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Emerging Viral Diseases: The One Health Connection: Workshop Summary (2015)

Chapter:Appendix E: Speaker Biographies

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Speaker Biographies." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Emerging Viral Diseases: The One Health Connection: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18975.
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Appendix E

Speaker Biographies

Ralph Baric, Ph.D., is a professor in the Department of Epidemiology at the University of North Carolina, a World Technology Award Finalist, a member of the Biological Experts Science Group, a fellow of the American Association for Microbiology, a senior editor of PLoS Pathogens, and a member of the editorial board of other specialty journals. His group has published more than 200 papers, many in highly visible journals like PNAS, Nature Medicine, Science, PLoS Medicine, and PLoS Pathogens. The Baric laboratory uses genetic, immunologic, molecular, and biochemical approaches to study the molecular mechanisms regulating virus replication, pathogenesis, molecular evolution, and cross-species transmission using emerging coronaviruses (SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV), flaviviruses (Dengue), and noroviruses as model systems. The SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV are emerging respiratory coronaviruses that most likely originated in bats and circumvented the globe in 2003–2004, and in 2012–2013, causing 10 to 44 percent mortality rates, respectively. His group has pioneered new strategies for developing reverse genetic approaches for manipulating coronavirus genomes, and developed synthetic genome approaches to reconstruct emerging viruses from in silico sequence information and/or live attenuated virus vaccine design. His group also uses systems biology and systems genetic approaches to identify host susceptibility loci and signaling pathways that regulate severe end-stage lung disease following respiratory virus infection in young and aged animals and human populations.

Dennis Carroll, Ph.D., currently serves as the Director of the U.S. Agency for International Development’s (USAID’s) Pandemic Influenza and other Emerging Threats Unit. In this position Dr. Carroll is responsible for providing strategic and

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Speaker Biographies." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Emerging Viral Diseases: The One Health Connection: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18975.
×

operational leadership for the agency’s programs addressing new and emerging disease threats, which has included leading the agency’s response to the H5N1 avian influenza and H1N1 pandemic viral threats. He is presently coordinating the rollout of USAID’s new Emerging Pandemic Threats program—a global effort to combat new disease threats before they can become significant threats to human health.

Dr. Carroll was initially detailed to USAID from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a senior public health advisor in 1991. In 1995 he was named the agency’s Senior Infectious Diseases advisor, responsible for overseeing the agency’s programs in malaria, tuberculosis, antimicrobial resistance, disease surveillance, as well as neglected and emerging infectious diseases. In this capacity Dr. Carroll was directly involved in the development and introduction of a range of new technologies for disease prevention and control, including community-based delivery of treatment of onchocerciasis, rapid diagnostics for malaria, new treatment therapies for drug-resistant malaria, intermittent therapy for pregnant women and “long-lasting” insecticide-treated bed nets for prevention of malaria. He was responsible for the initial design and development of the President’s Malaria Initiative. Dr. Carroll officially left the CDC and joined USAID in 2005 when he assumed responsibility for leading the USAID response to the spread of avian influenza.

Dr. Carroll has a doctorate in biomedical research with a special focus in tropical infectious diseases from the University of Massachusetts Amherst. He was a Research Scientist at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory where he studied the molecular mechanics of viral infection. Dr. Carroll has received awards from both the CDC and USAID, including the 2006 USAID Science and Technology Award for his work on malaria and avian influenza, and the 2008 Administrator’s Management Innovation Award for his management of the Agency’s Avian and Pandemic Influenza program.

Ruben Donis, Ph.D., serves as the Associate Director for Policy, Evaluation, and Preparedness for the CDC’s Influenza Division. Before this position, Dr. Donis was chief of the former Molecular Virology and Vaccines Branch in the Division.

Dr. Donis earned his Veterinary Medicine diploma from the University of Buenos Aires and his Ph.D. in Virology from Cornell University. He completed his postdoctoral work at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, where he specialized in influenza molecular virology. Prior to joining the CDC in 2003, Dr. Donis served on the faculty of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), where he participated in the leadership of the UNL Center for Biotechnology, and conducted research on influenza and flavivirus molecular biology.

