National Academies Press: OpenBook

Strategies to Optimize Real Property Acquisition, Relocation Assistance, and Property Management Practices (2014)

Chapter: Chapter 4 - Reference Real Property Acquisition and Relocation Assistance Work Schedule

« Previous: Chapter 3 - Integrated Transportation Project Development and Delivery Process Modeling
Page 69
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Reference Real Property Acquisition and Relocation Assistance Work Schedule." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Strategies to Optimize Real Property Acquisition, Relocation Assistance, and Property Management Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22252.
×
Page 69
Page 70
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Reference Real Property Acquisition and Relocation Assistance Work Schedule." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Strategies to Optimize Real Property Acquisition, Relocation Assistance, and Property Management Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22252.
×
Page 70
Page 71
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Reference Real Property Acquisition and Relocation Assistance Work Schedule." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Strategies to Optimize Real Property Acquisition, Relocation Assistance, and Property Management Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22252.
×
Page 71
Page 72
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Reference Real Property Acquisition and Relocation Assistance Work Schedule." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Strategies to Optimize Real Property Acquisition, Relocation Assistance, and Property Management Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22252.
×
Page 72
Page 73
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Reference Real Property Acquisition and Relocation Assistance Work Schedule." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Strategies to Optimize Real Property Acquisition, Relocation Assistance, and Property Management Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22252.
×
Page 73
Page 74
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Reference Real Property Acquisition and Relocation Assistance Work Schedule." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Strategies to Optimize Real Property Acquisition, Relocation Assistance, and Property Management Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22252.
×
Page 74
Page 75
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Reference Real Property Acquisition and Relocation Assistance Work Schedule." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Strategies to Optimize Real Property Acquisition, Relocation Assistance, and Property Management Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22252.
×
Page 75
Page 76
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Reference Real Property Acquisition and Relocation Assistance Work Schedule." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Strategies to Optimize Real Property Acquisition, Relocation Assistance, and Property Management Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22252.
×
Page 76
Page 77
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Reference Real Property Acquisition and Relocation Assistance Work Schedule." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Strategies to Optimize Real Property Acquisition, Relocation Assistance, and Property Management Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22252.
×
Page 77
Page 78
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Reference Real Property Acquisition and Relocation Assistance Work Schedule." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Strategies to Optimize Real Property Acquisition, Relocation Assistance, and Property Management Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22252.
×
Page 78
Page 79
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Reference Real Property Acquisition and Relocation Assistance Work Schedule." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Strategies to Optimize Real Property Acquisition, Relocation Assistance, and Property Management Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22252.
×
Page 79
Page 80
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Reference Real Property Acquisition and Relocation Assistance Work Schedule." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Strategies to Optimize Real Property Acquisition, Relocation Assistance, and Property Management Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22252.
×
Page 80
Page 81
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Reference Real Property Acquisition and Relocation Assistance Work Schedule." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Strategies to Optimize Real Property Acquisition, Relocation Assistance, and Property Management Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22252.
×
Page 81
Page 82
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Reference Real Property Acquisition and Relocation Assistance Work Schedule." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Strategies to Optimize Real Property Acquisition, Relocation Assistance, and Property Management Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22252.
×
Page 82
Page 83
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Reference Real Property Acquisition and Relocation Assistance Work Schedule." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Strategies to Optimize Real Property Acquisition, Relocation Assistance, and Property Management Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22252.
×
Page 83
Page 84
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Reference Real Property Acquisition and Relocation Assistance Work Schedule." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Strategies to Optimize Real Property Acquisition, Relocation Assistance, and Property Management Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22252.
×
Page 84
Page 85
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Reference Real Property Acquisition and Relocation Assistance Work Schedule." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Strategies to Optimize Real Property Acquisition, Relocation Assistance, and Property Management Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22252.
×
Page 85

