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High-Magnetic-Field Research and Facilities Panel on High Magnetic Field Research and Facilities Solid State Sciences Committee Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Washington, D.C. 1979 4 1979 LIBRARY
c.l NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the Councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Insti- tute of Medicine. The members of the Committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to proce- dures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medi- Available from Solid State Sciences Committee National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue Washington, D.C. 20418
Solid State Sciences Committee ELIAS BURSTEIN, University of Pennsylvania, Chairman DEAN E. EASTMAN International Business Machines Corporation, Chairman- Elect ROBERT A. MUGGINS, Stanford University, Past-Chairman ROBB M. THOMSON, National Bureau of Standards, Secrete/y MARTIN BLUME, Brookhaven National Laboratory MORRIS CO HEN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology MILDRED S. DRESSELHAUS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology HUGO F. FRANZEN, Iowa State University HUGH C. HEARD, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, University of California LAWRENCE L. HENCH, University of Florida WALTER KOHN, University of California, San Diego CAROLYN M. PREECE, Bell Laboratories STUART A. RICE, James Franck Institute, University of Chicago WILLIAM A. SIBLEY, Oklahoma State University JOHN SILCOX, Cornell University Liaison Representatives ARTHUR DAMASK, National Materials Advisory Board ARDEN L. BEMENT, Advanced Research Projects Agency CHARLES BOGHOSIAN and GEORGE MAYER, Army Research Office JOHN R. CARRUTHERS, National Aeronautics and Space Administration HOWARD W. ETZEL and RONALD E. KAGARISE, National Science Foun- dation L.C. KRAVITZ.Air Force Office of Scientific Research ALBERT E. PALADINO, Office of Technology Assessment EDWARD I. SALKOVITZ, Office of Naval Research ALBERT I. SCHINDLER, Naval Research Laboratory DONALD K. STEVENS, Department of Energy AMPS Liaison Representatives CHARLES P. BEAN, General Electric Corporation ROBERT HERMAN, General Motors Corporation National Research Council Staff CHARLES K. REED, National Research Council, Executive Secretary WESLEY N. MATHEWS, JR., Georgetown University, Staff Consultant ill
Panel on High Magnetic Field Research and Facilities SEYMOUR P. KELLER, International Business Machines Corporation, Chairman MARTIN BLUME, Brookhaven National Laboratory AKSEL A. BOTHNER-BY, Carnegie-Mellon University CLARENCE M. FOWLER, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, University of California WARREN E. HENRY, Howard University ROBIN M. HOCHSTRASSER, University of Pennsylvania "JOHN K. HULM, Westinghouse Electric Corporation ISRAEL S. JACOBS, General Electric Corporation W. J. LEVEDAHL, David Taylor Naval Ship Research and Development Center *BRUCE D. McCOMBE, Naval Research Laboratory *D. BRUCE MONTGOMERY, National Magnet Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology *RAYMOND L. ORBACH, University of California, Los Angeles Consultants to the Panels REID CLEMENT, Naval Research Laboratory ROBERT V. COLEMAN, University of Virginia TAKESHI EGAMI, University of Pennsylvania SIMON FONER, National Magnet Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology LAWRENCE G. RUBIN, National Magnet Laboratory, Massachusetts Insti- tute of Technology Liaison from Solid State Sciences ELIAS BURSTEIN, University of Pennsylvania P. E. SEIDEN, International Business-Machines Corporation Liaison from National Science Foundation WILLIAM BERNARD Staff CHARLES K. REED, National Research Council, Executive Secretary WESLEY N. MATHEWS, JR., Georgetown University, Staff Consultant *Chairmen, Subpanels. iv
Preface The technology of resistive magnets was founded in the nineteenth century, and developments have continued, with magnetic fields of about 23 tesla (T) (1T= 104 gauss) being attainable at present. In a parallel development, superconducting materials were discovered in the second decade of this cen- tury; recent advances have led to superconducting magnets affording fields up to 17 T. A melding of the two technologies allows fields of about 30 T today. Higher fields are obtainable with pulsed conditions. Using quasi-static (up to several tenths of seconds) systems, one can achieve 40 T. For still higher fields, there are short-time pulses (of the order of microseconds) that supply fields up to 100 T in a nondestructive manner and fields above 300 T in a manner destructive of sample and coil. Fifteen years ago the National Magnet Laboratory was commissioned and was the major facility of its type in the world. Since that time, nearly all the major high-field technology advances have occurred in the United States. However, in recent years, other countries have developed facilities, so that today major centers affording the above-mentioned field strengths are found throughout Europe and in Japan, as well as in the United States. Believing it timely to consider where the development of this technology is leading, the Solid State Sciences Cornmittee of the National Research Coun- cil's Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences proposed a study to assess: 1. The importance of high magnetic fields to present and future research in all areas; 2. The importance of high magnetic fields to present and future technol- ogies; 3. The identification of any areas of research that might offer major opportunities for exploitation of high magnetic fields; 4. The present and future science and technology for the generation of high magnetic fields; v
Vi PREFACE 5. The role of large magnetic facilities in the overall scientific and techni- cal community. The Committee established a panel to study these points and any others it deemed important. The panel was organized in June 1978 and at its first meeting divided its study into four parts, each to be handled by a subpanel. These four were (a) Scientific Opportunities, (b) Applications, (c) Magnet De- sign and Materials, and (d) High Magnetic Field Facilities and Users. Each subpanel prepared a report, which is included in this final report of the Panel. Many questions arose during the course of the Panel's discussions. Some we were able to address, and these are covered in the report; others we could not address. It is clear that large facilities will continue to play a major role in high-magnetic-field development; however, we did not make any recommen- dations as to what or where these facilities should be. In addition, we did not assess the performance of the existing large facilities. Although we considered the costs associated with the attainment of higher fields, we did not specify a funding program. If our recommendations are followed, implementation will proceed with a coordinated plan for funding and for a detailed design and development of hardware and associated facilities. What we have done is to identify specific important objectives for future high-magnetic-field develop- ment and to recommend the most effective means to move toward those objectives. I wish to thank all members of the Panel and all consultants to it for their conscientious work, which they performed in spite of the pressing obligations of their regular activities. I also wish to thank the many members of the scientific and engineering communities who responded to inquiries, for with- out those responses this report could not have been written. The names of those who contributed to the study appear in Appendix B to this report. Support for this study was provided by the National Science Foundation (Contract C-310, Task Order 385), for whose interest and cooperation we are most grateful. Seymour P. Keller, Chairman Panel on High Magnetic Field Research and Facilities
Contents 1 INTRODUCTION 1 2 CONCLUSIONS 4 3 SCIENTIFIC OPPORTUNITIES 8 Introduction 8 Conclusions and Highlights 9 Detailed Discussion of Scientific Opportunities 13 4 APPLICATIONS 38 Introduction 38 Conclusions 39 High-Magnetic-Field Technology 40 Energy Technology 41 Magnetic Separation 47 Defense Technology 49 Other Applications 51 5 MAGNET DESIGN AND MATERIALS 55 Introduction 55 Conclusions 56 Continuous-Field Generation 57 Quasi-static Pulse Systems 64 Short-Pulse Systems: Field Greater than 100 T 67 6 HIGH-MAGNETIC-FIELD FACILITIES AND USERS 72 Introduction 72 Conclusions 73 Current Status of High-Magnetic-Field Facilities 74 Facility Plans and Possibilities 87 Facility Utilization and User Considerations 89 APPENDIX A: Letter to the Scientific Community 94 APPENDIX B: Contributors to the Study of High-Magnetic-Field Research and Facilities 96 vU