At the CDC, Dr. Donis oversees risk assessment studies that analyze structural and functional properties of emerging influenza viruses, including genome reassortment and virus-receptor interactions. The division monitors the evolution and pandemic potential of animal influenza viruses to inform development of

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Speaker Biographies." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Emerging Viral Diseases: The One Health Connection: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18975.
×

prepandemic candidate viruses for vaccine production, with a view to mitigating the public health impact of future pandemics. Dr. Donis has more than 25 years of research experience with influenza virus molecular biology and virus–host interactions. He currently serves as an adjunct professor of microbiology at Emory University.

Jon Epstein, M.D., is a veterinary epidemiologist and Associate Vice President of EcoHealth Alliance. He also serves as the Executive Director of the Consortium for Conservation Medicine, a multidisciplinary partnership of five U.S.-based research institutions dedicated to training the next generation of One Health scientists. He is the Asia Regional Coordinator for the USAID Emerging Pandemic Threats PREDICT program and also serves on the Steering Committee of the One Health Alliance of South Asia (OHASA), a multidisciplinary network linking health scientists and ministry officials in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nepal. His current research interests include bat-borne emerging zoonotic viruses such as Nipah virus, Ebola virus, and coronaviruses including SARS CoV and the recently discovered novel CoV from the Arabian peninsula. In 2004, he was part of the team that identified bats as the natural wildlife reservoir for SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in China. Dr. Epstein is currently investigating Nipah virus in Bangladesh, where outbreaks occur in people almost every year with mortality rates reaching more than 90 percent. The aim of this research is to better understand the factors that cause Nipah virus to spill over from bats, and to develop models that will predict and help prevent future outbreaks.

Dr. Epstein holds adjunct faculty positions at Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health and the Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Environmental Biology; Tufts Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine and Tufts School of Medicine; and Mount Sinai School of Medicine. His work has been published in several leading scientific journals, including Emerging Infectious Diseases, PLoS Pathogens, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, the Journal of Applied Ecology, and Science. He has been an invited speaker at meetings held by the Institute of Medicine and the World Health Organization. He holds advisory positions on two committees in the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN): the Wildlife Health Specialist Group and the Bat Specialist Group.

Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., is director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) at the National Institutes of Health. Since his appointment as NIAID director in 1984, Dr. Fauci has overseen an extensive research portfolio devoted to preventing, diagnosing, and treating infectious and immune-mediated diseases. Dr. Fauci also is chief of the NIAID Laboratory of Immunoregulation, where he has made numerous important discoveries related to HIV/AIDS and is one of the most-cited scientists in the field. Dr. Fauci serves as one of the key advisors to the White House and Department of Health and Human

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Speaker Biographies." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Emerging Viral Diseases: The One Health Connection: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18975.
×

Services on global AIDS issues, and on initiatives to bolster medical and public health preparedness against emerging infectious disease threats such as pandemic influenza. He was one of the principal architects of the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), which has already been responsible for saving millions of lives throughout the developing world.

Dr. Fauci is a member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and is the recipient of numerous prestigious awards for his scientific and global health accomplishments, including the National Medal of Science, the Mary Woodard Lasker Award for Public Service, and the Presidential Medal of Freedom. He has been awarded 38 honorary doctoral degrees and is the author, co-author, or editor of more than 1,200 scientific publications, including several major textbooks.

Harvey V. Fineberg, M.D., Ph.D., is former President of the Institute of Medicine, serving from 2003 to 2014. He served as Provost of Harvard University from 1997 to 2001, following 13 years as Dean of the Harvard School of Public Health. He has devoted most of his academic career to the fields of health policy and medical decision making, including assessment of medical technology, evaluation and use of vaccines, and dissemination of medical innovations. Dr. Fineberg helped found and served as president of the Society for Medical Decision Making and has been a consultant to the World Health Organization. He serves on the boards of the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, the Josiah Macy Jr. Foundation, The China Medical Board, and the Association François-Xavier Bagnoud (USA).

