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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Handbook of Frequency Allocations and Spectrum Protection for Scientific Uses: Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21774.
×

HANDBOOK OF FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS
AND SPECTRUM PROTECTION
FOR SCIENTIFIC USES

Second Edition

Panel on Frequency Allocations and
Spectrum Protection for Scientific Uses

Committee on Radio Frequencies
Board on Physics and Astronomy
Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

images

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Handbook of Frequency Allocations and Spectrum Protection for Scientific Uses: Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21774.
×

This activity was supported by Grant No. AST-1446651 from the National Science Foundation and Contract No. NNH10CD04B, TO#11 from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-37659-4
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-37659-9
DOI: 10.17226/21774

Additional copies of this report are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2015 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Handbook of Frequency Allocations and Spectrum Protection for Scientific Uses: Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Handbook of Frequency Allocations and Spectrum Protection for Scientific Uses: Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21774.
×

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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president.

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The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine.

Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Handbook of Frequency Allocations and Spectrum Protection for Scientific Uses: Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21774.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Handbook of Frequency Allocations and Spectrum Protection for Scientific Uses: Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21774.
×

PANEL ON FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND SPECTRUM PROTECTION FOR SCIENTIFIC USES: SECOND EDITION

JASMEET JUDGE, University of Florida, Chair

LIESE VAN ZEE, Indiana University, Vice Chair

WILLIAM J. BLACKWELL, MIT Lincoln Laboratory

MICHAEL DAVIS, SETI Institute (retired)

DARREL EMERSON, National Radio Astronomy Observatory (retired)

TODD GAIER, Jet Propulsion Laboratory

KENNETH JEZEK, The Ohio State University

KENNETH I. KELLERMANN, National Radio Astronomy Observatory

DAVID LE VINE, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

AMY LOVELL, Agnes Scott College

TIMOTHY J. PEARSON, California Institute of Technology

PAUL SIQUEIRA, University of Massachusetts-Amherst

GREGORY B. TAYLOR, University of New Mexico

THOMAS L. WILSON, Naval Research Laboratory

Staff

JAMES C. LANCASTER, Director

DAVID B. LANG, Senior Program Officer

NEERAJ P. GORKHALY, Research Associate

LINDA WALKER, Program Coordinator

BETH DOLAN, Financial Associate

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Handbook of Frequency Allocations and Spectrum Protection for Scientific Uses: Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21774.
×

COMMITTEE ON RADIO FREQUENCIES

JASMEET JUDGE, University of Florida, Chair

LIESE VAN ZEE, Indiana University, Vice Chair

WILLIAM J. BLACKWELL, MIT Lincoln Laboratory

TODD GAIER, Jet Propulsion Laboratory

KENNETH JEZEK, The Ohio State University

KENNETH I. KELLERMANN, National Radio Astronomy Observatory

DAVID LE VINE, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

AMY LOVELL, Agnes Scott College

TIMOTHY J. PEARSON, California Institute of Technology

PAUL SIQUEIRA, University of Massachusetts-Amherst

GREGORY B. TAYLOR, University of New Mexico

THOMAS L. WILSON, Naval Research Laboratory

Consultants

PAUL FELDMAN, Esq., Fletcher, Heald and Hildreth

MICHAEL DAVIS, SETI Institute (retired)

DARREL EMERSON, National Radio Astronomy Observatory (retired)

Staff

JAMES C. LANCASTER, Director

DON SHAPERO, Senior Scholar

DAVID B. LANG, Senior Program Officer

NEERAJ P. GORKHALY, Research Associate

LINDA WALKER, Program Coordinator

BETH DOLAN, Financial Associate

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Handbook of Frequency Allocations and Spectrum Protection for Scientific Uses: Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21774.
×

BOARD ON PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY

MICHAEL S. WITHERELL, University of California, Santa Barbara, Chair

CHARLES L. BENNETT, Johns Hopkins University, Vice Chair

RICCARDO BETTI, University of Rochester

TODD DITMIRE, University of Texas, Austin

NATHANIEL J. FISCH, Princeton University

PAUL FLEURY, Yale University

GERALD GABRIELSE, Harvard University

JACQUELINE N. HEWITT, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

BARBARA V. JACAK, Stony Brook University

BARBARA JONES, IBM Almaden Research Center

HERBERT LEVINE, Rice University

ABRAHAM (AVI) LOEB, Harvard University

MONICA OLVERA DE LA CRUZ, Northwestern University

PAUL SCHECHTER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Staff

JAMES C. LANCASTER, Director

DAVID B. LANG, Senior Program Officer

NEERAJ P. GORKHALY, Research Associate

LINDA WALKER, Program Coordinator

BETH DOLAN, Financial Associate

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Handbook of Frequency Allocations and Spectrum Protection for Scientific Uses: Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21774.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Handbook of Frequency Allocations and Spectrum Protection for Scientific Uses: Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21774.
×

Preface

This handbook was developed by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Panel on Frequency Allocations and Spectrum Protection for Scientific Uses, a panel whose membership was drawn predominantly from the Committee on Radio Frequencies (CORF). The committee was given the following task:

An ad hoc committee under the auspices of the National Research Council will prepare the second edition of the 2007 NRC report, “Handbook of Frequency Allocations and Spectrum Protection for Scientific Uses.” The report will describe the radio frequency bands used by the scientific services, primarily the passive radio astronomy and Earth remote-sensing services. The report will include relevant regulatory information and a discussion of the scientific use of frequency bands. It will serve as a reference or handbook, guiding spectrum managers and spectrum regulatory bodies on science issues, serving as a resource to scientists on spectrum regulation for research, and providing information to other spectrum users on the concerns of the scientific users of the spectrum. It will not contain any recommendations.

