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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Travel Training for Older Adults Part I: A Handbook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22299.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

T R A N S I T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M TCRP REPORT 168 TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2014 www.TRB.org Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation Subject Areas Public Transportation • Passenger Transportation • Safety and Human Factors Travel Training for Older Adults Part I: A Handbook Jon E. Burkhardt David J. Bernstein Kathryn Kulbicki Westat Rockville, MD David W. Eby Lisa J. Molnar University of Michigan transportation research institUte Ann Arbor, MI Charles A. Nelson nelson DevelopMent, ltD. Akron, OH James M. McLary Mclary ManageMent Bloomington, IN

TCRP REPORT 168, PART I Project B-41 ISSN 1073-4872 ISBN 978-0-309-30794-9 © 2014 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Transit Cooperative Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the sponsors of the Transit Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM The nation’s growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Current systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to intro- duce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213—Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administration—now the Federal Transit Admin istration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- solving research. TCRP, modeled after the longstanding and success- ful National Cooperative Highway Research Program, undertakes research and other technical activities in response to the needs of tran- sit service providers. The scope of TCRP includes a variety of transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Pro- posed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was autho- rized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement out- lining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooper- ating organizations: FTA, the National Academies, acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research orga- nization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identi- fying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the Transportation Research Board. The panels prepare project state- ments (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide techni- cal guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research pro- grams since 1962. As in other TRB activ ities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without com pensation. Because research cannot have the desired impact if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on dissemi- nating TCRP results to the intended end users of the research: tran- sit agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other support- ing material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively address common operational problems. The TCRP results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Published reports of the TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR TCRP REPORT 168, PART I Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lawrence D. Goldstein, Senior Program Officer Anthony P. Avery, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natassja Linzau, Editor TCRP PROJECT B-41 PANEL Field of Service Configuration Corinne G. Goodrich, San Francisco, CA (Chair) Vincent Allen Brown, Charlotte, NC Betsy Buxer, MV Transportation, Phoenix, AZ Karl M. Johanson, Council on Aging & Human Services, Colfax, WA Minnie Fells Johnson, Plantation, FL Cherie Leporatti, Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority, Washington, DC Denis P. Paddeu, Rappahannock Area Agency on Aging, Fredericksburg, VA Jonathan V. Rubell, The Kennedy Center, Inc., Trumbull, CT Michael J. VanDekreke, Regional Transportation Authority, Chicago, IL Julie Wilcke, Ride Connection, Inc., Portland, OR Pamela Brown, FTA Liaison Robert Carlson, Community Transportation Association of America Liaison

F O R E W O R D By Lawrence D. Goldstein Staff Officer Transportation Research Board TCRP Report 168: Travel Training for Older Adults presents a comprehensive roadmap for how to help make travel training meet the mobility needs of older persons. The report includes an executive summary, a detailed Handbook, and a supplemental research report. The Handbook, Part I, provides an extensive set of guidelines for transit agencies and human services providers on how to build and implement training programs to help older adults who are able to use fixed route public transit. The supplemental research report, Part II, reviews the research plan that produced this report as well as the case studies used to formulate the overall strategic program. The Handbook addresses the primary components of an effective travel training pro- gram. It defines the target market for travel training; identifies incentives and barriers to participation in training programs and subsequent use of conventional public transit; pre- sents effective marketing and outreach strategies; describes opportunities and techniques for customized training; identifies and describes methods to monitor outcomes, refine techniques, and sustain ridership; and outlines how to address cost-effectiveness from the perspective of the provider as well as the recipient of training efforts. The Handbook focuses on practical implementation, drawing on experience from programs currently in use throughout the country. Travel training for older adults has become more common because it encourages greater ridership using conventional public transit services, and because transferring ridership from paratransit to conventional public transit can potentially decrease overall transit sys- tem operating costs. At the same time, there is interest in improving the quality of life of older adults—expanding opportunities for increased mobility and continued independence for those not otherwise constrained by physical or cognitive disabilities. To meet these growing demands, transit operators need better information to under- stand how effective travel training can increase ridership, which older adults are likely to benefit from travel training, what barriers have to be overcome, and what elements of travel training programs are linked to greater success among different groups of older adults. This information should be useful to professionals engaged in the practice of travel training as well as other individuals interested in increasing the mobility of older persons, and it should also be of keen interest to older persons and persons with disabilities who are interested in learning more about how public transportation can meet their travel needs when and where possible. The Handbook is built on experience gleaned from seven detailed case studies and 13 additional studies examined in a broader context. It describes key issues that should frame a training program, how to improve current travel training practices, potential obstacles,

