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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2015. A Review of the Next Generation Air Transportation System: Implications and Importance of System Architecture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21721.
×

A REVIEW OF THE NEXT GENERATION
AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

Implications and Importance of
System Architecture

David E. Liddle and Lynette I. Millett, Editors

Committee to Review the Enterprise Architecture, Software Development
Approach, and Safety and Human Factor Design of the Next Generation
Air Transportation System

Computer Science and Telecommunications Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
                          OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2015. A Review of the Next Generation Air Transportation System: Implications and Importance of System Architecture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21721.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS     500 Fifth Street, NW     Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This project was supported by the Federal Aviation Administration under award number DTFAWA-12-A-80013. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project.

International Standard Book Number 13: 978-0-309-37178-0
International Standard Book Number 10: 0-309-37178-3

Additional copies of this report are available from:

The National Academies Press
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Washington, DC 20001
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http://www.nap.edu

Copyright 2015 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2015. A Review of the Next Generation Air Transportation System: Implications and Importance of System Architecture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21721.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2015. A Review of the Next Generation Air Transportation System: Implications and Importance of System Architecture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21721.
×

Other Reports of the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board

Bulk Collection of Signals Intelligence: Technical Options, 2015

Future Directions for NSF Advanced Computing Infrastructure to Support U.S. Science and Engineering in 2017-2020: An Interim Report, 2014

At the Nexus of Cybersecurity and Public Policy: Some Basic Concepts and Issues, 2014

Emerging and Readily Available Technologies and National Security: A Framework for Addressing Ethical, Legal, and Societal Issues, 2014

Geotargeted Alerts and Warnings: Report of a Workshop on Current Knowledge and Research Gaps, 2013

Professionalizing the Nation’s Cybersecurity Workforce? Criteria for Future Decision-Making, 2013

Public Response to Alerts and Warnings Using Social Media: Summary of a Workshop on Current Knowledge and Research Gaps, 2013

Continuing Innovation in Information Technology, 2012

Computing Research for Sustainability, 2012

The Safety Challenge and Promise of Automotive Electronics: Insights from Unintended Acceleration, 2012 (with the Board on Energy and Environmental Systems and the Transportation Research Board)

Strategies and Priorities for Information Technology at the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, 2011

The Future of Computing Performance: Game Over or Next Level?, 2011

Wireless Technology Prospects and Policy Options, 2011

Public Response to Alerts and Warnings on Mobile Devices: Summary of a Workshop on Current Knowledge and Research Gaps, 2011

Critical Code: Software Producibility for Defense, 2010

Proceedings of a Workshop on Deterring Cyberattacks: Informing Strategies and Developing Options for U.S. Policy, 2010

Achieving Effective Acquisition of Information Technology in the Department of Defense, 2010

Limited copies of CSTB reports are available free of charge from:
Computer Science and Telecommunications Board
National Research Council
The Keck Center of the National Academies
500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001
(202) 334-2605/cstb@nas.edu
www.cstb.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2015. A Review of the Next Generation Air Transportation System: Implications and Importance of System Architecture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21721.
×

COMMITTEE TO REVIEW THE ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE,
SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT APPROACH, AND SAFETY AND
HUMAN FACTOR DESIGN OF THE
NEXT GENERATION AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

DAVID E. LIDDLE, U.S. Venture Partners, Chair

STEVEN M. BELLOVIN, Columbia University

JOHN-PAUL B. CLARKE, Georgia Institute of Technology

GEORGE L. DONOHUE, George Mason University

R. JOHN HANSMAN, JR., Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MATS P.E. HEIMDAHL, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities

JOHN C. KNIGHT, University of Virginia

LEON J. OSTERWEIL, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

WALKER E. ROYCE, International Business Machines Corporation

GAVRIEL SALVENDY, Purdue University

THOMAS B. SHERIDAN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

ROBERT F. SPROULL, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

JAMES W. STURGES, Independent Consultant, Greer, South Carolina

ELAINE WEYUKER, Independent Consultant, Metuchen, New Jersey

Staff

LYNETTE I. MILLETT, Associate Director and Senior Program Officer, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB)

VIRGINIA BACON TALATI, Program Officer, CSTB

DWAYNE DAY, Senior Program Officer, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board

JON EISENBERG, Director, CSTB

ERIC WHITAKER, Senior Program Assistant (until March 2015)

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2015. A Review of the Next Generation Air Transportation System: Implications and Importance of System Architecture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21721.
×

COMPUTER SCIENCE AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS BOARD

ROBERT F. SPROULL, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Chair

LUIZ ANDRE BARROSO, Google, Inc.

ROBERT F. BRAMMER, Brammer Technology, LLC

EDWARD FRANK, Apple, Inc.

SEYMOUR E. GOODMAN, Georgia Institute of Technology

LAURA HAAS, IBM Corporation

MARK HOROWITZ, Stanford University

FARNAM JAHANIAN, Carnegie Mellon University

MICHAEL KEARNS, University of Pennsylvania

ROBERT KRAUT, Carnegie Mellon University

SUSAN LANDAU, Google, Inc.

PETER LEE, Microsoft Corporation

DAVID E. LIDDLE, US Venture Partners

BARBARA LISKOV, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

FRED B. SCHNEIDER, Cornell University

JOHN STANKOVIC, University of Virginia

JOHN A. SWAINSON, Dell, Inc.

