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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Education." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. A Guide to Building and Retaining Workforce Capacity for the Railroad Industry. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21904.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Education." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. A Guide to Building and Retaining Workforce Capacity for the Railroad Industry. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21904.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Education." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. A Guide to Building and Retaining Workforce Capacity for the Railroad Industry. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21904.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Education." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. A Guide to Building and Retaining Workforce Capacity for the Railroad Industry. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21904.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Education." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. A Guide to Building and Retaining Workforce Capacity for the Railroad Industry. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21904.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Education." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. A Guide to Building and Retaining Workforce Capacity for the Railroad Industry. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21904.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Education." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. A Guide to Building and Retaining Workforce Capacity for the Railroad Industry. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21904.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Education." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. A Guide to Building and Retaining Workforce Capacity for the Railroad Industry. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21904.
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157 C H A P T E R 5 When looking at recruitment issues in the railroad industry, it is imperative to examine edu- cation as a key factor in building and maintaining a skilled workforce. A review of the literature indicates that most education in rail-related topics begins at the university level (Lautala, 2007). Currently education in the United States for engineering students interested in the field of trans- portation is mostly concentrated on the highway sector, demonstrating the recent focus the country has placed on traffic safety and constructing new roads (Sunderland and Harrington- Hughes, 2011). Since 1960, education in the United States has shied away from the railroads, which has resulted in workers who are not ready to face the changes needed to deal with new, higher tech railroad technology and engineering. The following sections highlight railroad edu- cational opportunities. Rail-Related Education in the United States Literature Review Early Education A comprehensive review of the literature reveals that little is currently being done to educate children in an elementary school setting about the railroad and related industry employment. However, research indicates that young children need to be exposed to the railroads as a possible career option early on and that existing programs at the community college and university level may be too late to pique students’ interest (Reinarch and Viale, 2007). Ways to successfully introduce the railroad to young students can be gleaned from looking at programs for science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) and competitive programs, such as 1st Robotics. These programs have been introduced to educate students and provide them with the knowledge, skills, and abilities to work in a highly technological world, as well as give them the forum to apply STEM concepts to real-life technological problems. The hope for the students who participate in these programs is that they eventually will contribute to the suc- cess of the U.S. workforce, improve the country’s economy, and keep the United States success- ful and relevant in science, research, and technology among the other world powers (Chairman’s Staff, Joint Economic Committee, 2012). The National Science Foundation and other government agencies, universities, and research institutions have handsomely invested in STEM because they believe that education in and expo- sure to these fields will lead to participants successfully joining these workforces (Dorsen et al., 2006). As these programs continue and more data becomes available, the rail industry, univer- sities, elementary educators, and relevant government agencies can continue to look to these programs as a guideline to achieve their goals in recruiting, educating, and retaining a competent rail workforce. Education

158 A Guide to Building and Retaining Workforce Capacity for the Railroad Industry Community College Programs A successful example of a community college program is The National Academy of Rail Sci- ences at Johnson County Community College in Overland Park, Kansas. NARS holds a partner- ship between Johnson County Community College and BNSF railway. Currently the program provides training to students through several different avenues. These include classroom edu- cation, online courses, small teleconferences meant to foster discussion, self-paced training on computers, and use of locomotive simulators. Areas of educational and training focus include mechanical, conductor, locomotive engineer, engineering maintenance, signal systems, tele- communications, and supervision/leadership in the rail workforce. Hands-on experience is emphasized at NARS and those students who complete the program earn a certificate, enabling them to qualify for jobs in the rail industry (Hansen, 2005). University Education Programs A study conducted by the American Railway Engineering and Maintenance-of-Way Associa- tion of 239 North American universities with accredited civil engineering programs indicated that currently programs in these universities have a minimal amount of attention given to rail- road systems (Sunderland and Harrington-Hughes, 2011). The majority of individuals who later end up working in the field of transportation engineering enter into programs for civil engineering in academia. However, most of these civil engineering programs do not have spe- cific transportation or rail engineering programs in their curricula. At the graduate level, only a small number of programs advertise transportation engineering as an area of concentration and, furthermore, most of these programs focus on highways, traffic and planning, and transit, with rail engineering largely ignored. The knowledge required of railway engineers spans many disciplines, including not only civil engineering, but also electrical, mechanical, and systems engineering, as well as an understanding of public transportation design, development, and management (Sunderland and Harrington-Hughes, 2011). Penn State Altoona. In 2011, Penn State Altoona became the first university in the United States offering an undergraduate degree in rail transportation engineering. This program falls under the university’s business and engineering division, focusing the first 2 years on traditional civil engineering and the following 2 years on areas such as rail operations and safety, com- munications and signals, track location, maintenance, and construction. Seen on the university website is the following statement: “Executives in the transit industry, project managers, consult- ing engineers, and government officials have all told us of their need to hire engineers with the kind of training Penn State now offers at the Altoona campus. If you are interested in the role of railroads in protecting the environment or fighting highway congestion, this is the program for you. If you want to be a part of a developing passenger rail system in this country, you will need the training that Penn State Altoona now offers” (Penn State Altoona, 2013). Coordinator of the rail transportation engineering program Steve Dillen indicates that though Class I railroads have already lent support in developing the program, the transit sector is expected to become more involved as the program grows (Sunderland and Harrington-Hughes, 2011). The University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. The Department of Civil and Envi- ronmental Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign currently offers six courses in railroad engineering and houses a program entitled “RailTEC” (Rail Transportation and Engineering Center). RailTEC provides seminars, short courses, workshops, and confer- ences for students, faculty, and rail professionals in the industry by combining education and research programs. The university has also housed foreign experts in high-speed rail as pro- fessors (Sunderland and Harrington-Hughes, 2011). This university serves as the headquar- ters to The National University Rail (NURail) Center, an association of seven partner colleges and universities that came together in recent years to address the rail and engineering needs in

