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Strategies to Improve Cardiac Arrest Survival: A Time to Act (2015)

Chapter:C-- Committee Biographies

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Suggested Citation:"C-- Committee Biographies." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Strategies to Improve Cardiac Arrest Survival: A Time to Act. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21723.
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C

Committee Biographies

Robert Graham, M.D. (Chair), currently serves as the director of the Aligning Forces for Quality Program (AF4Q). AF4Q is one of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s major initiatives to improve the quality, efficiency, and equity of the U.S. health care system. There are presently 16 sites throughout the United States participating in the project. AF4Q is based at George Washington University in Washington, DC, where Dr. Graham is also a research professor in the Department of Health Policy, Milken Institute School of Public Health. He has served as executive vice president/CEO of the American Academy of Family Physicians, (AAFP), the head of the Academy’s Foundation, and the administrative officer of the Society of Teachers of Family Medicine (STFM). He has served on the faculty of the Department of Family & Community Medicine at the University of Cincinnati and held the Robert and Myfanwy Smith Endowed Chair from 2005 to 2011. Moreover, Dr. Graham is the former administrator of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) and also worked at the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). He has supported universal coverage, federal health workforce policy, and the organizational characteristics of effective health systems. His current areas of interest are leadership development, organizational change, and improving the effectiveness of the U.S. health care system. He was elected to the Institute of Medicine in 1990.

Mickey Eisenberg, M.D., Ph.D. (Vice-Chair), is medical director of King County, Washington Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and professor of medicine at the University of Washington in Seattle. He has been a researcher and educator in the field of EMS since 1975. In 1978

Suggested Citation:"C-- Committee Biographies." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Strategies to Improve Cardiac Arrest Survival: A Time to Act. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21723.
×

Dr. Eisenberg and his colleagues demonstrated the benefit of emergency medical technician (EMT) defibrillation and in 1983 developed the first dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) program. Both EMT defibrillation and dispatcher-assisted CPR have become national standards in EMS care throughout the United States. Since 1985 he has promoted innovative methods to teach CPR including websites (learncpr.org) and smartphone apps. He has published more than 200 articles on cardiac arrest and resuscitation and has authored a dozen books. Most noteworthy among these are Life in the Balance: Emergency Medicine and the Quest to Reverse Sudden Death, an account of the history of resuscitation, as well as Resuscitate! How Your Community Can Improve Survival from Sudden Cardiac Arrest (2nd edition) and 10 Steps for Improving Survival from Sudden Cardiac Arrest (Apple bookstore). In 2009 he helped found the Resuscitation Academy (resuscitationacademy.org), a training program for medical directors and EMS directors, attended by participants from various parts of the world. He was elected to the Institute of Medicine in 1994.

Dianne Atkins, M.D., is a professor of pediatrics at the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, in the Division of Pediatric Cardiology. She has particular expertise in cardiac electrophysiology. She is involved with diagnostic evaluations, pharmacotherapy, pacer and International Classification of Diseases (ICD) follow-up, as well as optimizing defibrillation techniques and evaluating automated defibrillation for children. She recently established the University of Iowa Children’s Hospital Familial Arrhythmia Clinic to provide information and care to families with inherited cardiac arrhythmia syndromes. Dr. Atkins was previously an investigator on several industry trials evaluating automated external defibrillator (AED) algorithms in children and was also a co-investigator on the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium, a multi-center clinical trial of interventions in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and severe trauma. She currently serves as the chair of the Science Committee of the Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee of the American Heart Association and is a member of the Pediatric Task Force for the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR).