and how to overcome those obstacles. As described, the fundamentals of any travel training program must address how to reach out to affected communities to draw users in, as well as how to identify and present benefits as well as costs of training in support of program implementation. The transit industry and local jurisdictions can use the resources provided in this report to initiate or improve travel training programs for older persons as well as persons with disabilities. The Handbook and supplemental research report highlight best practices by leaders in the travel training field and provide suggestions for improving travel training practices. Various training practices are discussed in depth, and factors for success are enu- merated. In particular, practitioners should focus their attention on key features of suc- cessful programs as presented in the report, and they should understand the challenges that such programs typically face.

C O N T E N T S 1 Chapter 1 How to Use this Handbook 1 Objectives of this Handbook 2 Information Sources 2 Roadmap to the Handbook 3 Data Limitations 5 Chapter 2 Introduction to Travel Training 5 The Promise of Travel Training 6 Key Issues in Travel Training 8 Travel Training: How It’s Supposed to Work 11 Fundamentals of Travel Training Programs 13 Benefits of Travel Training 15 Potential Challenges to Travel Training Programs 17 Chapter 3 Characteristics of Successful Travel Training Programs 17 The Attributes of Successful Programs 17 Components of Successful Travel Training Programs 21 Finding the Right Combination of Factors 23 Chapter 4 “How to” Information 23 Why Get Involved with Travel Training? 24 What Travel Skills Will You Try to Promote? 24 What Makes an Effective Travel Training Program? 26 How Do You Set Up an Effective Travel Training Program in Your Community? 27 What Resources Are Needed for an Effective and Sustainable Travel Training Program? 29 How Can You Establish and Implement Programs to Train and Support Travel Trainers? 29 What’s Needed to Account for Your Expenses? 30 How Do You Measure the Benefits of Travel Training? 33 How Do You Set Up an Effective Outreach, Education, and Marketing Program? 34 What Tools and Techniques Are Useful? 35 What Are Some Obstacles That Your Travel Training Program Might Encounter? 36 How Can You Integrate Travel Training with Mobility Management Efforts? 37 Recapping These Questions 38 Chapter 5 Improved Travel Training Practices

40 Chapter 6 Brief Case Studies 40 Highlights of the Case Study Selection Process 40 Data Limitations 41 Case Study Reports 42 Via Mobility Services Travel Training Via Mobility Services Boulder, Colorado 45 RTA Travel Training Program Regional Transportation Authority Chicago, Illinois 47 NJTIP @ Rutgers Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey New Brunswick, New Jersey 50 RideWise Ride Connection Portland, Oregon 53 Freedom to Go Riverside Transit Agency Riverside, California 56 Paratransit Mobility Training Paratransit, Inc. Sacramento, California 59 Senior Mobility Orientation, Travel Training, and Other Training The Kennedy Center, Inc. Trumbull, Connecticut 61 Summary 62 Glossary of Technical Terms 62 Key Transportation Concepts 65 Federal Legislation and Programs 66 Sources for the Glossary 67 Appendix A List of Information Sources 70 Appendix B Suggested Contents for Travel Training Program Forms Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.

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TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Report 168: Travel Training for Older Adults, Part I: A Handbook presents a comprehensive roadmap for designing a travel training program to meet the mobility needs of older persons. The Handbook, Part I, addresses the primary components of an effective travel training program and provides an extensive set of guidelines for transit agencies and human services providers on how to build and implement training programs to help older adults who are able to use fixed-route public transit.

The supplemental research report, Part II, reviews the research plan that produced this report as well as the case studies used to formulate the overall strategic program.

An Executive Summary brochure summarizes the highlights of TCRP Report 168, Parts I and II.

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