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

69 C H A P T E R 4 Introduction This chapter describes a reference work schedule that inte- grates real property acquisition and relocation assistance activi- ties with the rest of the transportation project development and delivery process. The work schedule incorporates the require- ments and procedures in the Uniform Act (as represented in the Level 3 model shown in Chapter 3, Figure 23) into the ref- erence (or typical) transportation project and delivery pro- cess (as represented in the Level 2 model shown in Chapter 3, Figure 11). Its purpose is to provide a graphical representation of real property acquisition and relocation assistance schedul- ing activities within the context of both the Uniform Act and the typical requirements of a transportation project. To provide context, this chapter starts with a discussion about typical project durations. This discussion covers the entire project development and delivery process but focuses primarily on typical durations associated with real property acquisition and relocation assistance. Project Duration Transportation Project Development and Delivery Process Because every project is unique, determining the duration of a single typical project is extremely difficult. Some sources in the literature provide accounts of typical durations that are based mainly on professional judgment. For example, in 2002 the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) prepared testimony to the U.S. Senate on the timely completion of highway proj- ects that receive federal financial assistance from FHWA (46). According to the GAO report, based on FHWA estimates, it usually takes from 9–19 years to plan, gain approval for, design, and build a new, major, federally funded highway project that has significant environmental impacts. The time breakdown is as follows: • Planning: 4–5 years. • Preliminary design and environmental review: 1–5 years. • Final design and real property acquisition: 2–3 years. • Construction: 2–6 years. • Total: 9–19 years. The time required to complete a project is a function of factors such as project size and complexity, as well as public interest in the project. Projects could take as few as 3 years or as many as 20 years or more to complete. The report pro- vided some information about six new highway construction projects (Table 10). These projects ranged from a $1.7 mil- lion project in Florida to upgrade a dirt road to a two-lane paved road (which took 8 years to complete) to a $50 million project to build a six-lane, 15-mile divided highway in Texas that took over 15 years to complete. Information about the duration of the planning phase for these projects was not available. In 2007, AASHTO released a report highlighting the need to accelerate project delivery (47). According to this report, a major transportation project can take 10 years to 15 years from beginning to end, even without controversial issues that can slow the project further. Typical durations are as follows: • Planning: 2–3 years. • Environmental process: 4–6 years. • Detailed design: 2–3 years. • Right-of-way acquisition and utility relocation: 1–2 years. • Construction: 2–3 years. • Total: 10–15 years. Real Property Acquisition and Relocation Assistance Of particular interest to this research was the time it takes to acquire real property for a transportation project. This section provides a few examples in which state DOTs have attempted to derive metrics to determine the duration and impact of their real property acquisition process. Reference Real Property Acquisition and Relocation Assistance Work Schedule

70 Florida Figure 45 shows the typical real property acquisition sched- ule depicted in the Project Management Handbook at the Florida DOT (48). The Florida DOT highlights that the time involved in real property acquisition activities depends on several fac- tors, including the number of parcels and the complexity of each situation. As Figure 45 shows, the Florida DOT estimates that the length of time from the beginning of appraisals to the right-of-way certification can be 18–24 months. Minnesota Figure 46 shows a real property acquisition schedule that the Minnesota DOT (Mn/DOT) developed to represent typical acquisition conditions without a significant condemnation component. This schedule assumes 18 months, beginning with title searches and ending with direct real property acquisition and relocation before a project goes to letting (49). This sched- ule does not apply to all transportation projects throughout the state. Districts and regional offices have developed similar schedules to suit their needs. North Carolina Recently, the North Carolina DOT started using schedul- ing software to manage the acquisition of real property and to evaluate the impact of changes in certain activities on the North Carolina DOT’s ability to complete real property Project Total Cost ($ millions) Project Duration Planning Preliminary Design and Environmental Review Final Design and Real Property Acquisition Construction Total* Fort Green/Ona Road (Florida) 1.7 N/A 2 years, 7 months 4 years, 5 months 1 year, 6 months 8 years, 3 months State Road 115 (Florida) 2.2 N/A 1 year, 7 months 1 year, 2 months 2 years, 6 months 6 years, 7 months State Highway 146 (Texas) 16.7 N/A 4 years, 4 months 4 years, 5 months 2 years, 10 months 9 years, 8 months State Route 168 (California) 29.9 N/A 3 years, 8 months 3 years, 4 months 2 years, 3 months 9 years, 4 months State Route 198 (California) 42.9 N/A 4 years 6 years, 8 months 3 years, 6 months 14 years, 3 months U.S. Highway 290 (Texas) 50.1 N/A 9 years, 8 months 10 years 3 years, 1 month 15 years, 3 months *The total time may not equal the sum of all phases, for example, because of phase overlap or because of gaps between phases. Table 10. Duration of six sample projects in California, Florida, and Texas (adapted from [46]). Figure 45. Right-of-way acquisition schedule in Florida (adapted from [48]). Appraisal Negotiation Relocation Property Management Order of Taking Condemnation Construction Begins 6-10 months 6-8 months 0-9 months 0-2+ years 1-4 months 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22