Tom P. Aufderheide, M.D., M.Sc., is a professor of emergency medicine, associate chair of research affairs, and director of the NIH-funded Resuscitation Research Center in the Department of Emergency Medicine

Suggested Citation:"C-- Committee Biographies." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Strategies to Improve Cardiac Arrest Survival: A Time to Act. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21723.
×

at the Medical College of Wisconsin. He is an internationally recognized researcher in the field of emergency cardiac care, whose discoveries and scholarly achievements include pioneering the use of out-of-hospital 12-lead electrocardiography for rapid identification and treatment of the ischemic patient, which now forms the basis for identification of patients with acute myocardial infarction in most urban and rural communities throughout the world. He discovered hemodynamically detrimental effects of many previously common cardiac arrest resuscitation practices, including hyperventilation during CPR, incomplete chest recoil, and variable delivery of CPR quality. He also originated improvement in CPR hemodynamics through the novel use of intrathoracic pressure regulation, doubling the effectiveness of CPR. These discoveries have had a significant effect on the practice of emergency medicine, emergency cardiac care guidelines, and improved outcomes for patients with cardiac arrest and acute cardiac emergencies. He has also been instrumental in developing a system of care approach in communities as part of the Take Heart American initiative, whose mission is to improve survival from sudden cardiac arrest. He is currently the president of the Citizen CPR Foundation and former chair of the Emergency Cardiac Care committee of the American Heart Association. He has been an Institute of Medicine member since 2009.

Lance B. Becker, M.D., is a professor of emergency medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. He has founded two resuscitation research centers at major universities and currently is the director of Penn’s Center for Resuscitation Science, a multidisciplinary team focused on improving survival from sudden death. He has research interests that are translational; extending across the basic science laboratory into animal models of resuscitation and to human therapies. He is board certified in internal medicine, emergency medicine, and critical care medicine. He has been an international thought leader in the field of resuscitation for more than 25 years, working to improve the quality of CPR, pioneer advances in the use of AEDs and therapeutic hypothermia, and develop the “three phase” phase model for cardiac arrest care. He has worked closely with the American Heart Association in emphasizing the importance of a “systems of care” approach to improving survival within communities. He is also an active basic science researcher with a particular interest in the role of mitochondria in “life-versus-death decision making” for cells and tissues exposed to and recovering from ischemia. His cellular studies have helped define reperfusion injury mechanisms,

Suggested Citation:"C-- Committee Biographies." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Strategies to Improve Cardiac Arrest Survival: A Time to Act. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21723.
×

mitochondrial oxidant generation, free radical responses to ischemia, cellular signaling pathways, new cellular cytoprotective strategies, and hypothermia protection. Additional new studies are ongoing on the importance of mitochondria medicine, development of novel human coolants, emergency cardiopulmonary bypass, and combined anti-reperfusion injury drugs for recovery after prolonged ischemia. He has been an Institute of Medicine member since 2006.

Bentley J. Bobrow, M.D., is professor of emergency medicine at the University of Arizona College of Medicine—Phoenix Campus and practices emergency medicine at Maricopa Medical Center in Phoenix, Arizona. His focus is on improving outcomes of time-sensitive emergency medical conditions such as out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and traumatic brain injury. He has partnered with public health officials, EMS agencies, municipal fire departments, hospitals, university researchers, and the public to develop a statewide reporting and educational network for responding to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. This system of care has resulted in a significant increase in the rates of bystander CPR and a tripling of survival from sudden cardiac arrest in Arizona (www.azshare.gov). Dr. Bobrow is a past chair of the American Heart Association Basic Life Support Subcommittee and the medical director for the Bureau of Emergency Medical Services and Trauma System at the Arizona Department of Health Services. He is the principal investigator for the HeartRescue Program—Arizona, director of the Maricopa Integrated Health Services (MIHS) Resuscitation Science Center, and the chair of the MIHS In-hospital Resuscitation Committee. He is an advisory board member for the Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival (CARES) Program, a member of the Arizona Emergency Medicine Research Center, the Sarver Heart Center at the University of Arizona, and co-investigator for the NIH-funded R01 EPIC Prehospital Traumatic Brain Injury Study. Dr. Bobrow is medical director of a Clinton Global Health Initiative to implement and measure telephone-CPR across the United States and in 11 countries in Asia.

