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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 1992. Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2008.
×

Index

A

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome, see HIV infection and disease

Acute care facilities, 61

Acyclovir, 99-100

Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, 103, 233-234

Aedes spp., 30, 38, 40, 42, 44, 49, 50, 51, 160, 220, 222

Aeromonas spp., 65, 199-200

Africa,

HIV in, 55

Rift Valley fever outbreak, 71-72

Agency for International Development (AID)

International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, 130-131, 149

overseas laboratories, 126

Program in Worldwide Control of Sexually Transmitted Diseases/HIV, 131

Agriculture, 43-44, 64-65, 86-87

antibiotics use, 64

migrant workers, 29, 80-81

pesticides use, 14, 20, 102, 165

AIDS, see HIV infection and disease

Aircraft, 23

Alexandrium spp., 68

Amblyomma americanum, 206

Anaerobic bacteria, 66

Animals, see Epizootics Zoonoses;

specific types of animals

Anisakiasis, 69-70, 247-248

Anopheles spp., 41

Antimicrobial drugs, see Drugs

Aquaculture, 65

Arboviruses, 44, 45, 76-77, 81

see also Mosquitoes;

specific virus types

Arenaviruses, 46

Arthropods, 13, 44, 45

see also Fleas;

Lice;

Mosquitoes;

Pesticides;

Ticks;

Vector control

Asian tiger mosquito, 30

Aswan Dam, 71

Atherosclerosis, 104-105

Attenuated organisms, 153-154

Avian influenza, 19, 87

AZT, 100

Aztec Indians, 24

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 1992. Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2008.
×

B

Babesiosis, 76, 248-249

Bacillus microbial control agents, 102

Bacteria, 53, 63

genetic changes, 89-92

listing of, 36-37, 199-217 passim

virulence factors, 89-90, 91

see also specific types

Behavioral factors, 1, 14, 48, 67, 167-168

see also Diet;

Drug abuse;

Land use factors;

Sexual behavior;

Travel

Beta-lactam antibiotics, 94

Bilge water, 81, 107

Biological control agents, 165

Biorational pesticides, 165

Biotechnology, 20

attenuated organisms, 153-154

Birds, 30

Black Death, 17

Blood contamination, 59, 60, 78n

Body lice, 112

Borrelia burgdorferi, 28, 72, 76, 200-202

Botulism, 66

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), 64-65, 217-218

Brazilian purpuric fever, 90-92, 208

Bubonic plague, 17, 22

C

Caliciviruses, 46-47

California, vector control in, 162

California serogroup viruses, 218-219

Campylobacter jejuni, 202-203

Candida, 249-250

Catheterization, 59

Cell lines, and virus infection, 82, 84

Cellulitis, 199-200

Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 9, 11, 130, 131, 147-148, 164

Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, 162

Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS), 9, 148

Field Epidemiology Training Program (FETP), 9, 148

Foreign Quarantine Division, 23

Hospital Infections Program, 4, 58, 121

Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP), 153

National Center for Infectious Diseases (NCID), 9, 147

National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (NNISS), 4, 58 , 121-122

National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), 3, 118-120

overseas labs, 126, 262-263

quarantine stations, 22-23

surveillance activities, 5, 118-123, 131, 138-139

vaccine purchase, 153-138

Cervical cancer, 105-106

Ceviche, 69, 107

Chickens, 19

Chikungunya virus, 44, 219-220

Children, vaccination of, 138, 155

China

influenza monitoring, 130

schistosomiasis outbreak, 112

Chlamydia spp., 36, 105, 203-205

Chloroquine, 29, 100-101

Cholera, 68, 107-108, 139, 215-216

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 1992. Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2008.
×

Chronic care facilities, 61-62

Chronic progressive myelopathy, 233-234

Clostridium botulinum, 66

Clostridium difficile, 205

Codex Alimentarius, 68

Codworms, 69, 247-248

Cofactors in disease, microbes as, 102-106

Colonial settlements, 22, 24

Connecticut, Lyme disease outbreak, 73-74

Coordination, see Organizational factors

Costs and cost effectiveness, 15, 138-139, 169

measles immunization, 138, 139

tuberculosis, 96, 97, 169

vector control, 166

Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, 118-119

Cowpox, 24-25

Crack cocaine, 54-55, 56

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, 220-221

Cryptococcus spp., 251-252

Cryptosporidium, 252-253

Culiseta melanura, 30

Cytomegalovirus, 53, 104-105

D

Dairy products, 21, 67

Dams, 71-72

Data bases, 4-5, 123, 125

National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (NNISS), 4, 58 , 121-122

