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DEVELLOPIN NG A 21ST C CENTURY EURO NE OSCIE ENCEE W WOR RKFOR RCE WORKSH HOP SUMM MARY Sheeena M. Poseey Norris, Ch hristopher Paalmer, Claree Stroud, andd Bruce B M. Alltevogt, Rapp pporteurs Forum on Neurosciencce and Nervous System Disoorders Board B on Heealth Sciencees Policy
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS â¢ 500 Fifth Street, NW â¢ Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The workshop that is the subject of this workshop summary was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This project was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and the Alzheimerâs Association; Brain Canada Foundation; the Department of Health and Human Servicesâ Food and Drug Administration and National Institutes of Health (NIH, Contract No. HHSN26300026 [Under Master Base #DHHS-10001292]) through the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, National Eye Institute, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institute on Aging, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institute on Drug Abuse, and NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research; Department of Veterans Affairs (VA240-14-C-0057); Eli Lilly and Company; Foundation for the National Institutes of Health; the Gatsby Charitable Foundation; GlaxoSmithKline, Inc.; Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, LLC; Lundbeck Research USA; Merck Research Laboratories; The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinsonâs Research; the National Multiple Sclerosis Society; the National Science Foundation (BCS-1064270); One Mind for Research; Orion Bionetworks; Pfizer Inc.; Pharmaceutical Product Development, LLC; Sanofi; the Society for Neuroscience; Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited; and Wellcome Trust. The views presented in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-36874-2 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-36874-X Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. For more information about the Institute of Medicine, visit the IOM home page at: www.iom.edu. Copyright 2015 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The serpent adopted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatliche Museen in Berlin. Suggested citation: IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2015. Developing a 21st century neuroscience workforce: Workshop summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
The National Acadeemy of Sciencces is a privaate, nonprofit, self-perpetuatiing society of distinguish hed scholars en ngaged in scienntific and engin ineering researcch, dedicatted to the furth herance of scieence and technnology and to their use for tthe generall welfare. Uponn the authority of the charter ggranted to it byy the Congresss in 1863, thhe Academy haas a mandate th hat requires it too advise the fedderal governmeent on scieentific and tecchnical matterss. Dr. Ralph JJ. Cicerone is president of tthe Nationaal Academy off Sciences. The National Acadeemy of Engin neering was eestablished in 1964, under tthe charter of the Natio onal Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstan nding engineerss. It is autonomoous in its adminnistration and iin the selectionn of its mem mbers, sharing with w the Nation nal Academy oof Sciences the responsibility ffor advisin ng the federal government. The T National Academy of E Engineering allso sponsorrs engineeringg programs aim med at meetinng national neeeds, encouragges educatiion and researcch, and recogn nizes the superrior achievemeents of engineeers. Dr. C. D. D Mote, Jr., is president of th he National Acaademy of Enginneering. The Institute of Med dicine was estaablished in 19770 by the Natioonal Academy of Sciencees to secure th he services of eminent membbers of approppriate professioons in the examination e of policy matterrs pertaining too the health off the public. T The Institutte acts under th he responsibilitty given to the National Acaddemy of Sciencces by its congressional c charter c to be an n adviser to thee federal goverrnment and, uppon its own n initiative, to identify issuees of medical care, researchh, and educatioon. Dr. Vicctor J. Dzau is president of th he Institute of M Medicine. The National Research Council was w organized by the Natioonal Academy of Sciencees in 1916 to asssociate the brooad communityy of science andd technology w with the Accademyâs purp poses of furth hering knowleddge and adviising the fedeeral governm ment. Function ning in accordaance with geneeral policies deetermined by tthe Academ my, the Counccil has becomee the principall operating ageency of both tthe Nationaal Academy of o Sciences an nd the Nationaal Academy off Engineering in providin ng services to the t governmentt, the public, annd the scientificc and engineeriing commu unities. The Co ouncil is admiinistered jointlyy by both Accademies and tthe Institutee of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone C and DDr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair aand vice chair, respectivelyy, of the Nation nal Research Coouncil. w www.nationall-academies.o org