Nisha Chandra-Strobos, M.D., currently serves as the chief of cardiology at the Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, where she specializes in cardiac critical care. She completed her residency and fellowship in cardiology at Johns Hopkins and was promoted to full professor in 1996. Dr. Chandra-Strobos has more than 30 years of experience in bench and clinical CPR research. Her interests include women’s health, cost-

Suggested Citation:"C-- Committee Biographies." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Strategies to Improve Cardiac Arrest Survival: A Time to Act. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21723.
×

effective health care delivery, difficult second opinion patients, premature coronary artery disease (CAD) treatment and diagnosis, and pregnancy with heart disease. An acclaimed teacher and master clinician, Dr. Chandra-Strobos became an inaugural member of the Miller-Coulson Academy of Clinical Excellence in 2009. She was previously a chair of the American Heart Association’s National Basic Life Support SubCommittee and remains active in the organization. She has published more than 230 peer-reviewed chapters, papers, and abstracts.

Marina Del Rios, M.D., M.Sc., is an assistant professor, health disparities research coordinator, and assistant director of emergency ultrasound at the University of Illinois at Chicago. She is a member of the steering committee and physician leader in the Illinois Heart Rescue Project, a state-wide quality assessment and improvement project tasked with more than doubling neurologically intact survival of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims in Illinois. She has extensive experience with community engagement and CPR education as well as research related to both hypertension and the cardiovascular-associated risks of high-risk populations. Dr. Del Rios has planned and executed large-scale CPR trainings for the Chicago Cubs and Chicago Fire as well as the Illinois State Fair. Additionally, she uses a mixed methods approach including epidemiological and community-based participatory research to identify and address regional population needs. Dr. Del Rios has dedicated her professional life to identifying and addressing health disparities found in low-income, minority, and immigrant populations.

Al Hallstrom, Ph.D., is professor emeritus of biostatistics at the University of Washington. Dr. Hallstrom was the director of the University of Washington Clinical Trials Center, where he directed the statistical aspects of many clinical trials including CAST (Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial), ASPIRE (AutoPulse Assisted Prehopsital International Resuscitation Trial), and DAVID (Dual Chamber and VVI Implantable Defibrillator Trial). He has a long record of investigations in cardiovascular medicine, including both chronic and emergency services applications. Dr. Hallstrom has published more than 200 papers, many of which are very widely cited in the field. He previously directed the University of Washington Coordinating Center for ROC (Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium) and is a fellow of the American Heart Association.

Suggested Citation:"C-- Committee Biographies." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Strategies to Improve Cardiac Arrest Survival: A Time to Act. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21723.
×

Daniel B. Kramer, M.D., M.P.H., is a cardiac electrophysiologist at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and research scientist at the Institute for Aging Research, both at Harvard Medical School, where he is an assistant professor in medicine. Dr. Kramer graduated from Brown University with an A.B. in philosophy before receiving his M.D. and M.P.H. from Harvard, and he completed training in internal medicine at Massachusetts General Hospital prior to fellowships in cardiology and cardiacelectrophysiology at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center as well as the Medical Device Fellowship at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) Center for Devices and Radiologic Health. Dr. Kramer’s research encompasses clinical outcomes, healthy policy, and ethical problems arising from the use of cardiac devices, particularly implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs). Dr. Kramer has served on the Heart Rhythm Society task force, which developed consensus guidelines for managing cardiac devices at the end of life, as well as the National Cardiovascular Data Registry task force evaluating strategies for improving post-market device surveillance. Recent work, funded by NIH, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), and Pew Charitable Trusts Medical Device Initiative, includes approaches to medical device regulation, risk stratification for recipients of ICDs, and qualitative research evaluating the views of patients, physicians, and nurses on the ethics and clinical aspects of ICD deactivation. Dr. Kramer’s current research is supported by the Paul B. Beeson Scholars program and includes projects evaluating patient-centered outcomes following ICD implantation as well comparative approaches to pre- and post-market device evaluation.