National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), 3, 118- 120

DDT, 20, 165

Deer, 28, 73, 75, 76

Dengue, 30, 44, 49-51, 78, 221-222

Department of Defense (DoD), 151-152

overseas labs, 5, 9-10, 126, 127, 148-149, 261

Diama Dam, 71-72

Diarrheal diseases, 130-131, 239-240

Diet, 69

Disasters, 71

DNA, 84, 88-89

Drought, 64

Drug abuse, 53, 54-56, 104

Drugs, 1, 10, 12, 20, 159-160

agricultural use, 64

antimalarial, 29, 93, 100-101

antiviral, 98-100

and Helicobacter pyroli, 29

and HIV, 100

resistance to, 29, 31-32, 58-59, 64, 92-101, 159-160

see also Acyclovir;

Beta-lactam antibiotics;

Foscarnet;

Methicillin;

Penicillin;

Vancomycin

Duodenal ulcers, 28-29

E

Eastern equine encephalitis, 30

Ebola virus, 83, 222-223

Economic factors, 33

pesticide development, 14, 164-165

vaccine development, 11-12, 152, 153, 154-155

see also Costs and cost effectiveness

Education and training

international coordination, 8-9

professional, 8-10, 140, 144-150 passim

public, 14, 167-168

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 1992. Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2008.
×

Egypt, Rift Valley fever, 71-72

Ehrlichia chaffeensis, 206

Elderly population, 52, 67

Electronic data bases, see Data bases

Endangered species, 13-14, 164

Enteric viruses, 63, 67, 94

Enterococci, 94

Environmental factors, 2, 43

see also Land use factors;

Seasonal factors

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 163-164, 166

Endangered Species Protection Plan, 13-14, 164

Epidemic hemorrhagic fever, 112

Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS), 9, 148

Epidemics, 21, 32

see also specific diseases

Epizootics, 22, 46, 65

plague, 17-18

Erythema infectiosum, 232-233

Erythema migrans, 27, 73, 74

Escherichia coli, 63, 207

Ethiopia, smallpox cases, 25, 117

Europe

Black Death in, 17

harbor seal epizootic, 46

Lyme disease outbreaks, 76

smallpox in, 24

Spanish flu in, 18-19

Extramural grant programs, 9, 147-148

F

Family Health International, Inc., 131

Fecal contamination, 70

and cholera, 107-108

Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering and Technology (FCCSET), Committee on Life Sciences, 3, 5, 120

Federal government, 3, 5

HIV response, 56-57, 168

research and development, 8-10, 144-149

surveillance activities, 3-5, 120-121

and vaccine development, 11-12, 151, 155, 159

see also Centers for Disease Control;

Department of Defense;

Food

and Drug Administration;

Intergovernmental coordination;

National Institutes of Health;

Public Health Service;

Treasury Department

Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), 13, 163

Feedlots, 64

Field Epidemiology Training Program, 9, 148

Filoviruses, 83-84, 222-223

Fish, 65, 69-70, 107-108

Fleas, 16-17

Fluoroquinolones, 93

Fogarty International Center, 5

Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), 68

Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 9, 139, 147-148, 153

Food and food processing, 21, 63-70

Forests and reforestation, 28, 72-73

Foscarnet, 99

Fungi, 64

listing of, 40-41, 249-252

Future of Public Health, 7, 137-138

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 1992. Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2008.
×

G

Gastric carcinoma, 28, 209

Gastritis, 28-29

Gastroenteritis, 239

Genetic changes in microbes, 1, 42-43, 84-92

Genetic engineering, 20

Genital chlamydia, 204-205

Germany, Lyme disease in, 27

Giardia lamblia, 253-254

Global warming, 76-77

Gorgas, Gen. William C., 20

Gorgas Memorial Laboratory, 125, 127, 129

Government, see Federal government;

Intergovernmental coordination;

Regulation;

