National Academies Press: OpenBook

Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning (2014)

Chapter: Chapter 3 - Airport Planning General

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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Airport Planning General." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Airport Planning General." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Airport Planning General." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Airport Planning General." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Airport Planning General." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Airport Planning General." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Airport Planning General." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Airport Planning General." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Airport Planning General." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Airport Planning General." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22300.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

23 C H A P T E R 3 The key to successful GA facility development is planning. The FAA describes airport plan- ning as “a systematic process used to establish guidelines for the efficient development of air- ports that is consistent with local, state and national goals. A key objective of airport planning is to assure the effective use of airport resources in order to satisfy aviation demand in a financially feasible manner.” An organized and comprehensive planning process helps avoid common pit- falls in developing GA facilities. Chapter 2 described what general aviation is and the types of GA facilities commonly found at GA and commercial service airports. This chapter describes the types of planning that affect GA facilities at airports and why planning is important. Chapters 4 and 5 more specifically discuss the planning of GA facilities. Four main planning documents lay the foundation for GA facility development. These docu- ments, to be discussed in more detail in this chapter, are as follows: • Airport Strategic Plan • Airport Master Plan • Airport Layout Plan (ALP) • Various Environmental Plans ALPs and environmental reviews are required by the FAA to receive federal funding. In addi- tion to the planning documents noted above, other planning efforts may influence GA facility planning at airports. These include • State/Regional System Plans. State and Regional System Plans use a top-down approach to airport planning and evaluate how the airports within a specific state or region relate to each other. Generally speaking, a system plan helps to define the functional role an airport plays within a state or region and provides facility development guidance from a big-picture perspective. These system and regional plans, along with the FAA’s ASSET Study referenced in Chapter 2 often describe airports based on their use within the system. These plans also identify typical facilities associated with commercial service and GA airports. Airport owners can reference these documents as they plan development at their airports. • City/County Land Use Planning and Zoning Ordinances. Incompatible land uses and conflicts between airports and their adjacent communities are one of the largest threats to airports. Compatible land use is vital for successful protection and promotion of airports. Local planning documents (e.g., comprehensive plans, zoning ordinances, and zoning maps) should incorporate the airport, as well as consider the airport’s needs related to safety and protecting the investment of the facilities at the airport. Planning is conducted at airports to • Meet current and future demand • Promote safe and efficient airport operations Airport Planning—General

24 Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning • Fulfill the prerequisites for FAA project funding • Determine the most cost-effective way to implement facility improvements • Ensure the facilities fit into the community and regional vision Errors commonly made with regard to airport planning include • Being unprepared • Lack of foresight • Inflexibility/rigidity • Too narrow a focus and not considering the big picture relative to long-term needs • Non-integrated approach among airport facilities • Not recognizing the economic implications • Inconsistency with local land use plans and zoning ordinances • Outdated planning documents or piecemeal planning projects • Not understanding true demand or developing unrealistic plans • Poor communication with state DOT and/or FAA • Not involving all stakeholders throughout the entire planning process Although these mistakes can occur regardless of type and size of airport, they are more com- monly seen when planning for GA facilities. Specific examples include • Lack of foresight (e.g., releasing/selling land that should be kept for future airport development). • Inflexibility (e.g., developing hangars and a hangar layout that accommodates existing aircraft types/mix or for a specific tenant and not considering if the aircraft fleet mix will change in the future). • Non-integrated approach (e.g., not considering traffic flows to hangars, FBOs, and terminals when developing the taxiway system or location of fuel farms; comingling of aircraft and vehicles). • Not recognizing economic implications (e.g., locating FBOs too close together which can cause confusion among transient operators and “turf wars” between FBOs). • Piecemeal planning (e.g., not considering existing planning documents when a developer approaches an airport to build hangars. Smaller airports are sometimes happy to have any development occur and do not consider how the development plans fit the vision of the air- port for the long term). • Unrealistic planning (e.g., if an airport and the community do not understand the true demand associated with the airport market area, airport planning documents can be over- ambitious and leave an airport with facilities that are extremely difficult to fund or get built or that result in an overbuilt airport with unused or empty facilities). Four main planning documents are used for planning airport facilities. These planning docu- ments (airport strategic plan, airport master plan, ALP, and environmental planning) are spe- cific in their purpose, can be developed at various points during the lifecycle of the airport, and relate to each other (see Exhibit 3-1). These documents are used by both commercial service and GA airports. The planning documents identified affect how GA facility planning is conducted and help airports develop in a focused and orderly fashion. Further, airports can also be sustainable. Sus- tainability is defined as the capacity to endure. Within the context of development, in 1987 the United Nations defined sustainable development as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” The FAA has identified three core principles to airport sustainability: 1. Protecting the environment 2. Maintaining a high and stable level of economic growth 3. Social progress that recognizes all stakeholders’ needs