Dr. Fineberg is co-author of the books Clinical Decision Analysis, Innovators in Physician Education, and The Epidemic That Never Was, an analysis of the controversial federal immunization program against swine flu in 1976. He has co-edited books on such diverse topics as AIDS prevention, vaccine safety, and understanding risk in society. He has also authored numerous articles published in professional journals. Dr. Fineberg received the Stephen Smith Medal for Distinguished Contributions in Public Health from the New York Academy of Medicine, the Frank A. Calderone Prize in Public Health, awarded by the Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University, the Henry G. Friesen International Prize in Health Research, awarded by Friends of Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Harvard Medal from the Harvard Alumni Association, and a number of honorary degrees. He earned his bachelor’s and doctoral degrees from Harvard University.

Keiji Fukuda, M.D., M.P.H., has been Assistant Director-General (ADG) for Health Security, World Health Organization (WHO) since September 1, 2010. Before this, he was Special Adviser on Pandemic Influenza to the Director-General, ADG for Health Security and Environment ad interim, Director of the Global Influenza Programme (GIP), and Coordinator of GIP and Scientist in GIP.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Speaker Biographies." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Emerging Viral Diseases: The One Health Connection: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18975.
×

Dr. Fukuda has extensive global and national public health, field, and research experience related to emerging diseases (including chronic fatigue syndrome, SARS, avian influenza H5N1 and H7N9, MERS, and pandemic influenza H1N1), regional and global emergencies due to other causes, and international negotiations and activities. His current responsibilities are focused on global health security including food safety, pandemic and epidemic infectious diseases, including antimicrobial drug resistance, global alert and monitoring for health security-related events, and implementation of the International Health Regulations as well as the Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework and the Codex Alimentarius. Before coming to WHO, Dr. Fukuda was Chief of the Epidemiology Unit, Influenza Branch at the U.S. CDC. He is a physician and received his B.A. from Oberlin College, M.D. from the University of Vermont, and M.P.H. from the University of California, Berkeley.

Daniel B. Jernigan, M.D., M.P.H., is the Deputy Director of the Influenza Division in the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases at the CDC. The Influenza Division is responsible for national surveillance of influenza and serves as a WHO Collaborating Center for the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Control of Influenza. The division provides epidemiologic and laboratory leadership in various research, investigative, and preparedness activities for seasonal, avian, and pandemic influenza.

Dr. Jernigan received his bachelor of science from Duke University, his doctor of medicine from Baylor College of Medicine, and his master of public health from the University of Texas. He is board certified in internal medicine and has completed an additional residency in preventive medicine. Dr. Jernigan joined the CDC’s Epidemic Intelligence Service in 1994 working in the Respiratory Diseases Branch, and has remained at the CDC since that time.

Dr. Jernigan is active in the field of infectious diseases epidemiology and response. He has published peer-reviewed articles and book chapters on various emerging infectious diseases topics and has supervised outbreak investigations of viral, bacterial, and fungal infections associated with emerging and antibiotic-resistant pathogens. These findings led to improvements in disease detection and infection control. He has led epidemiology and surveillance teams for national and international responses, including bioterrorism-related anthrax, West Nile virus, SARS in Asia, and public health management following natural disasters. Most recently, he served as the Senior Science Officer and Lead for the Epidemiology and Laboratory Task Force responding to the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic.

In his current role as Deputy Director of the Influenza Division, Dr. Jernigan serves as Senior Medical Officer, and Senior Public Health Service Officer for the Influenza Division. He is responsible for oversight and direction of 241 staff members with primary supervision of budget, communications, policy, preparedness, and program support. He is responsible for implementation of a broad influenza diagnostic strategy, including research and development of new influenza

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Speaker Biographies." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Emerging Viral Diseases: The One Health Connection: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18975.
×

diagnostic tests and manufacturing, distribution, and compliance with quality and regulatory requirements. Dr. Jernigan also serves as a principle investigator for influenza research and public health evaluation activities.