Roger J. Lewis, M.D., Ph.D., is currently a professor at the David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), and the chair of the Department of Emergency Medicine at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center. His academic interests focus on clinical research methodology, including adaptive and Bayesian trial design; translational, clinical, health services and outcomes research; interim data analysis; data monitoring committees; and informed consent in emergency research studies. Dr. Lewis has served as the research methodologist for many laboratory, clinical, and health services research studies, including multiple NIH-supported investigations of resuscitation strategies, and has authored or co-authored more than 200 original research publications, reviews, editorials, and chapters. Dr. Lewis has served as a grant reviewer for numerous federal and foreign public

Suggested Citation:"C-- Committee Biographies." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Strategies to Improve Cardiac Arrest Survival: A Time to Act. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21723.
×

agencies and is a member of the Medicare Evidence Development & Coverage Advisory Committee of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. He is a past president of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) and currently a member of the Board of Directors for the Society for Clinical Trials. Dr. Lewis has been an Institute of Medicine member since 2009.

David Markenson, M.D., FAAP, EMT-P, is a board-certified pediatrician with fellowship training in both pediatric emergency medicine and pediatric critical care. He is the chief medical officer for Sky Ridge Medical Center, a HealthOne facility in Colorado, as well as chair of the American Red Cross Scientific Advisory Council. Dr. Markenson previously served as the medical director of Disaster Medicine and Regional Emergency Services at the Westchester Medical Center and Maria Fareri Children’s Hospital. He has directed development of national guidelines for emergency preparedness for both children and persons with disabilities. He has authored or co-authored more than 50 peer-reviewed articles and 2 text books (Pediatric Prehospital Care and Healthcare Emergency Preparedness); served as deputy editor for Basic Disaster Life Support; and led more than 30 research grants in the areas of pediatric emergency medicine, resuscitation, health care provider education, and disaster medicine. Additionally, Dr. Markenson has served as an advisor to multiple governmental activities and agencies, including the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) National Advisory Council.

Raina M. Merchant, M.D., M.S.H.P., is an assistant professor of emergency medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and has a secondary appointment in the Department of Internal Medicine. She is also the director of the University of Pennsylvania Social Media and Health Innovation Lab. She attended Yale University for her undergraduate degree, University of Chicago for Medical School, and the University of Pennsylvania for an M.S.H.P. and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Clinical Scholars Program. Her research interests are in diffusion of innovation, social media, public health, and resuscitation science. Her work involves development and testing of health-related mobile apps, and she has conducted several projects evaluating health communication on social/mobile media sites such as Facebook, Twitter, Yelp, Foursquare, and others. Much of her work bridges new technologies in the field of cardiovascular health. In this context, she is the director of the MyHeartMap Challenge—a social media and crowdsourcing project

Suggested Citation:"C-- Committee Biographies." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Strategies to Improve Cardiac Arrest Survival: A Time to Act. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21723.
×

aimed at improving AED access and awareness by engaging the public to serve as citizen scientists. She has received numerous awards for her work in social media and crowdsourcing. Dr. Merchant was recently recognized by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation as 1 of 10 young investigators likely to have a significant impact on the future of health and health care in the United States.

Robert J. Myerburg, M.D., is professor of medicine and physiology and has been a distinguished member of the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine faculty for more than 35 years. Dr. Myerburg served as director of the Division of Cardiology for 31 years and holds the American Heart Association Chair in Cardiovascular Research. Dr. Myerburg earned his medical degree from the University of Maryland, where he also completed his internship. He was a resident in internal medicine at Tulane University and a cardiology fellow at Emory University/ Grady Memorial. He was a research fellow in the Department of Pharmacology at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons. Dr. Myerburg has served as principal investigator on multiple NIH grants on the mechanisms and clinical profiles of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. From 2005 to 2012, he was the principal investigator (PI) for the University of Miami site of a multi-PI international consortium on sudden cardiac death funded by the Leducq Foundation, and he currently directs the Cardiovascular Genetics and Athlete Heart Disease Clinic of the Division of Cardiology at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine. Dr. Myerburg lectures on sudden cardiac death and arrhythmias, and has a special interest in heart disease in adolescents and athletes. He has served as president of the Association of University Cardiologists, the Association of Professors of Cardiology, and the Association of Subspecialty Professors, and he received an honorary doctorate degree (honoris causa) from Oulu University in Finland in 2009.