71 acquisition activities on time (50). Figure 47 shows a sample schedule of real property acquisition activities that includes both a baseline (with no delays assumed) and a modified schedule. The modified schedule takes into account delays while preparing the right-of-way map (60 days) and delays resulting from the identification of utility facilities with an impact on right-of-way requirements (30 days). Both types of delays affect right-of-way authorization and the receipt of the right-of-way map. Because this activity is on the critical path, the net impact of the delay is 120 additional days to acquire and deliver real property for the project. Ohio As mentioned earlier in this report, the Ohio DOT has identified five different project paths, depending on project size, complexity, and/or potential environmental impacts (see Table 6 in Chapter 3). The Ohio DOT has developed sample Gantt charts for typical Path 2 and Path 3 projects. The project schedule templates depict key project activities and their interdependencies. For example, the typical duration of a sample Path 3 project is 2 years and 7 months. This dura- tion covers the period between the project start-up meeting that takes place at the beginning of the (project-specific) planning phase and the end of the final engineering phase. Figure 48 shows the real property acquisition component associated with the schedule template for a sample Path 3 project. The total duration of the real property acquisition phase is 1 year, beginning with the authorization of prelimi- nary right-of-way acquisition activities for total takes and ending with the clearance of right-of-way. Notice that the Ohio DOT schedule template does not include an activity for relocation assistance services. The template assumes 60 days for preparing a preliminary right-of-way map (including 30 days Figure 46. Typical right-of-way acquisition timeline at the Minnesota DOT (49).