Kamran Khan, M.D., M.P.H., is an infectious disease physician and scientist at St. Michael’s Hospital in Toronto, an associate professor of medicine at the University of Toronto, and the Founder of BioDiaspora (www.biodiaspora.com).Dr. Khan’s research interests focus on emerging infectious disease threats and their potential spread and impacts in an increasingly interconnected and interdependent world. To support time-sensitive decision making during public health emergencies, Dr. Khan developed BioDiaspora, a Web-based GIS application capable of generating predictive analytics in near real time. He is currently partnering with the Division of Global Migration and Quarantine at the CDC under a project named BioMosaic to strengthen preparedness and response to public health emergencies from infectious diseases.

John Lowenthal, Ph.D., obtained his Ph.D. in immunology from the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute for Medical Research, University of Melbourne in 1983. He completed postdoctoral research at the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research in Lausanne, Switzerland, and at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University in North Carolina. He joined Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) in 1990 to establish an Avian Immunology group and is a Senior Principal Research Scientist based at CSIRO’s Australian Animal Health Laboratory in Geelong, Victoria.

Dr. Lowenthal’s research group takes a One Health approach to fighting emerging infectious diseases. This work involves veterinary health and immunology, including studying the innate immune responses to viral diseases under high biocontainment; assessing the ability of immune modulators to improve vaccine efficacy; developing novel therapeutics for zoonotic viruses such as H5N1 avian influenza and Hendra virus; and developing disease-resilient animals. He is an adjunct professor at the Deakin University School of Medicine and has published more than 150 journal articles (6,000 citations), produced more than 140 conference presentations, and is an inventor on 15 patents.

Allison McGeer, M.D., MsC., trained in internal medicine and infectious diseases at the University of Toronto and then completed a fellowship in hospital epidemiology at Yale New Haven Hospital in 1989–1990. She has served on the Canadian National Advisory Committee on Immunization, and is currently a member of the infection control subcommittee of the Ontario Provincial Infectious Diseases Advisory Committee. Her areas of research interest are the epidemiology of influenza infection, the prevention of health care–associated infection, and adult immunization.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Speaker Biographies." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Emerging Viral Diseases: The One Health Connection: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18975.
×

Kevin Olival, Ph.D., is a Senior Research Scientist at EcoHealth Alliance. He has investigated the ecology, evolution, diversity, and dynamics of bats and their viruses for more than a decade. This includes extensive field studies of Nipah virus in Malaysia and Bangladesh; using phylogeography and population genetics to understand the dynamics of Nipah; discovering several novel bat pathogens; and building models to predict pathogen diversity and spillover potential in mammals. Olival is a senior scientist on the USAID PREDICT project as part of the modeling team and surveillance coordinator in Thailand and Indonesia. Over the past 4 years, he has led field expeditions and bat surveillance workshops in Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand; and has coordinated global research activities under a NIAID R01 grant on the “Risk of viral emergence from bats.” He has led two field expeditions to KSA (Oct 2012, April 2013) working with the KSA Ministry of Health and Columbia University, where he is adjunct faculty. This led to the first discovery of MERS-CoV in Arabian bats and additional data to better understand the ecology of bats in KSA and the diversity of the coronaviruses they harbor.

Trish Perl, M.D., M.S., is a professor in the Departments of Medicine (Infectious Diseases) and Pathology at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, Maryland, and in the Department of Epidemiology at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. She is Senior Epidemiologist for The Johns Hopkins Health System. Dr. Perl received her bachelor of arts and medical degree from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and a master of science degree from McGill University in Montreal, Canada. She completed a residency in internal medicine and a fellowship in infectious diseases and clinical epidemiology at the University of Iowa in Iowa City, Iowa.

She has extensive practical and research experience in the field of health care-associated infections and resistant and epidemiologically significant organisms and is world renowned for her innovation and research in the field and the use of research knowledge in the health care setting. Dr. Perl is the former President of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America (SHEA) and has served on advisory panels for the IOM, the CDC, and WHO, and been a consultant to the NIH and ARHQ. She was the Courage Fund Visiting Professor in 2008–2010. An active researcher, Dr. Perl has been a principal and co-principal investigator for multiple studies funded by the CDC and the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs over the years. She has authored or co-authored more than 200 peer-reviewed articles. In addition, she has written multiple chapters and contributed to guidelines and policies relevant to health care–associated infections at the institutional, state, and federal level.

