennsylvania

CHRISTINE VUJOVICH, Cummins, Inc. (retired), Columbus, Indiana

JOHN WOODROOFFE, University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, Ann Arbor

MARTIN ZIMMERMAN, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

Staff

MARTIN OFFUTT, Responsible Staff Officer, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems

JAMES J. ZUCCHETTO, Director, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems

ALAN CRANE, Senior Scientist, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems

JOSEPH MORRIS, Senior Program Officer, Transportation Research Board

E. JONATHAN YANGER, Research Associate, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems

LaNITa JONES, Administrative Coordinator

DANA CAINES, Financial Manager, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems

______________

1 NAE, National Academy of Engineering.

2 NAS, National Academy of Sciences.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2014. Reducing the Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Phase Two: First Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18736.
×

BOARD ON ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS

ANDREW BROWN, JR., NAE,1 Delphi Corporation, Troy, Michigan, Chair

DAVID T. ALLEN, University of Texas, Austin

WILLIAM F. BANHOLZER, NAE, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Michigan

WILLIAM F. BRINKMAN, NAS, Princeton University

WILLIAM CAVANAUGH III, Retired Chairman, Progress Energy, Raleigh, North Carolina

PAUL A DECOTIS, Long Island Power Authority, Albany, New York

CHRISTINE EHLIG-ECONOMIDES, NAE, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas

SHERRI GOODMAN, CNA, Alexandria, Virginia

NARAIN HINGORANI, NAE, Consultant, Los Altos Hills, California

DEBBIE NIEMEIER, University of California, Davis

MARGO OGE, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (retired), McLean, Virginia

MICHAEL OPPENHEIMER, Princeton University, New Jersey

JACKALYNE PFANNENSTIEL, Consultant, Piedmont, California

DAN REICHER, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California

BERNARD ROBERTSON, NAE, Daimler-Chrysler Corporation (retired), Bloomfield Hills, Michigan

GARY ROGERS, Independent Consultant, Birmingham, Michigan

ALISON SILVERSTEIN, Consultant, Pflugerville, Texas

MARK H. THIEMENS, NAS,2 University of California, San Diego

RICHARD WHITE, Oppenheimer & Company, New York, New York

ADRIAN ZACCARIA, Bechtel Group (retired), Frederick, Maryland

MARY LOU ZOBACK, NAS, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California

Staff

JAMES J. ZUCCHETTO, Director

JOHN HOLMES, Associate Director and Senior Program Officer

DANA CAINES, Financial Associate

ALAN CRANE, Senior Scientist

ELIZABETH EULLER, Project Assistant

LaNITa JONES, Administrative Coordinator

MARTIN OFFUTT, Senior Program Officer

E. JONATHAN YANGER, Research Associate

______________

1 NAE, National Academy of Engineering.

2 NAS, National Academy of Sciences..

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2014. Reducing the Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Phase Two: First Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18736.
×

TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2014 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE1

KIRK T. STEUDLE, Director, Michigan Department of Transportation, Lansing, Chair

DANIEL SPERLING, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis, Vice Chair

ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR., Transportation Research Board, Executive Director

VICTORIA A. ARROYO, Executive Director, Georgetown Climate Center, and Visiting Professor, Georgetown University Law Center, Washington, D.C.

SCOTT E. BENNETT, Director, Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department, Little Rock

DEBORAH H. BUTLER, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, Virginia (Past Chair, 2013)

JAMES M. CRITES, Executive Vice President of Operations, Dallas–Fort Worth International Airport, Texas

MALCOLM DOUGHERTY, Director, California Department of Transportation, Sacramento

A. STEWART FOTHERINGHAM, Professor and Director, Centre for Geoinformatics, School of Geography and Geosciences, University of St. Andrews, Fife, United Kingdom

JOHN S. HALIKOWSKI, Director, Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix

MICHAEL W. HANCOCK, Secretary, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Frankfort

SUSAN HANSON, Distinguished University Professor Emerita, School of Geography, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts

STEVE HEMINGER, Executive Director, Metropolitan Transportation Commission, Oakland, California

CHRIS T. HENDRICKSON, Duquesne Light Professor of Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

JEFFREY D. HOLT, Managing Director, Bank of Montreal Capital Markets, and Chairman, Utah Transportation Commission, Huntsville

GARY P. LaGRaNGE, President and CEO, Port of New Orleans, Louisiana

MICHAEL P. LEWIS, Director, Rhode Island Department of Transportation, Providence

JOAN McDONaLD, Commissioner, New York State Department of Transportation, Albany

ABBAS MOHADDES, President and CEO, Iteris, Inc., Santa Ana, California

DONALD A. OSTERBERG, Senior Vice President, Safety and Security, Schneider National, Inc., Green Bay, Wisconsin