72 for review) in preparation for the environmental review and 75 days for preparing the final right-of-way map (including 30 days for review). The template also assumes that the acqui- sition activity ends before the right-of-way certification, which happens before sending the final project plans to the central office in preparation for letting. To assist in the identification of potential real property and surveying issues that might have an impact on project devel- opment and delivery, the Ohio DOT’s project initiation pack- age includes a list of critical real property-related questions, as shown in Table 11. Texas In 2005, the Texas DOT completed a research project to evaluate delays in the acquisition of real property and utility relocations (51). For real property acquisition, the research included an evaluation of the following milestones: • Right-of-way release date (Milestone 1). • Initial appraisal date (Milestone 2). • Appraisal approval date (Milestone 3). • Negotiation end date (Milestone 4). • Condemnation process start date (Milestone 5). • Preparation and submission of request for condemnation proceedings (Milestone 6). • Minute order for condemnation proceedings approved (Milestone 7). • Possession of real property date (Milestone 8). For the analysis, the researchers evaluated data from 45 com- pleted projects that had at least 10 parcels per project. The aver- age number of parcels per project was 36. A first sub sample, which excluded parcels the researchers labeled as critical path parcels, had a sample size of 124 parcels, of which 12 parcels (10 percent) were acquired through condemnation. For this subsample, the mean time to move from right-of-way release to possession of the property was 18 months, and the mean time to move from the initial appraisal to possession of the property was 11 months. The researchers also observed a wide dispersion in the data. For example, from right-of-way release to possession of the property, the standard deviation and range were 16 months and 69 months, respectively. From the initial appraisal to possession of the property, the standard deviation and range were 13 months and 59 months, respectively. The parcels the researchers labeled as critical path parcels corresponded to the last parcel acquired before a project was let (and could presumably provide an indication that the par- cel was the most difficult or resource-consuming to acquire). The sample size under this category was 45 parcels, of which 29 parcels (71 percent) were acquired through condemnation. The mean time to move from right-of-way release to posses- sion of the property was 33 months, and the mean time to move from the initial appraisal to possession of the property was 24 months. The dispersion around the mean for this sub- sample was also quite significant. The researchers also noted other factors affecting the time to acquire real property. These factors were (a) the total number of parcels in a project (projects with fewer parcels had faster acquisition times), and (b) right-of-way staff size (districts with fewer agents tended to spend longer acquiring property). The researchers also noted that districts with larger acquisition budgets tended to take longer to acquire real property, pre- sumably because of work volume and complexity of projects and job requirements. Note: Gray represents baseline conditions (no delays assumed); red represents a modified schedule that takes into consideration delays that result from design changes and utility activities. Blue represents tasks that are not on the critical path of a project. Figure 47. Sample real property acquisition schedule in North Carolina (50).

Note: Duration in days represents working days. Duration in edays represents elapsed calendar days. Task bars in red represent critical tasks. Figure 48. Real property acquisition schedule for Sample 3 project (43).

74 Washington State As part of Washington State’s Government Management Accountability and Performance (GMAP) initiative, the Washington State DOT conducted an evaluation of project delivery risks that included an analysis of elements of risk that might result in delays in the production of right-of-way cer- tifications before projects can be advertised (52). The motiva- tion for the analysis was the finding that 20 out of 68 projects that had a real property acquisition element from 2003 to 2005 had letting dates that were delayed because of certifica- tion delays. Real property-related factors that played a role in the letting delays of those 20 projects included the following: • Design changes: eight projects (40 percent), related to issues such as permitting requirements, property owner requests, and design changes late in the design phase. • Protracted negotiations: seven projects (35 percent), related to issues such as negotiations with railroads, local govern- ments, tribes, and utility owners, as well as the Washington State DOT’s reluctance to pursue condemnation. • Schedule management: four projects (20 percent), related to issues such as inadequate time in the schedule for negotia- tions, an unanticipated condemnation, difficult negotiations with an out-of-country owner, and a contractor’s failure to perform. • Delayed funding: three projects (15 percent). • Utility accommodation: two projects (10 percent), related to issues such as delays in identifying existing utility facili- ties and related real property needs. Reference Work Schedule This section describes the reference work schedule that integrates real property acquisition and relocation assistance activities with the rest of the transportation project develop- ment and delivery process. The research team developed the reference work schedule in Microsoft Project 2010 format and PDF. Both sets of files are provided as standalone files on CRP-CD 154 to facilitate their dissemination to the transpor- tation community. The Project file can also be easily imported into other commonly used scheduling software platforms, such as Primavera® P6™. Work Schedule Description The work schedule includes tasks that represent Level 2 model swim lanes and activities as well as Level 3 model activi- ties. As Figure 49 shows, the WBS is organized into three lev- els to account for tasks that represent a swim lane (first-level), an individual activity within a swim lane (second-level), or an activity required by the Uniform Act (third-level). Table 12 pro- vides a description of the attribute data fields used for the work schedule. The tasks can be briefly described by level as follows: • First-level tasks. Each task at this level corresponds to a Level 2 model swim lane (e.g., Task 7 corresponds to Re - location Assistance). The relationship is one-to-one, except in the case of the acquisition swim lane, which is divided into two first-level tasks to distinguish activities that happen RIGHT-OF-WAY/SURVEY ISSUES: Indicate if right-of-way or survey issues are present or should be considered during project development. Provide additional comments as needed. Design Issue Location/Comments Will there be any work beyond the existing right-of-way limits? Will relocation of residences be involved? Will relocation of businesses be involved? Will the project require modifying the access control to any properties? Identify significant right-of-way encroachments (i.e., large commercial business signs, etc.). Will temporary parcels be needed (e.g., for drive work)? Will additional right-of-way be needed for utility relocations? Are there any specific property owner concerns? If so, list property owners and concerns. Are work agreements prohibited for any reason? Are there any other right-of-way or survey issues? Specify. Table 11. The Ohio DOT project initiation package—right-of-way and survey issues (43). (text continues on page 80)