Dirk Pfeiffer, DrMedVet, MACVSc, Ph.D., DipECVPH, graduated in veterinary medicine in Germany in 1984. He obtained his Ph.D. in veterinary epidemiology from Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand, in 1994, and

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Speaker Biographies." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Emerging Viral Diseases: The One Health Connection: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18975.
×

worked as an academic in New Zealand for 9 years. He has been holding the Chair in Veterinary Epidemiology at the Royal Veterinary College (RVC) since 1999. Dr. Pfeiffer has been involved in epidemiological research since 1985 and worked on animal health issues in developing as well as developed countries. He has published 191 peer-reviewed publications. He is the Head of the Veterinary Epidemiology, Economics & Public Health Group within RVC comprising 11 academic staff and about 30 Ph.D. students and researchers. Dr. Pfeiffer is head of the RVC’s FAO Reference Centre for Veterinary Epidemiology. He is the lead author of a textbook on spatial epidemiology, author of the chapter on spatial analysis in the key veterinary epidemiology textbook Veterinary Epidemiologic Research as well as the author of the textbook Introduction to Veterinary Epidemiology. He teaches epidemiology at undergraduate and postgraduate levels and has designed and taught international training courses in veterinary epidemiology, risk analysis, and spatial analysis in Europe, North America, Australasia, and Africa. Dr. Pfeiffer provides scientific expertise to various national and international organizations.

Linda Saif, M.S., Ph.D., is a Distinguished University Professor at Ohio State University (OSU) in the Food Animal Health Research Program (OARDC) and the Veterinary Preventive Medicine Department (CVM, OSU). She is a virologist and immunologist, whose research focuses on comparative aspects of enteric and respiratory viral infections (coronaviruses, rotaviruses, and caliciviruses) of food animals and humans. Her lab studies mucosal immunity and vaccine development and is currently focusing on the impact of malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies on vaccines and interactions of probiotics and the gut microbiota with the neonatal immune system and vaccines. Her team’s discovery of the gut-mammary secretory IgA axis (initial description of the common mucosal immune system) in swine was a breakthrough for development of maternal coronavirus vaccines to passively protect neonatal animals. Her lab identified new enteric viruses (group C rotavirus, caliciviruses), characterized their pathogenesis and developed novel cultivation methods, diagnostic assays and vaccines for them. Her current research emphasizes novel bioengineered virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines and adjuvants (vitamin A, probiotics) to prevent viral diarrheas in humans and animals and their evaluation in germfree animal disease models. Her lab also investigates the interrelationships among animal viruses and their human counterparts to assess their zoonotic potential and mechanisms of interspecies transmission.

Dr. Saif is a member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the Argentine Academia Nacional de Agronomía y Veterinaria. She is an elected Fellow of the American College of Veterinary Microbiologists, the AAAS, and the American Academy of Microbiology. She has served as a member of advisory teams for various organizations (USAID, CDC, WHO, etc.), she was a Fulbright Scholar (Argentina) and she serves on several journal editorial boards (including

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Speaker Biographies." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Emerging Viral Diseases: The One Health Connection: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18975.
×

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America). Her laboratory serves as a WHO International Reference Lab for Animal Coronaviruses within the SARS Coronavirus Network and as an International Reference Lab for TGEV porcine coronavirus for the Office International des Epizooties, Paris, France. Dr. Saif has authored or co-authored more than 300 journal publications and 57 book chapters pertaining to her research.

Jonathan Sleeman, VetMB, ACZM, is currently the Center Director for the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Wildlife Health Center where he leads a team that provides national leadership to safeguard wildlife and ecosystem health through multidisciplinary research and technical assistance to federal, state, and tribal agencies as well as internationally as an OIE Collaborating Centre. He is also an adjunct professor at the University of Wisconsin School of Veterinary Medicine. He has authored more than 50 peer-reviewed publications and several book chapters all on the topics of wildlife and ecosystem health. He is active in various scientific organizations, and serves on several committees for the U.S. Animal Health Association, Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the CDC. He is board certified by the American College of Zoological Medicine, and received his veterinary degree and master’s degree in zoology from the University of Cambridge, England. Previous positions include Director of the Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Center in Rwanda and Wildlife Veterinarian for the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries.