State government

Grains, 64

Ground squirrels, 16, 17

Guanarito virus, 44, 46

Gymnodinium catenatum, 68

H

Haemophilus influenzae, 92, 208

Hantaviruses, 81-82, 224-225

Helicobacter pylori, 28-29, 209

Helminths, 69-70

listing of, 40-41, 247-259 passim

Hemolytic uremic syndrome, 207

Hemorrhagic colitis, 207

Henson, Jim, 34

Hepatitis, 46-47, 62-63, 88-89, 225-228

Herd immunity, 151

Herpes, 99-100, 104-105, 228-229

see also Cytomegalovirus

Herringworms, 69, 247-248

HIV infection and disease, 27, 55-57, 60, 87-88, 99, 100, 103-104 , 132, 168, 229-231

opportunistic diseases, 52, 53-54

and TB, 31, 53-54, 97

Homosexuality, 55, 56, 168

Hospital Infections Program, 4, 58, 121

Hospitals, 6, 61-62, 122

see also Nosocomial diseases

Human herpesvirus-6, 228-229

Human immunodeficiency virus, see HIV infection and disease

Human papillomavirus, 105-106, 231-232

Human parvovirus, 232-233

Human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLV), 47, 103-104, 233-234

Humidity, 77

Hygiene, see Sanitation and hygiene

I

Immigration, see Migration and immigration

Immunity, 1, 151

see also Immunosuppression;

Vaccination and vaccines;

Variolation

Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP), 153

Immunosuppression, 48, 51-54, 64, 99

Imports, see Trade and trade restrictions

Indians, 24

Industry, see Organizational factors;

Private sector

Infection, definition of, 42

Influenza, 15, 18-19, 46, 86-87, 235-236

surveillance, 123, 124, 130, 132, 158

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 1992. Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2008.
×

Information systems

data bases, 4-5, 123, 125

international networks, 6, 26, 134-136

see also National Electronic Telecommunications System for Surveillance

Infrastructure, see Organizational factors

Insect growth regulators, 165

Insects, see Arthropods;

Fleas;

Lice;

Mosquitoes;

Pesticides;

Ticks;

Vector control

Inspection of food, 68

Insurance companies, patient records, 3, 121

Intergovernmental coordination, 3, 7, 139-140

surveillance activities, 118-121

International Catalogue of Arboviruses, 81

International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, 130-131, 149

International Centers for Tropical Disease Research, 8-9, 129-130 , 146

International Children's Vaccine Initiative, 155

International Clinical Epidemiology Network, 8, 130, 145

International Collaboration in Infectious Disease Research Program, 8-9, 145-146

International commerce, see Aircraft;

Ships;

Trade and trade restrictions;

Travel

International coordination

research and training, 8-10, 33, 143-150 passim

surveillance, 5-7, 32-33, 125-137, 159

International Health Regulations, 132

Intervention systems, 7, 113, 114, 137

see also Behavioral factors;

Drugs;

Education and training;

Media

campaigns;

Organizational factors;

Research and development;

Vaccination

and vaccines;

Vector control

Irradiation of food, 66-67

Ixodes ticks, 33, 41, 74, 75, 160, 201, 248

J

Jamestown Canyon virus, 218-219

Japanese encephalitis virus, 236-237

Jenner, Edward, 24-25

K

Koop, Surgeon General C. Everett, 56

Korean War, 111, 112

L

Laboratories, 140

infected animal colonies, 82-84

international, 6, 26, 133-134, 263-264

overseas U.S. facilities, 5, 9-10, 125-131, 134, 261-263

LaCrosse virus, 160, 218-219

Land use factors, 28, 43-44, 67, 71-73, 76

Lassa fever, 78, 79, 128, 237-238

Legal issues, see Liability claims;

Regulation

Legionnaires' disease, 209-210

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 1992. Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2008.
×