PLANNING COMMITTEE ON DEFINING THE EXPERTISE NEEDED FOR THE 21ST CENTURY NEUROSCIENCE WORKFORCE1 HUDA AKIL (Co-Chair), University of Michigan STEVIN ZORN (Co-Chair), Lundbeck Research USA NEERAJ AGARWAL, National Eye Institute RICHARD BORN, Harvard Medical School KATJA BROSE, Neuron KARL DEISSEROTH, Stanford University NANCY DESMOND, National Institute of Mental Health SALVATORE ENNA, University of Kansas Medical Center DEAN HARTLEY, Alzheimerâs Association National Office CHYREN HUNTER, National Institute on Aging WALTER KOROSHETZ, National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke RICHARD MOHS, Eli Lilly and Company JOHN MORRISON, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai ATUL PANDE, Tal Medical ARES ROSAKIS, California Institute of Technology SUSAN WEISS, National Institute on Drug Abuse JOHN WILLIAMS, Wellcome Trust JOHN WINGFIELD, National Science Foundation IOM Staff BRUCE M. ALTEVOGT, Project Director CLARE STROUD, Senior Program Officer (since September 2014) DIANA PANKEVICH, Program Officer (until August 2014) SHEENA M. POSEY NORRIS, Associate Program Officer DOUGLAS KANOVSKY, Senior Program Assistant (until October 2014) 1 Institute of Medicine planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the workshop, identifying topics, and choosing speakers. The responsibility for the published workshop summary rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution. v
FORUM ON NEUROSCIENCE AND NERVOUS SYSTEM DISORDERS1 STEVEN HYMAN (Chair), The Broad Institute of Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University STORY LANDIS (Vice Chair), Former Director, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke SUSAN AMARA, Society for Neuroscience MARK BEAR, Massachusetts Institute of Technology STEPHEN BRANNAN, Takeda Pharmaceuticals International, Inc. KATJA BROSE, Cell Press DANIEL BURCH, Pharmaceutical Product Development, LLC SARAH CADDICK, Gatsby Charitable Foundation ROSA CANET-AVILES, Foundation for the National Institutes of Health JANET CARBARY, One Mind for Research MARIA CARRILLO, Alzheimerâs Association C. THOMAS CASKEY, Baylor College of Medicine KAREN CHANDROSS, Sanofi US TIMOTHY COETZEE, National Multiple Sclerosis Society FAY LOMAX COOK, National Science Foundation SARAH DEROSSETT, GlaxoSmithKline WILLIAM DUNN, Food and Drug Administration EMMELINE EDWARDS, National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health MARTHA FARAH, University of Pennsylvania DANIEL GESCHWIND, University of California, Los Angeles HANK GREELY, Stanford University MAGALI HAAS, Orion Bionetworks RICHARD HODES, National Institute on Aging STUART HOFFMAN, Department of Veterans Affairs THOMAS INSEL, National Institute of Mental Health PHILLIP IREDALE, Pfizer Global Research and Development JOHN ISAAC, Wellcome Trust INEZ JABALPURWALA, Brain Canada Foundation DANIEL JAVITT, New York University School of Medicine FRANCES JENSEN, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine 1 Institute of Medicine forums and roundtables do not issue, review, or approve individual documents. The responsibility for the published workshop summary rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution. vii
GEORGE KOOB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism WALTER KOROSHETZ, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke ALAN LESHNER, American Association for the Advancement of Science HUSSEINI MANJI, Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, LLC DAVID MICHELSON, Merck Research Laboratories RICHARD MOHS, Lilly Research Laboratories JAMES OLDS, National Science Foundation ATUL PANDE, Tal Medical STEVEN PAUL, Weill Cornell Medical College TODD SHERER, The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinsonâs Research DAVID SHURTLEFF, National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health PAUL SIEVING, National Eye Institute NORA VOLKOW, National Institute on Drug Abuse DAVID WHOLLEY, Foundation for the National Institutes of Health JOHN WILLIAMS, Wellcome Trust STEVIN ZORN, Lundbeck Research USA IOM Staff BRUCE M. ALTEVOGT, Forum Co-Director CLARE STROUD, Forum Co-Director SHEENA M. POSEY NORRIS, Associate Program Officer ANNALYN M. WELP, Senior Program Assistant ANDREW M. POPE, Director, Board on Health Sciences Policy viii
Reviewers This workshop summary has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Councilâs Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published workshop summary as sound as possible and to ensure that the workshop summary meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this workshop summary: HOWARD FEDEROFF, Georgetown University EVE MARDER, Brandeis University CAROL MASON, Columbia University JULIO RAMIREZ, Davidson College FRANK YOCCA, AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals Although the reviewers listed above have provided many construc- tive comments and suggestions, they did not see the final draft of the workshop summary before its release. The review of this workshop summary was overseen by ENRIQUETA BOND, Burroughs Wellcome Fund. Appointed by the Institute of Medicine, she was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this workshop sum- mary was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the ix
x REVIEWERS final content of this workshop summary rests entirely with the rappor- teurs and the institution.
Contents 1 INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW 1 2 TRAINING NEUROSCIENTISTS IN BASIC RESEARCH, TOOL AND TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT, AND BIG DATA 15 3 IMPROVING TRAINING IN PROTOCOL DESIGN, EXPERIMENTAL RIGOR, AND QUANTITATIVE SKILLS 35 4 TRAINING IN TRANSDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH 43 5 ENHANCING TRAINING TO SUPPORT TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH 57 APPENDIXES A References 69 B Workshop Agenda 73 C Registered Attendees 89 D Participant Biographies 93 xi