Brahmajee K. Nallamothu, M.D., M.P.H., is an associate professor in the Division of Cardiovascular Diseases and the Department of Internal Medicine at the University of Michigan and at the Ann Arbor Veterans Affairs Medical Center. He received his M.D. from Wayne State University in 1995, and he completed his residency in internal medicine and fellowship in general and interventional cardiology at the University of Michigan. He has completed research training through a fellowship sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), and subsequently an NIH-funded K12 grant focusing on dissemination of

Suggested Citation:"C-- Committee Biographies." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Strategies to Improve Cardiac Arrest Survival: A Time to Act. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21723.
×

specialized cardiac technologies and services. Dr. Nallamothu holds an M.P.H. in health management and policy. His research focus has been on improving the delivery and quality of specialized cardiovascular procedures through population-based approaches. His contributions include (1) examining the quality and appropriateness of percutaneous coronary intervention (i.e., stenting) in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and (2) care of hospitalized patients with cardiac arrests.

Robin P. Newhouse, Ph.D., RN, NEA-BC, FAAN, is professor and chair of the Department of Organizational Systems and Adult Health at the University of Maryland School of Nursing (UMSON) and is director of the Center for Health Outcomes Research. Her most recent studies have focused on improving the adoption of evidence-based practices in health systems. She has published extensively on issues related to health services improvements, strategies to address quality issues in acute care services, and evidence-based practice. Dr. Newhouse was appointed to the Methodology Committee of the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) by the Comptroller General of the U.S. Government Accountability Office, and now serves as chair. She was also appointed to the Institute of Medicine Standing Committee on Credentialing Research in Nursing (2012-2014), serves on the American Nurses Credentialing Center’s (ANCC’s) Research Council, and is the immediate past chair of the Research and Scholarship Advisory Council for Sigma Theta Tau International (2009-2013). Dr. Newhouse holds a Ph.D. and an M.S. from UMSON; an M.G.A. from the University of Maryland University College; and a B.S.N. from the University of Maryland Baltimore County.

Ralph L. Sacco, M.D., M.S., FAHA, FAAN, is the chairman of neurology; Olemberg Family Chair in Neurological Disorders; Miller Professor of Neurology, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences, Human Genetics, and Neurosurgery; executive director of the Evelyn McKnight Brain Institute at the Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami; and chief of the neurology service at Jackson Memorial Hospital. A graduate of Cornell University in bio-electrical engineering and a cum laude graduate of Boston University School of Medicine, he also holds an M.S. in epidemiology from the Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health. Dr. Sacco completed his neurology residency training and postdoctoral training in stroke and epidemiology at Columbia Presbyterian in New York. He was previously professor of neurology, chief of stroke

Suggested Citation:"C-- Committee Biographies." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Strategies to Improve Cardiac Arrest Survival: A Time to Act. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21723.
×

and critical care division, and associate chairman at Columbia University before taking his current position as chairman of neurology at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine. He is the PI of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)-funded Northern Manhattan Study, the Florida Puerto Rico Collaboration to Reduce Stroke Disparities, and the Family Study of Stroke Risk and Carotid Atherosclerosis, as well as co-investigator of multiple other NIH grants. He has also been the co-chair of international stroke treatment and prevention trials. Dr. Sacco has published extensively with more than 425 peer-reviewed articles and 102 invited articles in the areas of stroke prevention, treatment, epidemiology, risk factors, vascular cognitive impairment, human genetics, and stroke recurrence. His research has also addressed stroke and vascular disparities. He has been the recipient of numerous awards, including the Feinberg Award of Excellence in Clinical Stroke, the Chairman’s Award from the American Heart Association, and the NINDS Javits Award in Neuroscience. He has lectured extensively at national and international meetings. Dr. Sacco is a fellow of both the Stroke and Epidemiology Councils of the American Heart Association, the American Academy of Neurology, and the American Neurological Association, and he currently serves as vice president of the American Academy of Neurology. He is also a member of the American Association of Physicians. He was the first neurologist to serve as the president of the American Heart Association (2010-2011) and he is the current co-chair of the American Heart Association’s International Committee. Dr. Sacco has been a member of the World Stroke Organization since 2008. He currently chairs the Research Committee (2012-2016) and is on the Board of Directors (2012-2016).