Figure 49. Work schedule tasks. (continued on next page)

Figure 49. (Continued).

Figure 49. (Continued). (continued on next page)

Figure 49. (Continued).

Figure 49. (Continued).

80 before and after the authorization to acquire real property: Task 5 (Acquisition—Planning and Preliminary Activities) and Task 6 (Acquisition). The reason for splitting the acqui- sition task is that the Uniform Act handles real property acquisition from the beginning of valuation planning, which normally takes place after receiving authorization to acquire real property. State DOTs typically depict their real property acquisition process this way. All first-level tasks are shown on a shaded background and in bold letters. • Second-level tasks. Each task at this level represents an individual activity within a Level 2 model swim lane. For example, Task 7.1 (Determine relocation assistance eligi- bility) is the first activity that takes place within the Task 7 (Relocation Assistance) swim lane. All second-level tasks are shown in bold letters with a white background. • Third-level tasks. Each task at this level represents one or more Level 3 model activities (depending on the case). For example, Task 7.1.1 (Provide written notice of intent to acquire property) in the work schedule corresponds to one activity within the Relocation Assistance Eligibility Determination swim lane in the Level 3 model. In this case, the correspondence between work schedule task and Level 3 model activity is one-to-one. In several cases, a work sched- ule task corresponds to a group of Level 3 model activi- ties. For example, Task 6.1.4 (Inspect property) covers two Level 3 model activities: Invite the owner to accompany the appraiser during the inspection and conduct the inspection of the property. All third-level tasks are shown in regular text with a white background. The Working Days field represents the number of work- ing days required to perform a task. For tasks without any subtasks (i.e., child tasks), the task duration is based on infor- mation gathered from the literature review and feedback provided by stakeholders during the peer exchange or inter- views. For tasks with one or more subtasks (i.e., parent tasks), the duration is automatically calculated. The work schedule described in this chapter is a reference work schedule, and every effort was made to populate the work schedule with typical durations; however, some arbitrary durations were included (mainly for visualization purposes). In general, the work schedule includes the following types of task durations: • Typical duration. This type of duration represents a typi- cal time required to complete a project task (although there could be significant variations from project to project). • One-day duration. Some tasks, such as Task 1.1 (Develop long-range transportation plans), can last for many months or years. For simplicity, the research team set the duration of these tasks at 1 day. However, users can easily change the values in the project schedule file as needed to depict longer, more realistic durations for the following tasks: – Task 1.1 (Develop long-range transportation plans). – Task 1.2 (Identify project need and purpose). – Task 1.3 (Identify project requirements and conduct studies). – Task 1.4 (Prepare cost estimate and identify funding sources). – Task 1.5 (Develop/update intermediate and short-range programs). Field Description ID Row number (automatically generated) No. WBS coding scheme for each task, which could be a single digit (first-level task), two digits separated by a dot (second-level task), or three digits separated by dots (third-level task) Task Name Name of swim lane or activity in the Level 2 and Level 3 model Working Days Number of working days required to perform a task Calendar Days Number of calendar days required to perform a task, calculated as follows: where n is time interval (minutes); [Start] and [Finish] are the starting and ending task dates, respectively; and 0.9 is used to round up the result to the next integer day Start Date Task start date, calculated automatically based on predecessor and successor conditions, except for Task 1.1 (Develop long-range transportation plans), which initiates the work schedule Finish Date Task end date, calculated automatically based on the duration and the start date of a task Predecessors Preceding tasks and the type of relationship with those tasks, which could be start-to-start (SS), start-to-finish (SF), finish-to-start (FS), or finish-to-finish (FF) Successors Subsequent tasks and type of relationship with those tasks Comment Comment Critical Critical path indicator Table 12. Work schedule attribute data. (continued from page 74)