STEVEN W. PALMER, Vice President of Transportation, Lowe’s Companies, Inc., Mooresville, North Carolina

SANDRA ROSENBLOOM, Professor, University of Texas, Austin (Past Chair, 2012)

HENRY G. (GERRY) SCHWARTZ, JR., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, Missouri

KUMARES C. SINHA, Olson Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

GARY C. THOMAS, President and Executive Director, Dallas Area Rapid Transit, Dallas, Texas

PAUL TROMBINO III, Director, Iowa Department of Transportation, Ames

PHILLIP A. WASHINGTON, General Manager, Regional Transportation District, Denver, Colorado

______________

1Membership as of March 2014.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2014. Reducing the Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Phase Two: First Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18736.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2014. Reducing the Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Phase Two: First Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18736.
×

Preface

The fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles (MHDVs) have become a focus of legislative and regulatory action in the past few years. Section 101 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007), Pub. L No. 110-140 §101, mandated the U.S. Department of Transportation to promulgate fuel consumption standards for MHDVs for the first time. In addition, Section 108 of that same Act required the Secretary of Transportation to contract with the National Academy of Sciences to undertake a study on the technologies and costs for improving fuel consumption in MHDVs and prepare follow-on reports at 5-year intervals.

In response to the Secretary’s request, the National Research Council (NRC) in 2010 completed Technologies and Approaches to Reducing the Fuel Consumption of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, referred to henceforth as the Phase One Report. The Phase One Report provided a series of findings and recommendations on the following: the development of a fuel consumption program for MHDVs; metrics for measuring MHDV fuel consumption; availability and costs of various technologies for reducing fuel consumption; potential indirect effects and externalities associated with fuel consumption standards for MHDVs; alternatives for the scope, stringency, certification methods, and compliance approach for the standards; and a suggested demonstration program to validate innovative certification procedures and regulatory elements.

Thereafter, in 2011, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued the Phase I Rule on fuel consumption and GHG emissions of MHDVs.

This report comprises the first periodic, 5-year follow-on to the NRC’s 2010 report. The NRC formed the Committee on Technologies and Approaches for Reducing the Fuel Consumption of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Phase Two, for this purpose.

In the present report, the committee seeks to advise NHTSA as it revises its regulatory regime for MHDVs that meets the two agencies’ objectives of (1) reducing in-use emissions of carbon dioxide from MHDVs; (2) reducing in-use emissions of other GHGs from MHDVs; and (3) improving in-use efficiency of fuel use in MHDVs—by driving innovation, advancement, adoption, and in-use balance of technology through regulation. At the same time, the committee seeks to advise on pathways to accomplish this, subject to the following constraints: (a) holding life-cycle cost of technology change or technology addition to an acceptable level; (b) holding capital cost of acquiring required new technology to an acceptable level; (c) acknowledging the importance of employing a balance of energy resources that offers national security; (d) avoiding near-term, precipitous regulatory changes that are disruptive to commercial planning; (e) ensuring that the vehicles offered for sale remain suited to their intended purposes and meet user requirements; (f) ensuring that the process used to demonstrate compliance is accurate, efficient, and not excessively burdensome; and (g) not eroding control of criteria pollutants or unregulated species that may have health effects.

Objectives 1, 2, and 3 are not fully congruent when fuels having different carbon content are considered, and when GHGs other than carbon dioxide are considered. In particular, GHG and efficiency are decoupled when the fuel and engine technology changes. Objectives 1, 2 and 3 also require that any regulation must reflect real-world activity and performance of vehicles. Constraints (a) and (b) suggest that the regulation and standards may stop short of driving best available technology or certain technology pathways. However, (a) and (b) do not go so far as to suggest that new technology must offer a positive return on investment for the consumer through reduced fuel usage: Needs for efficiency and GHG reduction may reach beyond economic drivers for change. Constraints (c), (d), and (e) may dictate that a single standard may not be reasonable because a mix of fuels may be needed and because these different fuels may not be capable of meeting a common standard if the standard is set too ambitiously. Constraint (f) may be in conflict with the

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2014. Reducing the Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Phase Two: First Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18736.
×

real-world benefit implications of the objectives. Constraints (c) and (d) imply that the regulations should not close current or anticipated technology pathways without adequate notice to manufacturers and suppliers.

The committee is grateful to all of the federal agencies, original equipment manufacturers, suppliers and their respective associations, and nongovernmental organizations whose staff contributed significantly of their time and efforts to this NRC study, either by giving presentations at committee meetings or by responding to committee requests for information.