Arthur B. Sanders, M.D., is a professor in the Department of Emergency Medicine at the University of Arizona, as well as a member of the Arizona Emergency Medicine Research Center and the University of Arizona Sarver Heart Center. He has been involved in resuscitation research, in both experimental models as well as clinical research, for more than 30 years. Dr. Sanders’s academic accomplishments have focused on improving cardiac arrest survival, improving geriatric emergency care, understanding the ethical issues involved in emergency medicine, and educating students, physicians, and other health care professionals. His cardiac arrest research has led to a better understanding of cardiopulmonary resuscitation resulting in new protocols for assessment and treatment of patients. His work in geriatric emergency medicine has resulted

Suggested Citation:"C-- Committee Biographies." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Strategies to Improve Cardiac Arrest Survival: A Time to Act. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21723.
×

in a better understanding of the special needs of elder patients who seek emergency medical care. He has been an Institute of Medicine member since 2012.

Clyde W. Yancy, M.D., is a cardiologist and clinician-investigator at Northwestern Memorial Hospital and Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, where he is both chief of the Division of Cardiology and the Magerstadt Professor of Medicine and Professor of Medical Social Sciences. He is a fellow of the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association (AHA) and is a master of the American College of Physicians. His academic and professional interests include hypertension, heart failure, heart transplantation, and ethnic and racial disparities in cardiovascular disease. He has participated in more than 30 multi-center clinical research studies. He has authored or co-authored more than 300 contributions to the medical literature and has received numerous “best doctor” and teaching awards. Among his many honors, are the AHA’s national “Physician of the Year” award and the AHA Distinguished National Leadership Award. He is associate editor for the Journal of the American College of Cardiology and a member of the editorial board of the journal Circulation. He currently serves as chairperson of the American College of Cardiology/AHA Guideline Writing Committee for Heart Failure. Dr. Yancy is the current chair of FDA’s Circulatory Devices Panel and a member of the Methodology Committee for the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute. He is a former president of the AHA and continues to serve as a volunteer and a national spokesperson.

Suggested Citation:"C-- Committee Biographies." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Strategies to Improve Cardiac Arrest Survival: A Time to Act. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21723.
×

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Cardiac arrest can strike a seemingly healthy individual of any age, race, ethnicity, or gender at any time in any location, often without warning. Cardiac arrest is the third leading cause of death in the United States, following cancer and heart disease. Four out of five cardiac arrests occur in the home, and more than 90 percent of individuals with cardiac arrest die before reaching the hospital. First and foremost, cardiac arrest treatment is a community issue - local resources and personnel must provide appropriate, high-quality care to save the life of a community member. Time between onset of arrest and provision of care is fundamental, and shortening this time is one of the best ways to reduce the risk of death and disability from cardiac arrest. Specific actions can be implemented now to decrease this time, and recent advances in science could lead to new discoveries in the causes of, and treatments for, cardiac arrest. However, specific barriers must first be addressed.

Strategies to Improve Cardiac Arrest Survival examines the complete system of response to cardiac arrest in the United States and identifies opportunities within existing and new treatments, strategies, and research that promise to improve the survival and recovery of patients. The recommendations of Strategies to Improve Cardiac Arrest Survival provide high-priority actions to advance the field as a whole. This report will help citizens, government agencies, and private industry to improve health outcomes from sudden cardiac arrest across the United States.

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