81 – Task 1.6 (Authorize project development). – Task 1.8 (Update project requirements, cost estimate, and schedule). – Task 3.1 (Provide planning and environmental linkages). – Task 3.6 (Meet environmental commitments after clearance). – Task 5.1 (Provide planning and real property acquisition linkages). – Task 6.5.1 (Conduct condemnation proceedings). – Task 6.5.2 (Proceedings for claims against the United States). – Task 8.1 (Inventory and manage property interests). – Task 9.1 (Provide planning and utility process linkages). – Task 9.2 (Conduct coordination meetings). – Task 11.2 (Build and deliver project). – Task 12.2 (Manage project development and delivery process). • Per-acquisition unit duration. This type of duration rep- resents a typical time required to complete an acquisition activity on a per-unit acquisition basis. These durations are assigned to most real property acquisition tasks (i.e., Task 6). In practice, the total duration of real property acquisition tasks is a function of the number of real property interests to be acquired and the resources assigned to complete the task. Because the work schedule described in this chapter is a reference work schedule, a decision was made to depict real property acquisition tasks on a per-unit acquisition basis. For example, according to Task 6.1.5, it takes 80 working days to conduct one appraisal. For a project that involves acquiring 100 parcels, it would be necessary to factor in all the resources needed to appraise the 100 parcels within the time constraints of the project and then assign the cor- responding value to Task 6.1.5. Alternatively, users could use the scheduling software tool to manage production units and resources. • Per-relocation unit duration. This type of duration repre- sents a typical time required to complete a relocation assis- tance activity on a per-unit relocation basis (i.e., following a similar approach as that followed for the real property acquisition tasks). These durations are assigned to reloca- tion assistance tasks (e.g., Task 7). For example, accord- ing to Task 7.2.6, a relocation agent needs 60 working days to take all the actions needed to provide a comparable dwelling to a displaced person. For a project that involves 100 relocations, it would be necessary to factor in all the resources needed to accomplish this task within the time constraints of the project and then assign the correspond- ing value to Task 7.2.6. Alternatively, users could use the scheduling software tool to manage production units and resources. Application Examples The reference work schedule could be used for a variety of applications. This section illustrates three basic examples: appraisal duration analysis, impact of condemnation, and use of baselines. The first example shows the effect of extending the preparation of an appraisal (Task 6.1.5) on the real prop- erty acquisition process and describes how to determine the critical duration of this activity. The second example illus- trates the effect of condemnation proceedings (Task 6.5.1) on the acquisition process. The third example shows the process to set baselines and describes their use to help monitor the progress of a project. Other applications include, but are not limited to, assign- ing resources to tasks, managing project budgets, analyzing workloads, facilitating coordination with internal and exter- nal stakeholders, adjusting schedules, monitoring project progress, and preparing reports. Agencies could also use the work schedule to train internal and external stakeholders on concepts such as project development and delivery process interdependencies and Uniform Act requirements. Example 1: Appraisal Duration Analysis This example examines the effects of modifying the time it takes to prepare an appraisal on the duration of the real prop- erty acquisition process. According to Figure 49, the typical duration for conducting an appraisal (Task 6.1.5) is 80 work- ing days and the total duration of the real property acquisi- tion task (Task 6) is 265 days. Task 6.1.5 is not on the critical path. If the duration of the appraisal could be shortened to, say, 40 working days, the duration of Task 6 could potentially decrease to 230 days (Figure 50[a]). Less clear is the benefit to the entire project, because other tasks are on the critical path. If the duration of the appraisal increases to 90 days, however, the duration of Task 6 would increase to 280 days (Figure 50[b]). Under this scenario, the appraisal task is now part of the critical path, along with several other real property acquisition sub- tasks. (Note: the critical appraisal duration for this example is 86 days.) This information could be used to determine what resources are necessary to prevent the appraisal activity from affecting not just the real property acquisition but also the delivery of the entire transportation project. Example 2: Impact of Condemnation This example evaluates the impact of condemnation pro- ceedings on the duration of the real property acquisition process and the project delivery date. For simplicity, assume that condemnation proceedings (Task 6.5.1) last 40 working days (i.e., 56 calendar days). For this hypothetical example, Figure 51(a) shows that the total duration of the real property