Leishmaniasis, 60, 112

Lentiviruses, 55

Leptospirosis, 112

Leptotrombidium, 112

Liability claims, vaccines, 11, 155

Lice, 112

Licensing, see Regulation

Listeriosis, 64, 211-212

Local programs and factors, 6, 7, 162-163

see also Intergovernmental coordination

Lyme disease, 27-28, 72-76, 200-202

M

Malaria, 20, 29-30, 78, 80-81, 154, 255-257

drug resistant, 29, 100-101

Malariotherapy, 78n

Malathion, 163

Marburg virus, 83, 222-223

Mariculture, 65

Marine animals, 46, 65

Marine Hospital Service, 22

Marmots, 17

Massachusetts, Lyme disease outbreak, 75

Massachusetts Bay Colony, 22

Mather, Cotton, 24

Measles, 138, 238-239

vaccination, 109-110, 138

Media campaigns, 14, 168

Medical devices, and infection, 59, 94

Mefloquine, 101

Meningococcaemia, 92

Methicillin, 94

Mexico

smallpox among Aztecs, 24

Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis in, 161

Mice, 28, 75, 81-82

Microbial pesticides, 165

Microbial traffic, 42-43

Microsporidia, 254-255

Middle America Research Unit (MARU), Canal Zone, 128-129

Middle East, 29-30

Migrant workers, 29, 80-81

Migration and immigration, 69

Military personnel, 17, 29-30, 60, 110-112

Milk, 21

Minority groups, 53, 110

Missionaries, 128

Modified atmosphere packaging, 66

Molecular biology, 144

Mongols, 17

Monkeys, 27, 55, 83

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 119

Mosquitoes, 20-21, 43-44, 51, 102, 166

and dengue, 30, 49, 50

and malaria, 29

and Rift Valley fever, 71-72

Multilateral organizations, see International coordination

Mushrooms, 66

Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 53, 95-97, 212-213

N

National Action Plan to Combat Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis, 121, 139

National Center for Infectious Diseases (NCID), 9, 147

National Cooperative Drug Development Groups (NCDDG), 159

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 1992. Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2008.
×

National Cooperative Vaccine Development Groups (NCVDG), 11, 12, 155

National Electronic Telecommunications System for Surveillance (NETSS), 4, 119

National Health Service Corps (NHSC), 10, 149-150

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), 8- 9, 11, 143-144, 145-146, 151-152

International Centers for Tropical Disease Research, 8-9, 129-130 , 146

International Collaboration in Infectious Disease Research Program, 8-9, 145-146

overseas labs, 126, 129-130, 262

Tropical Disease Research Units, 8-9, 146

National Institutes of Health (NIH), 3, 5, 8, 14, 118-122, 128-129

, 145-147

Middle America Research Unit (MARU), Canal Zone, 128-129

overseas labs, 262

see also National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (NNISS), 4, 58 , 121-122

National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), 3, 118- 120

National Vaccine Program Office, 151, 153

Native Americans, 24

Natural disasters, 71

Naval Medical Research Units, 149, 261

Nematodes, 69 listing of, 247-259 passim

Nephropathia epidemica, 82

New Orleans, La., yellow fever outbreak, 156

New York

Lyme disease outbreak, 75

measles outbreak, 110

New York Medical Society, 21

Nigeria, 42

Nile River Valley, Rift Valley fever in, 71

Norwalk and related agents, 239-240

Nosocomial infections, 57-59, 61-63, 93, 94

surveillance, 4, 62-63, 121-122

Notifiable diseases, 3, 118-121

Nurse-to-patient ratios, 61

Nursing homes, 61-62

O

Opportunistic infections, 52-53

Oral rehydration therapy, 108

Oral vaccines, 153

Organizational factors, 7, 15, 108, 137-142, 151-153, 159-160

interagency coordination, 3, 5

intergovernmental coordination, 3, 7, 139-140

international coordination, 5-7, 8-10, 131, 134-137

private/public coordination, 3, 11-12, 140, 152-160

Organ transplants, 61

P

Packaging of foods, 66

Panama Canal, 20

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 1992. Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2008.
×

Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), 6, 25-26, 264

Papillomaviruses, 105-106, 231-232

Pasteur Institutes, 264

Pasteurization, 21

Paul, John, 132-133

Penicillin, 20, 31-32, 93

Peptic ulcers, 28-29, 209

Persian Gulf War, 29-30, 60, 111, 112

Peru, cholera outbreak, 107, 139

Pesticides, 13-14, 20-21, 163-167

resistance to, 2, 20, 29, 102, 165, 167

Pigs, see Swine

Plague, 16-18, 22

Plasmodium spp., 78n, 100-101, 255-257

Plastic packaging, 66

Pneumocystis carinii, 257-258

Pneumonia, 93-94

Pneumonic plague, 17

Poliomyelitis, 25-26, 133-134

Pontiac fever, 209-210

Population growth and density, 48, 49-50, 67, 77

Ports, 23

Poverty, 31, 33

Prenatal care, 52

Prevention strategies, see Intervention systems

Primates, see Monkeys

Private sector, 144-145, 151-159

see also Organizational factors

Programmed-release biodegradable microspheres, 153

Protozoa, 70, 154

listing of, 40-41, 248-260 passim

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 94-95

Pseudoterranova decipiens, 69

Public Health Service (PHS), 4-5, 22-23, 140-142

National Vaccine Program Office, 151, 153

Purchase guarantees, 11, 12, 155

Puumala virus, 82, 224-225

Pyrethrum, 163

Q

Quarantine, 21-23, 24

Quinine, 100

Quinolones, 93

R

Rabies, 153, 240-241

Ragusa Republic, quarantine, 21-22

Rats, 16, 82

Reagents, and virus infection, 82, 84

Reforestation, see Forests and reforestation

Refugees, 111

Regional programs and factors, 13, 28, 70, 72-73, 162-163

Regulation

of food imports, 68

of pesticides, 13-14, 20-21, 163-166

of vaccines, 11, 152-153, 154

Reporting of diseases, 3, 73, 119-120, 121

Request for proposals (RFP), 8, 146-147

Research and development, 142-144

Federal support, 8-10, 11-12, 144-149, 159

international coordination, 8-9, 33, 143-150 passim

vaccines, 143, 151-159

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 1992. Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2008.
×

Resistance

to drugs, 29, 31-32, 58-59, 64, 92-101, 159-160

to pesticides, 2, 20, 29, 102, 165, 167

Reston virus, 27, 83

Retroviruses, see HIV infection and disease;

Human T-lymphotropic viruses

Revolutionary War, 24

Rickettsiae, 36, 112, 206

Rift Valley fever, 71-72, 242

RNA, 84, 85-88

Rochalimaea quintana, 112

Rockefeller Foundation, 5, 128

International Clinical Epidemiology Network, 8, 130, 145

Rodents, 16, 43, 46, 78

Ross River virus, 243

Rotavirus, 244

S

St. Louis virus, 166

Sand flies, 112

Sanitation and hygiene, 21, 49

and cholera, 107-108

in hospitals, 58

Satellites, communication, 134-135

Schistosomiasis, 112

Scrub typhus, 112, 127

Seals and sea lions, 46

Seasonal factors, 13, 77, 162, 166

Senegal River Basin

Rift Valley fever in, 71-72

Seoul virus, 82, 224-225

Serum banks, 132-133

Sexual behavior, 54-57, 106, 168

Shellfish, 67, 68, 107-108

Ships, 17, 22, 44, 68, 81, 107

Simian hemorrhagic fever, 83

Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), 55

Slaughterhouses, 21

Slave trade, 44

Smallpox, 23-25, 77-78, 116

eradication program, 25, 115-118

South America

cholera outbreak, 107

smallpox introduced in, 24

Spanish flu, 18-19

Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), 100, 143

Staffing shortages, 144

Staphylococci, 59, 66, 93, 94, 213-214

State government, 7, 32, 120

see also Intergovernmental coordination

Stockpiling

of pesticides, 13, 164

of vaccines, 11-12, 156, 158-159

Streptococcal infections, 34-35, 93-94, 214-215

Strongyloides stercoralis, 258-259

Surge capacity, for vaccine production, 11-12, 158-159

Surgery, 59

Surveillance, 2-3, 32-33, 113-123

food-borne diseases, 63-64

influenza, 123, 124, 130, 132, 158

international coordination, 5-7, 32-33, 125-137, 159

nosocomial diseases, 4, 62-63, 121-122

notifiable diseases, 3, 118-121

smallpox, 115-118

telephone hotlines, 3, 121

Sushi, 69

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 1992. Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2008.
×