Education 159 education. NURail includes researchers and educators from this university, University of Illinois at Chicago, Michigan Technological University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Rose- Hulman Institute of Technology, University of Kentucky, and University of Tennessee, Knoxville (National University Rail Center, 2015). Michigan Technological University. Michigan Technological University (Michigan Tech) is home to the Michigan Tech Transportation Institute, an organization that offers multidisci- plinary education and research for the transportation industry (Figure 45). The FRA recently awarded a contract to the university to construct a web portal as a means of sharing rail educa- tion materials. A smaller sector of this organization is the Rail Transportation Program (RTP), which has been headed by Pasi Lautala, Ph.D., beginning in 2004, designed to educate students and engineers about the railroad industry. This group also hosts international experts on rail to provide instruction to students. Also in the works for Michigan Tech is a professional certificate program in railway engineering for those already in possession of a bachelor’s degree in engi- neering (Sunderland and Harrington-Hughes, 2011). Michigan Tech also offers a 5-week summer international program in railway engineering, where students spend 3 weeks studying at the Tampere University of Technology in Finland, called the Summer in Finland program. There they are exposed to rail facilities and take part in different design projects, while being exposed to both real-life and classroom education (Lautala and Sproule, 2009; Sunderland and Harrington-Hughes, 2011). The university is also home to the Railroad Engineering and Activities Club, the student chap- ter of the American Railway Engineering and Maintenance-of-Way Association. The purpose of this club is to help promote networking between students, faculty, and industry workers, in an effort to inspire engineering students to consider a career in the railroad industry (Lautala and Sproule, 2009; Sunderland and Harrington-Hughes, 2011). They are also part of NURail, as previously discussed. Figure 45. Development of rail transportation activities at Michigan Tech. Source: Lautala and Sproule (2009)