(a) Duration of appraisal: 40 days. (b) Duration of appraisal: 90 days. Figure 50. Appraisal duration analysis.

(a) Duration of condemnation proceedings: 40 days. (b) Duration of condemnation proceedings: 50 days. Figure 51. Impact of condemnation on real property acquisition tasks.

84 (b) Baseline work schedule versus work schedule after delays in conducting appraisal. (a) Baseline work schedule associated with the original work schedule. Figure 52. Use of baselines before and after changes to the work schedule. acquisition task (Task 6) is 269 days. The task is not on the critical path. Increasing the duration to 50 working days (i.e., 70 calendar days) would increase the total duration of Task 6 to 279 days, making the condemnation proceedings part of the critical path (Figure 51[b]). Increasing the duration of the condemnation proceedings further would have a correspond- ing effect both on the duration of the acquisition of real prop- erty and the duration of the whole project. For example, if the condemnation proceedings last 261 working days (i.e., 1 calen- dar year), the duration of the real property acquisition would increase to 490 working days (i.e., 686 calendar days, or almost 23 months), and the project could be delayed by 211 additional working days (i.e., 295 calendar days, or almost 10 months). Example 3: Use of Baselines This example demonstrates the use of baselines for moni- toring the progress of a project. Baselines are snapshots of the work schedule that reflect a specific set of assumptions regarding tasks, resources, and assignments. As such, they are particularly useful to help visualize the impact of changes to the work schedule. As an illustration, Figure 52(a) shows the construction of a baseline that represents the original con ditions shown in Figure 49 (i.e., assuming the duration of the appraisal to be 40 days). Figure 52(b) shows the base- line and a modified schedule that results from delaying the completion of the appraisal by 50 days, making Task 6.1.5