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Steve Berry, NAS, University of Chicago,

Daniel Blower, University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute,

Rebecca Brewster, American Transportation Research Institute,

Mike Camosy, Auto Research Center,

David Foster, University of Wisconsin (retired),

Art Fraas, Resources for the Future,

Steve Hanson, Pepsi-FritoLay,

Stephen Kratzke, NHTSA (retired),

Margo Oge, International Council on Clean Transportation,

Joseph Prahl, Case Western Reserve University,

Bernard Robertson, NAE, DaimlerChrysler,

Aymeric Rousseau, Argonne National Laboratory, and

James Spearot, Mountain Ridgeline Consulting, LLC.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Elisabeth M. Drake, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Appointed by the NRC, she was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

Andrew Brown, Jr., Chair

Committee on Assessment of Technologies and Approaches for Reducing the Fuel Consumption of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Phase Two

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2014. Reducing the Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Phase Two: First Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18736.
×

Fixed Values in the GEM Code

Vehicle and Component Integration

References

4      BASELINE INFORMATION ON MHDV FLEET AND METHODOLOGY FOR COLLECTION

Introduction

Why Do We Need a Baseline? NHTSA Should Have a Baseline in Order to Inform Its Rulemaking

What Is a Baseline?

Why a Baseline?

Which Year Should the Baseline Capture?

Which Data Should the Baseline Contain?

Criteria for a Good Baseline Data Collection Process

Comments on NHTSA, SwRI, and Frost & Sullivan Survey

Comments on the CalHEAT Report for the California Energy Commission

Findings and Recommendations

References

Annex 4A: Other Sources of Baseline Data in the Industry

Annex 4B: Additional Ways to Obtain Information in the Future

5      NATURAL GAS VEHICLES: IMPACTS AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

Summary of Supply and Demand Trends for Natural Gas Fuel

Natural Gas Engines and Vehicles

Technology

Infrastructure

Expected Growth in Natural Gas Vehicle Population

Regulatory Framework for Natural Gas Engines and Trucks

Greenhouse Gas Emission and Fuel Economy Standards for Engines

NG Engines

Emission and Fuel Economy Standards for Complete Trucks

Findings and Recommendations

References

6      REVIEW OF OPTIONS TO REDUCE ENERGY USE OF TRAILERS

Background

Current Tractor-Trailer Energy Balance

Aerodynamics and Tire Rolling Resistance of the Tractor-Trailer

Aerodynamics of the Combined Tractor-Trailer

Tractor Aerodynamics

Van Trailer Aerodynamics

Tractor-Trailer Gap

Tire Rolling Resistance

Government Programs That Influence Tractor-Trailer Fuel Consumption

SmartWay

California Air Resources Board Regulation

NHTSA and EPA Regulations

Methods for Aerodynamic Performance Evaluation

Current Use of Aerodynamic Devices and Low-Rolling-Resistance Tires

Tractors

Aerodynamic Devices on Van Trailers

Market for Trailer Aerodynamic Devices

Barriers to Increased Use of Trailer Aerodynamic Devices

Tires

Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2014. Reducing the Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Phase Two: First Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18736.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2014. Reducing the Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Phase Two: First Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18736.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2014. Reducing the Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Phase Two: First Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18736.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2014. Reducing the Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Phase Two: First Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18736.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2014. Reducing the Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Phase Two: First Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18736.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2014. Reducing the Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Phase Two: First Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18736.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2014. Reducing the Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Phase Two: First Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18736.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2014. Reducing the Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Phase Two: First Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18736.
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Medium- and heavy-duty trucks, motor coaches, and transit buses - collectively, "medium- and heavy-duty vehicles", or MHDVs - are used in every sector of the economy. The fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of MHDVs have become a focus of legislative and regulatory action in the past few years. Reducing the Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Phase Two is a follow-on to the National Research Council's 2010 report, Technologies and Approaches to Reducing the Fuel Consumption of Medium-and Heavy-Duty Vehicles. That report provided a series of findings and recommendations on the development of regulations for reducing fuel consumption of MHDVs.

This report comprises the first periodic, five-year follow-on to the 2010 report. Reducing the Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Phase Two reviews NHTSA fuel consumption regulations and considers the technological, market and regulatory factors that may be of relevance to a revised and updated regulatory regime taking effect for model years 2019-2022. The report analyzes and provides options for improvements to the certification and compliance procedures for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles; reviews an updated analysis of the makeup and characterization of the medium- and heavy-duty truck fleet; examines the barriers to and the potential applications of natural gas in class 2b through class 8 vehicles; and addresses uncertainties and performs sensitivity analyses for the fuel consumption and cost/benefit estimates.

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