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Critical Role of Animal Science Research in Food Security and Sustainability (2015)

Chapter:Appendix H: Summary of NOAA/USDA Findings on Alternative Feeds for Aquaculture

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Summary of NOAA/USDA Findings on Alternative Feeds for Aquaculture." National Research Council. 2015. Critical Role of Animal Science Research in Food Security and Sustainability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19000.
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H

Summary of NOAA/USDA Findings on Alternative Feeds for Aquaculture

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) partnered with the USDA to examine the issue of aquaculture feed and to create strategies for the development of alternative feed for use in aquaculture farming. The findings of this effort are as follows:1

  1. Fish meal and fish oil are not nutritionally required for farmed fish to grow.
  2. Farming of fish is a very efficient way to produce animal protein and other human nutritional needs.
  3. Feed manufacturers making diets for carnivorous fish and shrimp have already reduced their reliance on fish meal and fish oil.
  4. Economics is currently the major driver of using alternate feed ingredients in feed mills.
  5. The net environmental effects of the production and use of alternate feeds should be considered.
  6. The human health implications of using alternative feeds needs to be better understood and considered.
  7. Fish meal and fish oil are minor contributors to the world protein and edible oil supply.
  8. Recovery and utilization of fisheries processing waste should be encouraged and increased.
  9. Plants produce the vast majority of protein and edible oils in the world, accounting for 94 percent of total protein production and 86 percent of total edible oil production.
  10. Algae-based biofuel may present opportunities for feed ingredient production because protein is a byproduct of oil recovery from algae, and marine algae produce the long-chain

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1 NOAA/USDA. 2011. The Future of Aquafeeds (Alternative Feeds Initiative). NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS F/SPO-124. 93 pp

Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Summary of NOAA/USDA Findings on Alternative Feeds for Aquaculture." National Research Council. 2015. Critical Role of Animal Science Research in Food Security and Sustainability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19000.
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  1. omega-3 fatty acids and certain amino acids important to fish and human health.

  2. There will likely be increased demand for and production of ethanol and bioplastics. Byproducts from these industries could make good ingredients for fish diets.
  3. As replacements, many alternatives are higher in cost per unit fish gain (biological value) than fish meal and fish oil.
  4. Fish have dietary needs and preferences for specific compounds not found in plants, so there is a need for specialized products that supply these compounds and/or add flavor to the diet.
  5. Alternative sources of protein and oil are common commodities used in livestock and companion animal feeds and come from novel byproducts from other industries, underutilized resources, or completely novel products.
  6. Plants and other alternatives contain some compounds (antinutrients) that are detrimental to fish.
  7. Harvest of lower-trophic-level species, such as krill, for fish meal and oil production may be possible, but the environmental benefits afforded to the marine ecosystem from these species should be considered along with the economic and nutritional aspects of their use.
  8. The use of bycatch for production of fish meal and fish oil could provide a substantial amount of these products without increasing the current impact from the wild capture fisheries.
  9. Demand for long-chain omega-3 fatty acids for both direct human consumption and feed ingredients is likely to increase beyond the amounts available from marine resources.
  10. Farmed fish species are being increasingly domesticated and performance is improving through conventional genetic selection and selection for performance on plant-based and/or low-fish meal–based aquafeeds.
  11. Scientific information on the nutritional requirements of farmed fish species, and feed ingredients, and the interaction between the fish and the diet, will need to expand greatly to make substantial improvements in feed formulation by commercial aquaculture feed producers.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Summary of NOAA/USDA Findings on Alternative Feeds for Aquaculture." National Research Council. 2015. Critical Role of Animal Science Research in Food Security and Sustainability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19000.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Summary of NOAA/USDA Findings on Alternative Feeds for Aquaculture." National Research Council. 2015. Critical Role of Animal Science Research in Food Security and Sustainability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19000.
×
Page398
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Summary of NOAA/USDA Findings on Alternative Feeds for Aquaculture." National Research Council. 2015. Critical Role of Animal Science Research in Food Security and Sustainability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19000.
×
Page399
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Summary of NOAA/USDA Findings on Alternative Feeds for Aquaculture." National Research Council. 2015. Critical Role of Animal Science Research in Food Security and Sustainability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19000.
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Page400
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By 2050 the world's population is projected to grow by one-third, reaching between 9 and 10 billion. With globalization and expected growth in global affluence, a substantial increase in per capita meat, dairy, and fish consumption is also anticipated. The demand for calories from animal products will nearly double, highlighting the critical importance of the world's animal agriculture system. Meeting the nutritional needs of this population and its demand for animal products will require a significant investment of resources as well as policy changes that are supportive of agricultural production. Ensuring sustainable agricultural growth will be essential to addressing this global challenge to food security.

Critical Role of Animal Science Research in Food Security and Sustainability identifies areas of research and development, technology, and resource needs for research in the field of animal agriculture, both nationally and internationally. This report assesses the global demand for products of animal origin in 2050 within the framework of ensuring global food security; evaluates how climate change and natural resource constraints may impact the ability to meet future global demand for animal products in sustainable production systems; and identifies factors that may impact the ability of the United States to meet demand for animal products, including the need for trained human capital, product safety and quality, and effective communication and adoption of new knowledge, information, and technologies.

The agricultural sector worldwide faces numerous daunting challenges that will require innovations, new technologies, and new ways of approaching agriculture if the food, feed, and fiber needs of the global population are to be met. The recommendations of Critical Role of Animal Science Research in Food Security and Sustainability will inform a new roadmap for animal science research to meet the challenges of sustainable animal production in the 21st century.

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