85 (conduct appraisal) part of the critical path. Additional baselines could be generated to illustrate the impact of sub- sequent delays or to monitor the project through several schedule modifications. Summary This chapter described a reference work schedule that incorporates the requirements and procedures in the Uniform Act into the reference (or typical) transportation project and delivery process. The purpose of the work schedule is to provide a graphical representation of real property acquisition and relocation assistance scheduling activities within the context of both the Uniform Act and the typical requirements of a transportation project. To provide context, this chapter also included a discussion of typical project durations, including both the entire project development and delivery process and real property acquisition and relocation assistance activities. Every project is different, making the determination of the duration of a single typi- cal project difficult. For example, according to a GAO report (46), it can take 9–19 years to plan, gain approval for, design, and build a new, major federal-aid highway project that has significant environmental impacts. Similarly, according to an AASHTO report (47), a major transportation project can take 10 years to 15 years from beginning to end, even without controversial issues that can slow the project further. This chapter provided a few examples of state DOT efforts to derive metrics to determine the duration and impact of their real property acquisition process. For example, the Florida DOT estimates the length of time between appraisals and the right-of-way certification to be 18–24 months. Similarly, the Minnesota DOT programs real property acquisitions using an 18-month schedule from the time the right-of-way map has been received until a project goes to letting. Using simple static Gantt charts to document and schedule real property activi- ties is quite common. Less common is the use of scheduling software tools to conduct what-if scenarios to understand and anticipate the impact of activity changes within the over- all schedule and the critical path of the real property process. Examples of state DOTs that use scheduling software for this purpose include the North Carolina DOT and the Ohio DOT. Other state DOTs are using statistical methods to derive central tendency and dispersion estimators of right-of-way activity durations. For example, based on data from 45 com- pleted projects that had at least 10 parcels per project, the Texas DOT concluded that the mean time to move from right- of-way release to possession of the property was 18 months, while the mean time to move from the initial appraisal to possession of the property was 11 months. However, there was significant dispersion in the data. From right-of-way release to possession of the property, the standard deviation and range were 16 months and 69 months, respectively. From the initial appraisal to possession of the property, the stan- dard deviation and range were 13 months and 59 months, respectively. For critical path parcels, the numbers were more dramatic. In this case, the mean time to move from right- of-way release to possession of the property was 33 months, while the mean time to move from the initial appraisal to pos- session of the property was 24 months. The dispersion around the mean for this subsample was also quite significant. The research team developed the reference work schedule in both Microsoft Project 2010 format and PDF, and both files are provided as standalone files on CRP-CD 154. The work schedule includes tasks that represent Level 2 model swim lanes and activities as well as Level 3 model activities. The WBS is organized into three levels to account for tasks that represent a swim lane (first-level tasks), an individual activity within a swim lane (second-level tasks), or an activity required by the Uniform Act (third-level tasks). The reference work schedule could be used for a variety of applications. This chapter described three basic examples: appraisal duration analysis, impact of condemnation, and use of baselines. The first example shows the effect of extending the preparation of an appraisal (Task 6.1.5) on the real prop- erty acquisition process and describes how to determine the critical duration of this activity. The second example illus- trates the effect of condemnation proceedings (Task 6.5.1) on the acquisition process. The third example shows the pro- cess to set baselines and describes their use to help monitor the progress of a project. Other applications include, but are not limited to, assigning resources to tasks, managing project budgets, analyzing workloads, facilitating coordination with internal and external stakeholders, adjusting schedules, moni- toring project progress, and preparing reports. Agencies could also use the work schedule to train internal and external stake- holders on concepts such as project development and delivery process interdependencies and Uniform Act requirements.

Next: Chapter 5 - Issues, Challenges, and Strategies for Improvement or Optimization »
Strategies to Optimize Real Property Acquisition, Relocation Assistance, and Property Management Practices Get This Book
×
 Strategies to Optimize Real Property Acquisition, Relocation Assistance, and Property Management Practices
Buy Paperback | $85.00
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 771: Strategies to Optimize Real Property Acquisition, Relocation Assistance, and Property Management Practices provides improved, integrated real property procedures and business practices in the project development and delivery process. The report also provides suggestions to improve property management practices. The report is accompanied by a CD-ROM that contains an integrated model of the transportation project development and delivery process, including a real property acquisition and relocation assistance model and reference work schedule.

The CD-ROM is also available for download from TRB’s website as an ISO image. Links to the ISO image and instructions for burning a CD-ROM from an ISO image are provided below.

Help on Burning an .ISO CD-ROM Image

Download the .ISO CD-ROM Image

(Warning: This is a large file and may take some time to download using a high-speed connection.)

CD-ROM Disclaimer - This software is offered as is, without warranty or promise of support of any kind either expressed or implied. Under no circumstance will the National Academy of Sciences or the Transportation Research Board (collectively "TRB") be liable for any loss or damage caused by the installation or operation of this product. TRB makes no representation or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, in fact or in law, including without limitation, the warranty of merchantability or the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, and shall not in any case be liable for any consequential or special damages.

READ FREE ONLINE

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!