The volume sets forth the principles for the allocation and protection of spectral bands for services using the radio spectrum for scientific research. The purposes of the handbook are as follows:

  • To document the panel’s positions on spectrum issues,
  • To guide spectrum managers and spectrum regulatory bodies on science issues,
  • To serve as a resource for scientists on spectrum regulation for research, and
  • To provide information to other spectrum users on the concerns of the scientific users of the spectrum.

Among the resources used to prepare this handbook were the following: the Handbook on Radio Astronomy by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU);1 the “Redbook” of the National

_____________

1 International Telecommunication Union, Handbook on Radio Astronomy, 3rd edition, Geneva, Switzerland, 2013.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Handbook of Frequency Allocations and Spectrum Protection for Scientific Uses: Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21774.
×

Telecommunications and Information Administration2 (NTIA) (please note that the NTIA Redbook is a dynamic document; it is suggested that readers check the NTIA Web site, listed below, for the latest allocations and regulations); the Table of Frequency Allocations published by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC)3; Spectrum Management for Science in the 21st Century4; and the handbooks for radio astronomy and frequency management from the European Science Foundation’s Committee on Radio Astronomy Frequencies (CRAF). Because radio-frequency regulations, regulatory footnotes, and frequency allocations are subject to change, readers are advised to check the ITU, NTIA, and FCC websites, listed below, for the latest information.

Further information on frequency management for scientific uses can be found at the following websites:

_____________

2 National Telecommunications and Information Administration, Manual of Regulations and Procedures for Federal Radio Frequency Management (Redbook), May 2013 edition, revised May 2014, available at http://www.ntia.doc.gov/osmhome/redbook/redbook.html.

3 Federal Communications Commission, Table of Frequency Allocations, May 15, 2015, available at https://www.fcc.gov/oet/spectrum/table/fcctable.pdf.

4 National Research Council, Spectrum Management for Science in the 21st Century, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2010.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Handbook of Frequency Allocations and Spectrum Protection for Scientific Uses: Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21774.
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Acknowledgments

This handbook grew out of materials presented and ideas expressed in the first edition of this report, Handbook of Frequency Allocations and Spectrum Protection for Scientific Uses.1

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Tomas E. Gergely, National Science Foundation,

Michael Marcus, Marcus Spectrum,

James M. Moran, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics,

Jeffrey Piepmeier, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, and

Charles Wende, NASA Headquarters.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Martha P. Haynes, Cornell University, who was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

_____________

1 National Research Council, Handbook of Frequency Allocations and Spectrum Protection for Scientific Uses, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2007.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Handbook of Frequency Allocations and Spectrum Protection for Scientific Uses: Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21774.
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The panel thanks the past members of the Committee on Radio Frequencies and the authors of and contributors to the previous edition for their contributions to this effort. The panel also thanks Mangala Sharma, Sandra Cruz-Pol, and Glen Langston of the National Science Foundation; Thomas von Deak and John Zuzek of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration; and Tomas Gergely, whose knowledge and support were essential resources. In addition, the panel thanks the following members of the larger scientific community for their contributions to the handbook: J. Labelle, Dartmouth College; S. A. Cummer, Duke University; A. Weatherwax, Merrimack College; P.J. Erickson, F.D. Lind, and J. Vierinen, MIT Haystack Observatory; A. Komjathy and R. Jarnot, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory; P. Bernhardt, Naval Research Laboratory; M. Durand, Ohio State University; J. Mathews, Pennsylvania State University; S. Close, Stanford University; S. Palo, University of Colorado, Boulder; T. Pavelsky, University of North Carolina; and J. Sahr, University of Washington.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Handbook of Frequency Allocations and Spectrum Protection for Scientific Uses: Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21774.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Handbook of Frequency Allocations and Spectrum Protection for Scientific Uses: Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21774.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Handbook of Frequency Allocations and Spectrum Protection for Scientific Uses: Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21774.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Handbook of Frequency Allocations and Spectrum Protection for Scientific Uses: Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21774.
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The electromagnetic spectrum is a vital part of our environment. Measures of radio frequency emissions from natural phenomena enable both practical applications, such as weather predictions and studies of the changing of Earth's climate here at home, and reveal the physical properties of cosmic sources. The spectrum is therefore a resource to be used wisely now and to be protected for future generations.

Handbook of Frequency Allocations and Spectrum Protection for Scientific Uses: Second Edition sets forth the principles for the allocation and protection of spectral bands for services using the radio spectrum for scientific research. This report describes the radio frequency bands used by scientific services and includes relevant regulatory information and discussion of scientific use of frequency bands. This reference will guide spectrum managers and spectrum regulatory bodies on science issues and serve as a resource to scientists and other spectrum users.

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