160 A Guide to Building and Retaining Workforce Capacity for the Railroad Industry Industry–University Partnerships Lautala and Sproule (2009) found that industry–university partnerships can play an integral part in recruitment for the railroad industry, specifically for railroad engineers. They discuss how developing a relationship between industry and universities can help interest, edify, and recruit more railroad engineers to the industry, while highlighting possible challenges that may occur throughout this process (Lautala and Sproule, 2009). From the study comes a better sense of what a new engineer’s road to a career in the railroad industry looks like. Lautala and Sproule (2009) discuss the effects of exposure, or lack thereof, to rail education and the influences on selection of employment. Perhaps the most interesting result of the study was the importance of multiple exposure types to railroad education in terms of the university setting. Seventy percent of students who rated exposure to rail topics as either very or extremely important to their career selection had more than one type of contact with these topics, whereas 80 percent of students who stated university education was only somewhat or not impor- tant to career choice had only had been exposed to rail topics by one method. This suggests that the effectiveness of recruitment for railroad engineers in universities would benefit from students having multiple opportunities for exposure to rail topics (Lautala and Sproule, 2009). Past research, including a 1980 study (Patton), suggests annual federal funding should be dis- tributed to assist different forms of railroad education, including small seminars and courses to build up rail-related course content and research programs at the university level. A more recent study indicated that—due to high retirement rates, bimodal workforce age distributions, high profits in the rail industry, and an increased number of recently promoted supervisors—there are an increasing number of open positions in railroad industry management without qualified candidates, resulting in an increasing need for educational programs in railroad industry man- agement (Lautala, 2007). However, as previously mentioned, there are few accredited university programs that currently focus curricula toward railroad systems. This limited course curricula in rail topics may be in part due to financial constraints and lack of expertise in universities. Industry–university partnerships may help tackle both of these issues. Some of the most typical industry–university partnerships include internships and coop- erative education, industry-sponsored team projects, enterprises, engineer-in-residence pro- grams, and consortiums (Lautala and Sproule, 2009). Lautala and Sproule (2009) discuss that both Michigan Tech and the railroad industry have benefited from their partnership. Since the advent of the partnership, railroad companies have successfully been recruiting engineering students, while RTP at Michigan Tech has received approximately $400,000 in research funding. RTP states the rail industry should give thought to the following action items: • Get the word out on the demand for railroad engineers. • Identify and assist interested universities. • Consider financial support for selected universities. • Increase the quantity and quality of cooperative education and internship assignments. • Develop a comprehensive long-term strategy. The weight of much of the work for creating these partnerships lies with the industry. It will need to reach out to key contacts at universities and discuss the needs of the industry as well as the benefits the universities will experience. Lautala and Sproule (2009) offer the following sug- gestions for universities to engage in these partnerships as well: • Identify a faculty champion and internal level of interest. • Identify the most effective mix of activities. • Explore industry assistance in the development process.

Education 161 • Identify the potential for collaboration with other universities. • Consider an incremental approach for acquiring or inquiring about industry support. Universities and the rail industry have different motivating factors to enter into these partner- ships as illustrated in Table 11. Educational Programs Currently Offered in the United States This subsection compiles, summarizes, and assesses the educational and training resources available to the current and potential railroad workforce and determines that there is insufficient geographical overlap between these resources and rail hubs (see Figure 46). Certificates as well as academic degrees conferred by commercial or educational institutes are covered. Rail Industry Universities Primary motive Improved access and education of undergraduate students Potential savings in recruitment, training, and attrition Identified demand for railroad engineers “Niche” area Potential financial support Challenges Satisfaction with current procedures No perceived challenges in recruitment or education by top management Lack of confidence in university capabilities Lack of potential research funding or support Limited opportunities for academic publications Lack of faculty expertise Areas of strength Rail-specific training in real-life environment Training of motivated employees Abundant resources and expertise Introduction and attraction to rail Identification of motivated students Education in general skills and education Source: Lautala and Sproule (2009). Table 11. University and rail industry motivations for partnership. Figure 46. Map plotting rail hubs and training centers, as of February 2015.

162 A Guide to Building and Retaining Workforce Capacity for the Railroad Industry Non-academic Certificates • ARC-Tech.net • Johnson County Community College • Dakota County Technical College • Keeping Track Railroad Consulting & Training • Michigan State University • University of Tennessee, Knoxville • Mineta Transportation Institute • Modoc Railroad Academy • Northwest Railroad Institute • Okefenokee Technical College • Transportation Certification Services Mixed Offerings • Tarrant County College • Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Academic Degrees • University of Maryland, College Park • University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign • Michigan Technological University • Penn State Altoona • University of California, Berkeley • University of California, Davis • California State Polytechnic University • Massachusetts Institute of Technology • North Carolina State University • Purdue University • Texas A&M University • Colorado State University, Pueblo • Gateway Community College • Sacramento City College The positions for which the preceding educational resources offer education/training and the types of education/training offered are identified in Table 12. Educational Opportunities in Executive Leadership The research team compared three formal leadership development programs. Based on the recommendation of an interviewee, the program and curriculum descriptions available online for the Stanford Executive Program (SEP) were reviewed. In addition, the research team took a look at program and curriculum descriptions available online for Harvard Business School Program for Leadership Development (PLD) and the Center for Creative Leadership’s Leader- ship at the Peak (LAP). These programs are relevant to this study because they offer pathways to the knowledge, skills, and abilities specific to executive leaders without requiring full-time, on-campus enrollment. Also relevant to this study, participants in these programs are already in positions of leadership and therefore have organizations into which to apply new learning about running a business and leading people, as well as stewarding organizational change.

Education 163 Instuon O pe ra o ns M an ag er Sy st em s E ng in ee r Co nd uc to r/ Br ak em an Lo co m o ve E ng in ee r Ra ilr oa d Di sp at ch er El ec tr ic ia n & Co m m un ic a on s M ai nt ai ne r Si gn al m an & L in em an M ec ha ni ca l P er so nn el M ai nt en an ce -o f-W ay Limitaons & Challenges ARC-Tech.net Limited curricula. Johnson County Community College Dakota County Technical College Keeping Track Railroad Consul ng & Training No publicly available curricula. Michigan State University General rail cerficate available. University of Tennessee, Knoxville General transportaon cerficate available. Mineta Transportaon Instute High-speed rail cerficate available. Modoc Railroad Academy Northwest Railroad Instute General rail cerficate available. Okefenokee Technical College Transportaon Cerficaon Services Can administrate cerficaon training by contract with carriers. Tarrant County College Virginia Polytechnic Instute and State University General transportaon graduate degrees and cerficate available. University of Maryland, College Park University of Illinois at Urbana– Champaign Michigan Technological University Penn State Altoona University of California, Berkeley University of California, Davis California State Polytechnic University Offers M.S. in transportaon planning Massachuses Instute of Technology Graduate degrees in transportaon. North Carolina State University Offers M.S. in civil engineering with specializaon in transport systems and materials. Table 12. Educational/training resources by position and training type. (continued on next page)

164 A Guide to Building and Retaining Workforce Capacity for the Railroad Industry Stanford Executive Program • Six-week on-campus offering. Program and curriculum descriptions focus a great deal on required and optional classroom-based sessions in contrast to PLD. • For seasoned executives with at least 12 to 15 years of senior management experience and strategic responsibilities at the company- or country-wide level. • “Prepares senior executives to drive results at the highest levels of global management.” • Tuition is $61,500 with an option to add the $5,800 Individual Leadership Skills Development module. • Participants who complete the program receive Stanford Graduate School of Business Alumni status. • Non-credit, non-degree program. Participants receive a certificate of completion. Program for Leadership Development • Six-month program blending on-campus and off-site modules. Program and curriculum descriptions refer to content in high-level terms, emphasizing application to participants’ organization in contrast to SEP. • For functional managers with approximately 10 years of experience. • “Provides the valuable tools, critical business skills, and broader perspective you need to take on greater cross-functional leadership responsibilities.” • Tuition is $43,000 with an option to add the $22,000 Module 5. • Participants receive Harvard Business School Alumni status. • Non-credit, non-degree program. Instuon O pe ra o ns M an ag er Sy st em s E ng in ee r Co nd uc to r/ Br ak em an Lo co m o ve E ng in ee r Ra ilr oa d Di sp at ch er El ec tr ic ia n & Co m m un ic a on s M ai nt ai ne r Si gn al m an & L in em an M ec ha ni ca l P er so nn el M ai nt en an ce -o f-W ay Limitaons & Challenges Purdue University Offers M.S. in civil engineering with specializaon in transportaon engineering. Texas A&M University Offers graduate and undergraduate degrees in transportaon engineering. Colorado State University, Pueblo Gateway Community College Sacramento City College Table 12. (Continued).

Education 165 Leadership at the Peak • Five-day classroom event with pre-work and follow-up activities. The program combines high-level leadership topics, 360-degree feedback, fitness time, and nutritional advice. • For senior leaders in top three levels of the organization, with at least 15 years of managing others, and from organizations with 500 or more people. • “. . . senior leaders strengthen their ability to meet the challenges of leading the organization. In addition, every assessment, activity, and feedback session allows participants to drill down into the areas that are personally most essential.” • Tuition is $11,800. • Participants receive access to myCCL, an online leadership community. • Non-credit, non-degree program. Development Strategies The following list presents the development strategies that compose the SEP, PLD, and LAP: • Action plan development: case-study development specific to participant’s organization and individual action plan for personal use • Blended learning: classroom and on-the-job application • Case studies • Coaching (with assigned coach) • Cross-functional (interdisciplinary) approach • Feedback (360, as part of LAP) • Informal sessions and networking with guest speakers • Peer learning (cohorts) • Simulation • Virtual learning: web-based modules Academic Curriculum Table 13 presents content areas offered to participants in the SEP, PLD, and LAP. Executive leaders may possess a bachelor’s and/or master’s degree, but they were not men- tioned as industry requirements. Pasi Lautala of Michigan Technological University observed that the valuation of formal college and university education seems to be increasing in the indus- try. “One or two leadership generations ago,” he said, “having a college degree was not neces- sarily considered a strength in promotion considerations. This is changing quite a bit today. Most executives, especially more recent ones, hold college degrees and, in many cases, return to postgraduate or higher education while in the company.” Railway Age editor Bill Vantuono had a similar insight that the last 5 years have seen an explosion of college graduates and graduate- level courses for professional development. Today’s craftworkers who aspire to higher levels of management and leadership will no doubt seek out those programs, creating the need to identify and track impact and return on invest- ment linking higher education to executive railroad workforce development and retention. Educational Opportunities Abroad University Programs Europe is facing similar demographic difficulties with their workforce as the United States. As a result of this situation, the U.S. Department of Education and the European Union (EU) conducted a 2-year project called Tuning Transatlantic Cooperation in Rail Higher Education.

166 A Guide to Building and Retaining Workforce Capacity for the Railroad Industry The lead university in the United States was Michigan Tech and in Europe, the Instituto Superior Tecnico in Lisbon. The project examined available education programs in the United States and abroad (Sunderland and Harrington-Hughes, 2011). Despite the limited rail workforce, Europe has more educational programs in the areas of transportation and railroad, most at the graduate level. South America and Asia also have more abundant educational opportunities available for degrees in rail and transport (Sunderland and Harrington-Hughes, 2011). France The Professional Certificate in Railway and Guided Transport Systems is a 1-year program including coursework, internship, and thesis; it is intended to prepare both new recruits and experienced engineers for positions in engineering and management. The program was devel- oped at the suggestion of French railway companies and is managed by over 20 institutions and six universities (Sunderland and Harrington-Hughes, 2011). Institut Catholique d’Arts et Metiers provides students with a master’s degree in railway engineer- ing and was also developed with the assistance of the French railway industry. It is a 1-year program that includes course work on topics such as “the railway environment, operation of infrastructure and networks, production and maintenance of the rolling stock, on-board computers and infor- mation management, traction and braking, bodies and bogies, incorporation of equipment, and project management” (Sunderland and Harrington-Hughes, 2011). Students also must complete a 4-month internship working in the railroad industry (Sunderland and Harrington-Hughes, 2011). Content Area SEP PLD LAP Accounting X X Business Growth X Business Models X Business Process Design X Communication and Collaboration X X Conflict Resolution X Corporate Finance X Corporate Governance X Customer Service X Ethics X Finance Management X X Global Strategies (financial, as an example) X Goal-setting X Innovation X X Leadership X X X Marketing X X Microeconomics X Operations X X Organizational Change X X Organizational Climate X Performance Management X Public Policy X Strategy X X X Supply Chain X Technology (platforms, as an example) X Workforce (selection and incentives, for example) X X Table 13. Academic curriculum content areas for executive leaders.

Education 167 Germany Germany is at the head of the university transportation and railway education programs in Europe, with the Technical University of Dresden (TUD) leading the way in terms of rail edu- cation. TUD offers bachelor’s degrees in transport engineering, transport economics, and interdisciplinary transport-related courses as well as a master’s degree in rail systems engineer- ing. The master’s degree program offers four different concentrations, including railway con- struction and railway infrastructure, railway signaling and railway telematics, railway operation, and local public transportation. The university is home to several different transport research institutes, two of which focus on railroad. The TUD Institute of Railway Systems and Public Transport focuses on the planning, construction, and operation of railway systems. The other rail-focused research institute at TUD is the Institute of Railway Vehicles and Railway Technol- ogy and focuses on rail vehicle technology, electric railways, and vehicle modeling and simulation (Sunderland and Harrington-Hughes, 2011). Several other universities in Germany offer degrees in railroad education, including the Techni- cal University of Berlin, which offers both bachelor’s and master’s degrees in transportation, with a focus on track and railway operations, rail vehicles, and electric railway systems (Sunderland and Harrington-Hughes, 2011). RWTH Aachen University is home to four transport research institutes—the Institute of Rail- way Technology, the Institute of Rail Vehicles, the Institute of Automatic Control, and the Insti- tute of Transport Science—and awards undergraduate and graduate degrees. At this university and in Germany in general, co-op programs are becoming increasingly popular for engineering students, with high school students starting to work at rail companies after graduation and then alternating periods of course work with fieldwork (Sunderland and Harrington-Hughes, 2011). Spain In an effort to address the limited skilled rail workforce, Spanish universities and industries have formed partnerships to address the issues facing the railroad industry. The Technical Uni- versity of Madrid in 2011 housed the first World Congress on Railway Training where delegates from 34 countries came together to discuss the changing needs of the railroad, focusing dis- cussions and presentations on rail training needs, methodologies, educational issues, and best practices. In addition to housing this conference, the university’s department of civil engineering has a 6-year program that offers a transport area of specialization (Sunderland and Harrington- Hughes, 2011). The Catalan Government Railways in Spain has taken an active role in assisting universities, such as the Engineering School of Vilanova I Geltru and the Polytechnic University of Catalonia to develop course work in the master’s degree programs focused on railway traction power systems in an effort to train and educate the region’s next generation of railroad engineers (Sunderland and Harrington-Hughes, 2011). United Kingdom The Rail Research UK Association is a partnership between the railroad industry and uni- versities in the UK and is the main research program for transport in the UK. The goals of the association are to: • Support and facilitate railway research in academia. • Develop a common understanding of research needs to support the rail industry and its development. • Identify opportunities for research, development, and application in railway science and engineering. • Provide solutions to the rail industry.

168 A Guide to Building and Retaining Workforce Capacity for the Railroad Industry In 2014 the University of Birmingham began offering a bachelor’s degree in civil and railway engineering as well as electrical and railway engineering, in response to the growing industry and thus the many possibilities for career opportunities after graduation (University of Birmingham, 2013). In addition to the new bachelor’s program, the University of Birmingham continues to offer a number of postgraduate degrees in railway systems engineering and integration. Other universi- ties with research and programs dealing with the railway are the Institute for Transport Studies at the University of Leeds, Manchester Metropolitan University, University of Southampton, and Newcastle University (Sunderland and Harrington-Hughes, 2011). Brazil The University of Sao Paulo is Brazil’s most respected university graduating engineers and has a department of transportation engineering on the Sao Carlos campus offering master’s and Ph.D. degrees in transportation engineering. Many of the other Brazilian universities have a transportation concentration in engineering programs, however, with little focus on railroad (Sunderland and Harrington-Hughes, 2011). The Brazilian Council for Urban Transportation is responsible for community forums in large cities that have little to no rail coverage, so as to educate the communities’ engineers on how railways offer value to the public. These forums have taken place in cities such as Fortaleza, Natal, Maceio, Recife, Curitiba, and Porto Alegre (Sunderland and Harrington-Hughes, 2011). India The Indian Institute of Technology comprises seven engineering and technological schools in seven cities throughout the country, each offering a transportation concentration in the civil engineering degree. Originally there was not a specific concentration on rail; however, as a result of an urgent need for rail engineers, the university implemented an independent degree in metro rail transport in 2008, specializing in technology and management. Before this program came to be, when the rail system was going through major construction, the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) sent its engineers to different countries to learn about railway technology. Elattuvalapil Sreedharan, the principal advisor of DMRC, was also able to convince the Ministry of Human Resource Development in India that the country was facing such a “severe shortage” of skilled rail engineers that it should establish a railway engineering program in different engineering colleges and universities throughout the country (Sunderland and Harrington-Hughes, 2011). China and Taiwan The most complete and successful transportation and railway engineering programs appear to be in China and Taiwan. The universities in these countries have a rich history in training their students in very specific focuses on transportation occupations. Many of the best technical universities in China and Taiwan have their own institutes dedicated to transportation and rail- road research projects. Tongji University’s College of Traffic and Transportation Engineering in Shanghai houses three different research institutes. The university awards bachelor’s, master’s, and Ph.D. degrees (Sunderland and Harrington-Hughes, 2011). Both Southeast University and South China University of Technology offer bachelor’s degrees in traffic and transportation engineering, while the latter offers an additional graduate degree with a concentration on railway engineering (Sunderland and Harrington-Hughes, 2011). Other important engineering universities include National Taiwan University, with ties to course development at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, and Beijing Jiaotong Univer- sity, whose Dr. Mei Han spent time working at Michigan Tech’s RTP in 2011 (Sunderland and Harrington-Hughes, 2011). Southwest Jiaotong University has produced so many Chinese railway engineers that its alumni are said to have provided input on the rail projects throughout

Education 169 China (Sunderland and Harrington-Hughes, 2011). Finally, another important university offer- ing all levels of degrees in transportation and rail education is Lanzhou Jiaotong University, formerly known as Lanzhou Railway University (Sunderland and Harrington-Hughes, 2011). Japan Nihon University offers graduate programs in transportation engineering and socio-technology; however, no concentration is offered specifically in railroad engineering and only two courses center on railway topics (Sunderland and Harrington-Hughes, 2011). University Opportunities in Review Countries that have continuously had strong educational programs in railroad engineering, such as China and Taiwan, also appear to have well-running, well-established, efficient rail sys- tems (Sunderland and Harrington-Hughes, 2011). While the majority of foreign schools with civil engineering programs offer at least a master’s degree in transportation and/or rail engineer- ing, no U.S. schools offer such a degree (Sunderland and Harrington-Hughes, 2011). Furthermore, industry can be very influential in identifying and describing the need for edu- cation in railroad engineering and also can play a critical role in funding for academic programs, such as seen in Europe and Asia (Sunderland and Harrington-Hughes, 2011). International On-the-Job Training Opportunities Partnerships Association du Transport Urbain de Quebec. ATUQ made training for front-line man- agement its first priority and sought university assistance in this matter. Laval University was chosen because of a strong reputation for business management skills and teaching students how to put into practice what is learned in the classroom. The course work highlighted five top- ics: “(1) labor relations, (2) day-to-day management, (3) the role of the front-line manager, (4) communications skills, and (5) change management” (Eno Transportation Foundation, 2008). Judging by the level of engagement by participating agencies, the networking opportuni- ties produced, actual improvements in real management, and cost efficiency, the training was successful. For future training, suggestions were made to Laval University to tailor course work to be specific to transportation management as well as to address the interaction between the size of an agency and the management skills needed (Eno Transportation Foundation, 2008). Toronto Transit Commission. Other programs include those aimed at “training up” cur- rent employees. Director of Employment Services Christine Jeffries states that TTC is committed to offering training to current employees to advance their careers through programs such as the Route Supervisor Program, a 6-week course to learn the responsibilities of supervisory positons, and the Engineer in Training program, which provides TTC employees with assistance in obtain- ing engineering licenses while working for the company (Eno Transportation Foundation, 2008). Veolia Environment Campus. Veolia Environment Campus comprises four business lines: Veolia Water, Veolia Energy, Veolia Environmental Services, and Veolia Transport. It is housed in Jouy-le-Moutier, France, and serves all four business lines with training course development. The purpose of this training campus is to build competence among employees, to enhance the mission and culture of the organization, to support opportunities for career advancement in the workforce, and to enhance the professional and successful image of the organization to the public (Eno Transportation Foundation, 2008). Specific to the business line of Veolia Transport, the campus offers training through class- room instruction, use of simulators, and hands-on learning in the field. Veolia Transport is

170 A Guide to Building and Retaining Workforce Capacity for the Railroad Industry committed to ensuring career advancement for all of its employees and uses annual evaluations to help achieve this goal. It also partners with a local university to offer diploma and certification courses (Eno Transportation Foundation, 2008). Professional Certifications and Licensing On an international level, learning and training is often sponsored in some part or whole by the government, which allows for the standardization of the training programs and certifications (Rahn et al., 2003). National Occupation Standards. MCPCC began collaborating with transit professionals on the National Occupational Standards for Bus Operators, which has made this position a profession with Canada-wide standards that inform training and certification programs. Fur- thermore, MCPCC initiated certification and accreditation programs for bus operators in order to bolster workplace skills and knowledge, as well as advocating for an increase in apprenticeship programs. The apprenticeship programs, such as the Red Seal Occupation Group, allow employ- ees to add to their skillset while continuing to earn wages and contribute to their employer (Eno Transportation Foundation, 2008). Institution of Railway Signal Engineers. The Institution of Railway Signal Engineers (IRSE) is an organization based in London and dedicated to those either interested in working in railroad signaling or already established in the profession. IRSE initiated a policy in 1994 to issue licenses to ensure competence and professionalism in railway signal engineering in the United Kingdom. The process of obtaining a license is a thorough one, ensuring that all workers are competent in their jobs, as well as physically and mentally fit to perform. Workers are reviewed first by employers for ability. After successful completion of the workplace assessment, registered competence assessors, licensed physicians, and mental health professionals, all registered with IRSE, are able to determine if applicants are able to receive or renew their license. These licenses are valid for 5 years. There are as many as 50 different classifications of licenses to account for the many different types of positions in this profession. These appear to work as competency models, as they list the knowledge, skills, and abilities one must possess in order to be a licensed professional (Institution of Railway Signal Engineers, 2014). Office of Rail and Road. The Office of Rail and Road (ORR; formerly the Office of Rail Regulation) works to maintain the health and safety of rail with headquarters in London. Part of ensuring the proper functioning of the rail system means making sure train drivers are expe- rienced and knowledgeable in their profession (Office of Rail Regulation, 2014a) As a result, the Office of Rail Regulation issued the Guide to the Train Driving Licences and Certificates Regula- tions 2010 (TDLCR). One of the many reasons that TDLCR was created is to reassure the public that train drivers are competent professionals and that the rail is a safe mode of transportation. TDLCR was created in response to European Commission Directive 2007/59/EC and put in place to eventually standardize licenses and certifications for all train drivers throughout the EU, mak- ing rail more cohesive throughout these countries. This standardization also widens opportuni- ties for employment throughout the EU for train drivers. Another benefit of issuing licenses and certifications to train drivers is that it elevates the level of professionalism in the industry, thus serving as an effort to retain talent (Office of Rail Regulation, 2014b). New train drivers are required to apply for a license prior to employment; however, existing drivers need only acquire their license prior to October 29, 2018. The license is granted after the applicant is proven to be competent, as well as medically and physically fit, in addition to being over the age of 20 years old with proof of appropriate education. All assessors from the employer, as well as physicians and mental health professionals, must be recognized and approved by ORR (Office of Rail Regulation, 2014b).

Education 171 Management Programs Canadian Urban Transit Association. CUTA programs that are focused on strengthening the transportation workforce in Canada include Transit Ambassador, SmartDriver, and Part- nership with Ontario Schools. Transit Ambassador concentrates on training supervisors and management with a strong focus on customer service. Transit Ambassador offers courses such as a train-the-trainer class, in addition to a trainer development course, which emphasize not only providing great customer service, but also increasing employee morale to enhance overall job satisfaction (Eno Transportation Foundation, 2008). Veolia Transport. Veolia also has a procedure in place for recruiting managers. This is done through a corporate training program, “Veolia University,” which spans 2 years and exposes par- ticipants to different positions though hands-on education. Upon completion, they are eligible to become a manager for the company (Eno Transportation Foundation, 2008). Swedish National Road Administration. The Swedish National Road Administration (SNRA) has a development program made of up four parts: a trainee program (largely made of university-recruited civil engineers), a career choice seminar, a program for the development of new managers, and a similar program focused on continued development for experienced managers. The seminar on career choice has proven to increase retention of young workers. The new manager’s development program is an intensive 5-day seminar available to members of SNRA who have worked there for at least 5 years. During those 5 days, they work with a teacher/ mentor to cultivate individualized 6-month plans, matching their interests with their budding skills. The program for experienced managers is about 1 year in length and affords attendees the opportunity to hone their management skills to further advance their careers and empower them to contribute to the success of the agency. “SNRA’s motto is to ‘hire for competence and train for skills’” (Rahn et al., 2003). Highway Agency. England’s Highway Agency is emphasizing leadership skills in its work- force with several initiatives, including developing a “Good Manager Guide,” which spells out characteristics of effective managers in a chart form easily accessible by employees. Competency modeling guides have also been written so that employees know what skills they should possess and how to do their jobs effectively. Coaching and mentoring programs as well as career devel- opment counseling are offered to staff, in addition to interchange assignment opportunities to allow employees the chance to learn new skills. They also provide their workforce with several learning resource centers that can be accessed at employees’ leisure (Rahn et al., 2003).

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TRB’s National Cooperative Rail Research Program (NCRRP) Report 2: A Guide to Building and Retaining Workforce Capacity for the Railroad Industry presents competency models that describe workforce requirements for the passenger and freight railroad industry. The models are based on assessments of past trends, current forecasts, and a detailed gap analysis of employee supply and demand. The report also presents a strategy for improving employee retention and enhancing educational programs designed to attract new employees to the industry.

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