Airport Planning—General 25 Airport sustainability planning makes sustainability a “core objective rather than a secondary consideration” during planning. By weaving sustainability throughout planning, airport owners can make more informed decisions about facilities. Chapters 4 and 5 provide detailed guidance on how to develop specific GA facilities. This chapter summarizes the key planning documents that can affect considerations and decisions to be made when developing GA facilities at airports. Airport Strategic Plan Simply put, an airport strategic plan sets the overall vision for the airport and identifies long-term strategic goals for the airport. Such a plan considers how an airport fits into a community or region’s vision for the future economic viability and identifies the future needs of the airport. TRB’s ACRP researched and provided practical guidance to airports on how to approach airport planning stra- tegically. These documents (ACRP Report 20: Strategic Planning in the Airport Industry and ACRP Report 77: Guidebook for Developing General Aviation Airport Business Plans) provide airport man- agers and airport owners with guidance on developing and implementing an airport strategic plan. An airport strategic plan and airport business plan can help keep an airport owner and management focused on achieving the community’s adopted vision and goals for the airport. By using a strategic approach to airport development, local airport leaders can better make informed decisions regarding the management, operation, and development of the airport. A strategic plan can lay the foundation for all other airport planning documents (e.g., business plan, master plan, and land use plan) as its elements are interrelated and can be translated into other planning processes. The strategic plan is often not a separate document but an overall strategy identified in the airport master plan and airport business plan. The four basic elements within the strategic plan process are pre-planning, analysis, implemen- tation, and monitoring. The plan then provides a “high-level statement of strategic directions and priorities.” The benefits of incorporating this plan into the overall airport planning and GA facil- ity planning process is the development of a framework from which to prioritize projects and the ability of the airport and its policymakers to evaluate the needs of the airport comprehensively. Airport Master Plan An airport master plan is essentially an airport’s blueprint for long-term development (typi- cally with a 20-year horizon). The goals of a master plan as identified by the FAA are to • Represent existing airport features, future airport development, and anticipated land use graphically Exhibit 3-1. Key airport planning documents.

26 Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning • Establish a realistic schedule for implementing the proposed development • Identify a realistic financial plan to support development • Validate the plan technically and procedurally through investigation of concepts and alterna- tives on technical, economic, and environmental grounds • Prepare and present a plan to the public that addresses all relevant issues and satisfies local, state, and federal regulations • Establish a framework for a continuous planning process Airport master plans are developed to address key issues, objectives, and goals pertinent to the airport’s development. Prior to following the guidelines set forth by the FAA in AC 150/5070-6B, Airport Master Plans, airport owners need to go through a pre-planning process and determine the need for public involvement throughout the entire process. Exhibit 3-2 shows steps for airport sponsors and management to follow when undertaking an airport master plan project. Pre-planning Airport owners and management go through this informal process before formally beginning an airport master planning process. Basic steps in the process include 1. Developing a needs determination. Airport policymakers and management usually identify the need to conduct a planning study based on a deficiency of facilities or services that cur- rently exists at the airport or within their existing plan; another planning document (e.g., strategic airport plan, airport business plan, or statewide/regional system plan) has identi- fied the need to conduct a study to evaluate deficiencies at the airport; or airport users have identified facilities needed (new or updated/expanded) to meet their operational needs. As the airport owner/management develops the needs determination, they will also determine the type of study that will be conducted and the level of effort needed to complete the study. 2. Selecting a consultant. After needs have been determined and the type of study to be con- ducted has been identified, the airport will typically select a consultant to conduct the work. The FAA and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) both provide guidance for selecting a qualified consultant (FAA AC 150/5100-14, Architectural, Engineering and Planning Consul- tant Services for Airport Grant Projects and Airport Consultants Council Guidelines to Selecting Airport Consultants). Exhibit 3-2. Airport master planning steps. Source: FAA AC 150/5070-6B, Airport Master Plans Pre-Planning • Develop a needs determina on • Select a consultant • Set goals and objec ves • Obtain funding Public Involvement • Encourage informa on sharing between stakeholders • Determine complexity of public involvement program Process • FAA AC 150/5070-6B, Airport Master Plans • FAA AC 150/5300-13A, Airport Design