Derek Smith, M.S., Ph.D., is Professor of Infectious Disease Informatics at Cambridge University in the United Kingdom and is also Director of the Centre for Pathogen Evolution, and Director of WHO Collaborating Centre for Model-ling, Evolution, and Control of Emerging Infectious Diseases, both also at Cambridge University.

He is a member of the Viroscience Department at Erasmus Medical Center in The Netherlands. He is also a member of the WHO Influenza Vaccine Strain Selection Committee, and is involved in vaccine strain selection for other human and nonhuman pathogens for the FAO and OIE. His research is focused on how pathogens evolve, to what extent this evolution is predictable, and determining public and animal health measures against such ever-changing pathogens. He received a U.S. National Institutes of Health Director’s Pioneer Award in 2005 for his work on antigenic cartography, a method that enables detailed study of pathogen evolution.

David Swayne, D.V.M., M.Sc., Ph.D., is a research veterinarian in avian influenza. Since 1987, his personal research has focused on pathobiology and control of high pathogenicity avian influenza with more than 262 peer-reviewed publications and more than 237 invited presentations. He is a former faculty member at Ohio State University and for the past 20 years has been the Director

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Speaker Biographies." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Emerging Viral Diseases: The One Health Connection: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18975.
×

of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s in-house high-biocontainment laboratory for research on exotic, emerging, and endemic viral diseases of poultry and is subject-matter expert on avian influenza. In 2011, he completed a 16-month sabbatical to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), conducting a global assessment of avian influenza control programs, especially the role of vaccines. He is the editor of the international text Avian Influenza, editor-in-chief of the 13th edition of Diseases of Poultry, and associate editor for two journals: Veterinary Pathology and Influenza and Other Respiratory Pathogens. Dr. Swayne has served on OIE international committees to update the avian influenza chapters in Terrestrial Animal Health Code and Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. He has participated in missions or conferences on avian influenza control and biosafety/biosecurity in 44 countries in the past 15 years.

Alejandro Thiermann, D.V.M., Ph.D., is the Senior International Organization’s Coordinator for the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services, USDA-APHIS. He has been seconded full-time by USDA to the OIE to serve as senior advisor to the Director General of the OIE. He is President of the Terrestrial Animal Health Standards Commission, the OIE’s international standard-setting body. He has served in this commission since 1994. Prior to coming to Paris, from October 1996 and until September 2001, he served as Senior Trade Coordinator and Regional Director for USDA-APHIS in Brussels, with responsibility over Europe, Africa, Middle East, Russia, and the former Soviet Republics. During 1997 to 1999 he was twice elected Chairman of the World Trade Organisation, Sanitary and Phytosanitary (WTO-SPS) Committee. Dr. Thiermann joined USDA-APHIS in 1989 as the Deputy Administrator for International Services. Before joining APHIS, he was the National Program Leader for animal health research under the USDA Agriculture Research Service (ARS). A native of Chile, Dr. Thiermann received his doctorate of veterinary medicine degree from the University of Chile at Santiago, and a Ph.D. degree in microbiology and immunology from the School of Medicine at Wayne State University in Michigan.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Speaker Biographies." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Emerging Viral Diseases: The One Health Connection: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18975.
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In the past half century, deadly disease outbreaks caused by novel viruses of animal origin - Nipah virus in Malaysia, Hendra virus in Australia, Hantavirus in the United States, Ebola virus in Africa, along with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), several influenza subtypes, and the SARS (sudden acute respiratory syndrome) and MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome) coronaviruses - have underscored the urgency of understanding factors influencing viral disease emergence and spread.

Emerging Viral Diseases is the summary of a public workshop hosted in March 2014 to examine factors driving the appearance, establishment, and spread of emerging, re-emerging and novel viral diseases; the global health and economic impacts of recently emerging and novel viral diseases in humans; and the scientific and policy approaches to improving domestic and international capacity to detect and respond to global outbreaks of infectious disease. This report is a record of the presentations and discussion of the event.

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