Swamp drainage, 20

Swine, 19, 46, 87

Syphilis, 54-55, 77, 93

T

Task forces, 121

Telephone hotlines, 3, 121

Texas

St. Louis virus outbreak, 166

Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis outbreak, 161

Ticks, 28, 73, 75-76, 160, 200-202

Tires, 50, 51

Toxic shock syndrome, 213-214

Toxoplasmosis, 259-260

Trade and trade restrictions, 44, 68, 81-84, 107

Training, see Education and training

Transovarial transmission, 160

Transplants of organs, 61

Travel, 77-81

and dengue, 50

and Lyme disease, 74-75

and malaria, 101

and plague, 17

quarantines, 21-23

and smallpox, 24

Treasury Department, 22

Trench fever, 112

Treponema pallidum, 93

Trichinosis, 69

Tropical Disease Research Units, 8-9, 146

Tropical spastic paraparesis, 103, 233-234

Tuberculosis (TB), 15, 21, 30-31, 53-54, 95-97, 138-139, 212-213

drug resistant, 31, 121

TWAR infection, 203-204

Typhus, 112

U

Ulcers, 28-29

United Kingdom

BSE epizootic, 65

harbor seal epizootic, 46

Universal Blood and Body Fluid Precautions, 62

Urban areas, 43-44, 49, 50, 55

Urinary tract infections, 59

U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, 27, 46, 83

U.S. Army Medical Research Units, 127, 261

U.S. government, see Federal government

V

Vaccination and vaccines, 10-12, 20, 150-151

dengue, 50-51

hepatitis, 62-63, 89, 151

HIV, 87, 155

influenza, 87, 150, 151, 157-158

measles, 109-110, 138

regulation of, 11, 152-153, 154

smallpox, 115-118 passim

tuberculosis, 96

Vaccine Development Programme (VDP), 143

Vancomycin, 93, 94

Variolation, 24

Vector control, 12-14, 20-21, 160-163

see also Pesticides

Vectored vaccine, 153-154

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 1992. Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2008.
×

Vectors, see Arthropods;

Pesticides;

Vector control;

specific animals and arthropods

Venereal diseases, see Sexual behavior

Venezuela, 50

Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, 161, 245-246

Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever, 44, 46

Vertebrate reservoirs, see Epizootics;

Zoonoses;

specific types of animals

Vesicular exanthema, 46

Vibrio cholerae, 107-108, 215-216

Vibrio vulnificus, 216-217

Vietnam War, 29, 111, 112

Viral hemorrhagic fever, see Hantaviruses

Virucidal drugs, 98

Viruses, 43-44, 70, 76-77, 81

and atherosclerosis, 104-105

DNA, 88-89

genetic changes, 85-89

listing of, 38-40, 217-247

RNA, 85-88

see also specific types

W

War, 2, 110-112

Water contamination and treatment, 20, 49, 67, 70-71

and cholera, 107-108

Weather, 64

see also Global warming;

Seasonal factors

Weekly Epidemiological Record, 132

Winter, see Seasonal factors

Woodworth, Surgeon General John M., 22

World Health Assembly, 6, 137

World Health Organization (WHO), 5-6, 9, 25, 68

Field Epidemiology Training Program, 9, 148

smallpox eradication program, 115-117

Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), 100, 143

surveillance activities, 132-133, 263-264

Vaccine Development Programme (VDP), 143

see also Pan American Health Organization

World War I, 18-19, 112

World War II, 29, 111, 112

Wound infection, 199-200

Y

Yale Arbovirus Research Unit (YARU), 44, 46, 128

Yeast infection (Candida), 249-250

Yellow fever, 21, 22, 43-44, 156, 246-247

Yersinia pestis, 16-17

Z

Zidovudine, 100

Zoonoses, 43-47, 111

see also Epizootics

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." Institute of Medicine. 1992. Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2008.
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Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States Get This Book
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The emergence of HIV disease and AIDS, the reemergence of tuberculosis, and the increased opportunity for disease spread through international travel demonstrate the critical importance of global vigilance for infectious diseases.

This volume highlights risk factors for the emergence of microbial threats to health, warns against complacency in public health, and promotes early prevention as a cost-effective and crucial strategy for maintaining public health in the United States and worldwide.

The volume identifies infectious disease threats posed by bacteria and viruses, as well as protozoans, helminths, and fungi. Rich in information, it includes a historical perspective on infectious disease, with focuses on Lyme disease, peptic ulcer, malaria, dengue, and recent increases in tuberculosis.

The panel discusses how "new" diseases arise and how "old" ones resurge and considers the roles of human demographics and behavior, technology and industry, economic development and land use, international travel and commerce, microbial adaptation and change, and breakdown of public health measures in changing patterns of infectious disease.

Also included are discussions and recommendations on disease surveillance; vaccine, drug, and pesticide development; vector control; public education and behavioral change; research and training; and strengthening of the U.S. public health system.

This volume will be of immediate interest to scientists specializing in all areas of infectious diseases and microbiology, healthy policy specialists, public health officials, physicians, and medical faculty and students, as well as anyone interested in how their health can be threatened by infectious diseases.

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