PETER SZOLOVITS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

ERNEST J. WILSON, University of Southern California

KATHERINE YELICK, University of California, Berkeley

Staff

JON EISENBERG, Director

LYNETTE I. MILLETT, Associate Director and Senior Program Officer

VIRGINIA BACON TALATI, Program Officer

SHENAE BRADLEY, Senior Program Assistant

EMILY GRUMBLING, Program Officer

RENEE HAWKINS, Financial and Administrative Manager

HERBERT S. LIN, Chief Scientist, Emeritus

For more information on CSTB,
see its website at http://www.cstb.org, write to CSTB,
National Research Council, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001,
call (202) 334-2605, or e-mail the CSTB at cstb@nas.edu.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2015. A Review of the Next Generation Air Transportation System: Implications and Importance of System Architecture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21721.
×

Preface

The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is an effort begun in 2003 whose goals include improving the capacity, efficiency, and safety of the U.S. air transportation system and also enabling reduction in noise, pollution, and energy use. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and various stakeholders, including equipment providers, airlines, and contractors, are currently implementing both near- and midterm capabilities of this effort.

Section 212 of the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012, Public Law 112-95 (Box 1.1) called for an examination of NextGen’s enterprise architecture and related issues by the National Research Council (NRC). The project that was a result of this call was funded by the FAA. The Committee to Review the Enterprise Architecture, Software Development Approach, and Safety and Human Factor Design of the Next Generation Air Transportation System was formed under the auspices of the NRC’s Computer Science and Telecommunications Board in collaboration with the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board in 2012 to conduct the study. The statement of task for the study committee can be found in Box 1.2.

The committee released a brief interim report in 2014,1 providing a discussion around the challenges of system architecture for software-intensive systems.

_______________

1 National Research Council, Interim Report of a Review of the Next Generation Air Transportation System Enterprise Architecture, Software, Safety, and Human Factors, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2014.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2015. A Review of the Next Generation Air Transportation System: Implications and Importance of System Architecture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21721.
×

For its final report, the committee received a number of briefings on NextGen efforts, particularly as related to the study’s focus on enterprise architecture, software development approach, and safety and human factors. A list of briefers at committee meetings can be found in Appendix B. Subsets of the committee also conducted several informal site visits to gain insight on the system development process and FAA’s technical research. A subset of the committee visited the FAA’s William J. Hughes Technical Center in Atlantic City, New Jersey, and heard briefings on human factors research, test and evaluation processes, and cybersecurity considerations. Several members of the committee also met with experts at Lockheed Martin and Raytheon to learn generally about contractors’ software development practices and to better understand FAA’s approach to and expectations regarding system integration. Additionally, during the committee’s work, MITRE was completing an independent assessment of NextGen at the request of the FAA and provided an overview of its work and process to the committee. The committee appreciates the insights of the individuals at these organizations who participated in those meetings and especially thanks Andy Anderegg, MITRE; Fran Hill, Lockheed Martin; Charles Keegan, Raytheon; and Kaye Jackson, FAA, for helping to facilitate those visits.

As discussed in this report, there have been a number of definitional and terminological challenges encountered in the course of this study. The committee addresses a number of issues, such as a fluid definition of the NextGen project, the comingling of normal modernization efforts with more transformational developments, and an administrative rather than technical architectural standard. Those issues at times temporarily masked deep and critical issues with which the committee had to grapple to reach meaningful findings and recommendations. We are indebted to the staff of the Next Generation Program Office and their FAA colleagues for their patient efforts on behalf of the study committee in striving to clarify these issues.

David E. Liddle, Chair
Committee to Review the Enterprise Architecture, Software Development Approach, and Safety and Human Factor Design of the Next Generation Air Transportation System

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2015. A Review of the Next Generation Air Transportation System: Implications and Importance of System Architecture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21721.
×

Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

ELLA ATKINS, University of Michigan,

ARNOLD BARNETT, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,

RICHARD BERMAN, LICAS,

KARL HEDRICK, University of California, Berkeley,

RICHARD HILLIARD, Independent Consultant,

BUTLER LAMPSON, Microsoft Research,

JOHN LAUBER, Airbus, SAS (retired),

STEVEN LIPNER, Microsoft Corporation (retired),

BARBARA LISKOV, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,

MARK MAIER, Aerospace Corporation,

WILLIAM SCHERLIS, Carnegie Mellon University,

AGAM SINHA, ANS Aviation International,

RAYMOND VALEIKA, Delta Airlines, Inc., and

STEVE WINTER, Raytheon.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2015. A Review of the Next Generation Air Transportation System: Implications and Importance of System Architecture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21721.
×

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Ali Mosleh, University of California, Los Angeles. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2015. A Review of the Next Generation Air Transportation System: Implications and Importance of System Architecture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21721.
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The Next Generation Air Transportation System's (NextGen) goal is the transformation of the U.S. national airspace system through programs and initiatives that could make it possible to shorten routes, navigate better around weather, save time and fuel, reduce delays, and improve capabilities for monitoring and managing of aircraft. A Review of the Next Generation Air Transportation provides an overview of NextGen and examines the technical activities, including human-system design and testing, organizational design, and other safety and human factor aspects of the system, that will be necessary to successfully transition current and planned modernization programs to the future system. This report assesses technical, cost, and schedule risk for the software development that will be necessary to achieve the expected benefits from a highly automated air traffic management system and the implications for ongoing modernization projects. The recommendations of this report will help the Federal Aviation Administration anticipate and respond to the challenges of implementing NextGen.

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