Graduate Programs of the
Department of Defense
in STEM and Management
Committee on Review of Specialized Degree-Granting Graduate Programs
of the DoD in STEM and Management
Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences
NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES
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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.
This is a report of work supported by Award HQ0034-10-D-0003, TO9 between the Department of Defense and the National Academy of Sciences. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.
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COMMITTEE ON REVIEW OF SPECIALIZED DEGREE-GRANTING GRADUATE PROGRAMS OF THE DOD IN STEM AND MANAGEMENT
JACQUES S GANSLER, University of Maryland, Chair
THOMAS J. BURNS, ENSCO, Inc., Vice Chair
ROBERT A. CALICO, JR., Independent Consultant
RITA R. COLWELL, University of Maryland
EARL H. DOWELL, Duke University
JOHN V. FARR, U.S. Military Academy
BRENDAN B. GODFREY, University of Maryland
WESLEY L. HARRIS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
MICHAEL L. HEIL, Ohio Aerospace Institute
ROBERT J. HERMANN, Hartford, Connecticut
WALTER F. JONES, Office of Naval Research
KATHRYN E. NEWCOMER, The George Washington University
LEIF E. PETERSON, Human Resources Concepts and Solutions
STEPHEN POLLOCK, University Michigan
STEVEN E. RAMBERG, National Defense University
CHARLES E. THORPE, Clarkson University
TERRY J. JAGGERS, Board Director
CARTER W. FORD, Study Director
MARGUERITE E. SCHNEIDER, Administrative Coordinator
DIONNA C. ALI, Research Assistant
Acknowledgment of Reviewers
This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:
Michelle Atchison, University of Texas System,
Lawrence D. Brown, University of Pennsylvania,
W. Peter Cherry, Ann Arbor, Michigan,
Paul G. Gaffney II, Monmouth University (emeritus),
Maryellen L. Giger, University of Chicago,
Paul J. Kern, The Cohen Group,
Louis J. Lanzerotti, New Jersey Institute of Technology,
Lester L. Lyles, The Lyles Group,
Charles E. Phelps, University of Rochester, and
James A. Voytuk, Annapolis, Maryland.
Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommenda-
tions, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Robert A. Frosch, Harvard University. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.
Recent National Research Council (NRC) reports on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and the Department of Defense (DoD) have focused on the quality of the DoD STEM workforce and the importance of ensuring an adequate number of people with the right STEM skill sets in the future.1,2 This report is unique in that it addresses the need for relevant graduate STEM and management education for DoD military and civilians; assesses the cost, benefits, and organizational placement of DoD institutions that grant degrees in STEM and management; and evaluates alternative ways—for example, civilian institutions and distance learning—to ensure adequate numbers and high-quality education outcomes for DoD personnel.
TERMS OF REFERENCE
Section 245 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013 (P.L. 112-239) directed the Secretary of Defense to enter into an agreement with the NRC to conduct a review of specialized degree-granting graduate programs of
1 National Research Council (NRC), Assuring the U.S. Department of Defense a Strong Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Workforce, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2012.
2 NRC, Examination of the U.S. Air Force’s Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Workforce Needs in the Future and Its Strategy to Meet Those Needs, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2010.
the DoD in STEM and management.3,4 The NRC approved the terms of reference specified in the congressional language in May 2013, and funding for the study was received from the Office of the Secretary of Defense in July 2013. The president of the National Academy of Sciences appointed the committee in August 2013.5 The terms of reference for the study include the following:
1. The need by the Department of Defense and the military departments for military and civilian personnel with advanced degrees in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and management, including a list of the numbers of such personnel needed by discipline.
2. An analysis of the sources by which the Department of Defense and the military departments obtain military and civilian personnel with such advanced degrees.
3. The need for educational institutions under the Department of Defense to meet the needs identified.
4. The costs and benefits of maintaining such educational institutions, including costs relating to in-house research.
5. The ability of private non-Department of Defense institutions (public and private) or distance-learning programs to meet the needs identified.
6. Existing organizational structures, including reporting chains, within the military departments to manage the graduate education needs of the Department of Defense and the military departments in the fields of science, technology, engineering, mathematics (STEM) and management.
7. Recommendations for improving the ability of the Department of Defense to identify, manage, and source the graduate education needs of the Department in such fields.
During four data-gathering meetings, the committee met with leaders and staff members from the Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Military Services, and various DoD-funded universities—including the Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT), the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS), the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, and the National Defense University—and representatives from civilian universities and industry. Additionally, the committee held smaller site visits with AFIT and NPS officials in Dayton, Ohio, and Monterey, California.
3 For additional Information, see Bill Text Versions, 112th Congress (2011-2012), H.R. 4310, http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c112:H.R.4310:, accessed March 4, 2014.
4 A copy of the congressional tasking is provided in Appendix A.
5 Biographies for the committee members are provided in Appendix B. The committee includes experts from academia, government, and industry with backgrounds in advanced education degree requirements for DoD military and civilian personnel, specifically in science, technology, engineering, mathematics (STEM) and acquisition, technology and logistics management; strategies associated with recruitment and retention of DoD military and civilian personnel requiring these types of advanced degrees; and an understanding of the abilities of both the public and private advanced-degree educational institutions to meet these DoD needs, either in residence or through distance learning.
The committee concluded its work during two 3-day meetings focused on finalizing its report, findings, and recommendations.
It was our great pleasure to work with the extremely dedicated and professional members of the committee during this study, and it is our hope that this report provides a useful service to DoD and the nation.
Jacques S. Gansler, Chair
Thomas J. Burns, Vice Chair
Committee on Review of Specialized Degree-
Granting Graduate Programs of the DoD in STEM and Management
|AETC||Air Education and Training Command|
|AFIT||Air Force Institute of Technology|
|AFMC||Air Force Materiel Command|
|BOV||Board of Visitors|
|BRAC||Base Realignment and Closure|
|CNO||Chief of Naval Operations|
|CSAF||Chief of Staff of the Air Force|
|CUI||controlled, unclassified information|
|DAGSI||Dayton Area Graduate Studies Institute|
|DAWDF||Defense Acquisition Workforce Development Fund|
|DoD||Department of Defense|
|DSB||Defense Science Board|
|JPME||joint professional military education|
|MOOC||Massively Open Online Course|
|NDAA||National Defense Authorization Act|
|NDSEG||National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship|
|NIH||National Institutes of Health|
|NPS||Naval Postgraduate School|
|NRC||National Research Council|
|NSF||National Science Foundation|
|OLI||Open Learning Initiative|
|PSM||Professional Science Master’s|
|S&E||science and engineering|
|S&T||science and technology|
|SMART||Science, Mathematics, and Research for Transformation|
|SME||subject matter expert|
|STEM||science, technology, engineering, and mathematics|
|STEM+M||science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and management|
|UNM||University of New Mexico|
|USNWR||U.S. News and World Report|
|USUHS||Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences|