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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Prototype Airport Sustainability Rating System—Characteristics, Viability, and Implementation Options. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22233.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Prototype Airport Sustainability Rating System—Characteristics, Viability, and Implementation Options. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22233.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Prototype Airport Sustainability Rating System—Characteristics, Viability, and Implementation Options. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22233.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Prototype Airport Sustainability Rating System—Characteristics, Viability, and Implementation Options. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22233.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Prototype Airport Sustainability Rating System—Characteristics, Viability, and Implementation Options. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22233.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Prototype Airport Sustainability Rating System—Characteristics, Viability, and Implementation Options. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22233.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Prototype Airport Sustainability Rating System—Characteristics, Viability, and Implementation Options. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22233.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Prototype Airport Sustainability Rating System—Characteristics, Viability, and Implementation Options. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22233.
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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP REPORT 119 TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2014 www.TRB.org Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation • Environment Prototype Airport Sustainability Rating System— Characteristics, Viability, and Implementation Options Carol Lurie Emmanuelle Humblet Vanasse Hangen Brustlin, inc. Watertown, MA Chris Steuer icF international, inc. Washington, DC Kristin Lemaster cDM sMitH, inc. Cambridge, MA

AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans­ portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and inter­ national commerce. They are where the nation’s aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal respon­ sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Coopera­ tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near­term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon­ sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. It is modeled after the successful National Coopera­ tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research Pro­ gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, mainte­ nance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport opera­ tors can cooperatively address common operational problems. The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100­Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International­North America (ACI­NA), the American Associa­ tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orga­ nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and respon­ sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by iden­ tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport pro­ fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels pre­ pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooper­ ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended end­users of the research: airport operating agencies, service providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work­ shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport­industry practitioners. ACRP REPORT 119 Project 02­28 ISSN 1935­9802 ISBN 978­0­309­30820­5 Library of Congress Control Number 2014955210 © 2014 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not­for­profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not­for­profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at http://www.national­academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Project 02­28 by Vanasse Hangen Brustlin, Inc. (VHB), CDM Smith, Inc. (CDM Smith), ICF Inter­ national, Inc. (ICF), Market Street Research, Inc., and the Volpe Transportation Center. VHB served as the Contractor and Fiscal Administrator for this study. Carol Lurie of VHB was the Principal Investigator. Other contributors to this report were Erin Heacock, Kari Hewitt, Emmanuelle Humblet, Leo Roy, Ben Siwinski, and Autumn Ward of VHB; Kristin Lemaster, Lauren Miller, Jeff Montera, Magda Pavlak­Chiaradia, and Adam Shalapin of CDM Smith; Chris Steuer, Greg Carlock, Michael DeWit, Christine Wrublesky, Adam Klauber, and Marian Van Pelt of ICF; and Julie Pokela, Lisa Wortman, and Ingrid Stebla of Market Street Research, Inc. CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 119 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Joseph D. Navarrete, Senior Program Officer Terri Baker, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Sharon Lamberton, Editor ACRP PROJECT 02-28 PANEL Field of Environment Teresa Davidson, Parsons Corporation, Washington, DC (Chair) Rosemarie S. Andolino, Chicago Department of Aviation, Chicago, IL James Crites, Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, DFW Airport, TX Laura A. Einspanier, American Airlines, Dallas, TX David L. Jones, Jacksonville Aviation Authority (JAA), Jacksonville, FL David A. Lange, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL Robert A. Nicholas, Ithaca Tompkins Regional Airport, Ithaca, NY Mark Reis, Seattle-Tacoma International Airport, Seattle, WA Dean Schultz, Reno-Tahoe Airport Authority, Reno, NV Patrick Magnotta, FAA Liaison Donald Scata, FAA Liaison Katherine B. Preston, Airports Council International - North America Liaison T.J. Schulz, Airport Consultants Council Liaison

ACRP Report 119: Prototype Airport Sustainability Rating System—Characteristics, Viability, and Implementation Options identifies the features of a sustainability rating system specifically developed for airports, identifies options for implementing the rating system and a certification program, and evaluates the viability of their implementation and adoption. The report provides a framework upon which a comprehensive airport­centric rating system can be built should the airport industry decide it would be beneficial for assessing its sustainability performance. Airport sustainability encompasses a wide variety of practices that ensure protection of the environment, social progress that recognizes the needs of all stakeholders, and maintenance of high and stable levels of economic growth and employment. While many airports have begun to incorporate sustainability practices into their planning, construc­ tion, and operation, there is no established, comprehensive method for gauging airport sustainability performance. Research was needed to develop a prototype rating system and to assess the viability of industry­wide adoption of a rating system and voluntary certification program. The research for this project, led by Vanasse Hangen Brustlin, Inc., began with a review and evaluation of sustainability practice resources, evaluation metrics, rating systems, cer­ tification programs, and guidelines that focused on their applicability to airports. Next, an initial stakeholder outreach effort was conducted to identify desired features of an airport sustainability rating system and to assess initial interest in a voluntary certification pro­ gram. Using this information, the contractor developed a preliminary prototype airport sustainability rating system. The contractor then conducted a second stakeholder outreach effort to obtain industry feedback. Based on the feedback, the contractor prepared the Prototype Airport Sustainability Rating System (Prototype Rating System) and identified the desired characteristics of a voluntary certification program. The contractor then prepared a report to document their findings. The report provides an overview of how the research was conducted, including its coordination with a related effort (ACRP Project 02­30) whose objective was to develop a list of sustainability practices and a decision tool. The report then summarizes exist­ ing sustainability resources, guidelines, metrics, and rating/certification programs. The report also describes the two stakeholder outreach efforts, including the approach used to gather industry input and the findings. The Prototype Rating System is described, includ­ ing its design specifications and structural components. Finally, based on stakeholder feedback, the report assesses the viability of an airport sustainability rating system and certification/verification program. F O R E W O R D By Joseph D. Navarrete Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

The report notes that the key structural components of the Prototype Rating System focus on airport­wide performance (versus project­specific performance) and include sustainability activities grouped in categories, metrics to allow airports to measure and track performance, performance actions to improve sustainability, opportunity for innovation, and a scoring framework to establish a sustainability rating for airports. A chief finding of the research is that, while there may be industry support for a voluntary airport sustainability rating system, there are significant cost and governance issues that would need to be addressed.

1 Summary 13 Chapter 1 Introduction 13 1.1 Background 13 1.2 Problem Statement 14 1.3 Objectives 14 1.4 Project Scope 15 Chapter 2 Review of Existing Resources, Guidelines, Metrics, and Rating and Certification Programs 15 2.1 Background 15 2.2 Research Approach 16 2.3 Findings and Applications 18 2.4 Conclusions 19 Chapter 3 Phase I and Phase II Stakeholder Outreach 19 3.1 Background 19 3.2 Research Approach 21 3.3 Findings and Applications 30 3.4 Conclusions 32 Chapter 4 Development of Prototype Rating System 32 4.1 Background 34 4.2 Research Approach 35 4.3 Proposed Prototype Rating System Design 59 4.4 Viability of the Rating System 72 4.5 Potential Next Steps for the Airport Sustainability Rating System 74 4.6 Conclusions 75 References 78 Abbreviations and Acronyms 80 Glossary A-1 Appendix A Sources Consulted for the Review of Existing Resources, Guidelines, Metrics, and Rating & Certification Programs B-1 Appendix B Stakeholder Outreach Process and Detailed Findings C-1 Appendix C Preliminary User Guide—Annotated Outline C O N T E N T S

D-1 Appendix D Airport Sustainability Activities—User Guide Excerpts E-1 Appendix E Sustainability Activity Definitions and Performance Metrics F-1 Appendix F Potential Work Plan for Phases III and IV G-1 Appendix G Airport Sustainability Best Practices Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.

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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 119: Prototype Airport Sustainability Rating System—Characteristics, Viability, and Implementation Options identifies the features of an airport sustainability rating system, identifies options for implementing the rating system and a certification program, and evaluates the viability of their implementation and adoption.

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