Airport Planning—General 27 3. Setting goals and objectives. One of the first tasks to be completed once a consultant is selected is to define the goals and objectives for completing the airport master plan and developing the scope of work for the project. 4. Obtaining study funding. If eligible for federal or state funding, the final step before beginning the project is to apply for funding through a federal or state grant application. Public and Stakeholder Involvement Once pre-planning has been completed, the next task is to determine the complexity of a public involvement program. The earlier a public involvement program is initiated, the more effective it will be in the master planning process. The general public is often unaware of the contributions an airport provides to the community, including how an airport’s infrastruc- ture strengthens the local economy. When airport terminal areas or runways need to expand to support existing and future demand, the public sometimes views the expansion negatively. Therefore, it is vital to understand airport user needs, perspectives of the public and state and federal review agencies, and the tradeoffs between the alternatives being considered. Developing this understanding, sharing this information among stakeholders, and considering the input received provides a strong foundation for the projects identified in the airport master plan. This sharing of information should be documented and included within the master plan as an appendix as recommended in Chapter 4—Public Involvement of FAA AC 150/5070-6B, Airport Master Plans. Public involvement is essential to the success of an airport master plan project. Several tools/ techniques can bring the public and key stakeholders into the master planning process. These tools/techniques can include but are not limited to • Master Plan Advisory Group. The Master Plan Advisory Group provides input on informa- tion being considered and findings being developed throughout the airport master planning process. The group can help assess issues and needs and can act as a sounding board for pro- posed development alternatives. • Public Information/Outreach Meetings. The purpose of these meetings is to gather input and inform the broader public and other stakeholders of the progress of the airport master plan project. • City Council, Airport Authority, and/or Advisory Commission Meetings. These meetings provide regular updates to the City Council, Airport Authority, and/or Advisory Commission on key information and the status of the planning, as well as obtaining input. • Public Awareness Campaign. A public awareness campaign gets word to the general public about the airport and the airport master plan project. The campaign can include developing a project website that provides user-friendly, easy internet access to information about the project, or it can be a project newsletter that provides written information about the project to adjacent landowners, city officials, and other interested stakeholders. The level of public involvement should be proportional to the complexity of the project and level of interest by the public. Examples of the different types of stakeholders that could be included are listed below: • Airport Owner Representatives (e.g., airport authority, board, or commission representa- tives); Airport Manager; and key airport owner staff (e.g., city engineer, Economic Develop- ment Director) • State DOT Aviation/Aeronautics Personnel • FAA Personnel (e.g., Airports District Office, and Air traffic control tower, if applicable) Thoughtful pre-planning and early coordination with the FAA are key to a successful airport master plan project.

28 Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning • Users and Tenants • Interested Groups (e.g., Adjacent land owners and/or developers, Chamber of Commerce representatives, and neighborhood associations) • Other Governmental Agencies (e.g., local political representatives; Native American tribes; state, regional, and metropolitan planning agencies; the TSA) Process The FAA Airport Master Plan AC (AC 150/5070-6B, Airport Master Plans) provides detailed guidance on developing an airport master plan. The FAA recognizes that each airport is differ- ent and that each “particular study will vary depending on the size, function, and challenges facing the study airport.” However, each airport master plan study will contain the same basic components (see Exhibit 3-3): 1. Existing Conditions. This first task in the master plan process becomes the foundation for the study because it researches and documents information not only about the airport (exist- ing airside and landside facilities) but includes relevant information about the airport’s local/ surrounding communities and an environmental overview. 2. Aviation Forecasts. There are different types of GA aircraft (e.g., single-engine, multi-engine, and jet) and there are different types of GA activities. Developing projections of aviation demand based on these aircraft and activities is essential to planning and important in under- standing the current needs of the airport and in determining future facility needs. Compo- nents of aviation demand are typically projected for 5-, 10-, and 20-year periods and include aircraft operations, based aircraft, and aircraft fleet mix. The results of these projections are used to determine facility needs. Many methods can be used to forecast aviation demand. In August 2002, TRB published an E-Circular (Aviation Demand Forecasting—A Survey of Methodologies) documenting forecast methodologies used within the industry. Also, ACRP Synthesis of Airport Practice 2—Airport Aviation Activity Forecasting provides an overview of practices and methods used in airport activity forecasting. Chapter 4 of this Guidebook identifies various indicators of activity considered when developing forecasts. Chapter 5 provides guidance on how aviation activity relates to the size or planning of specific types of GA facilities. 3. Facility Requirements. An airport’s ability to accommodate existing and projected activity is determined by using approved FAA capacity methods. Capacity is the level of activity at Source: FAA AC 150/5070-6B, Airport Master Plans Exhibit 3-3. Basic components of an airport master plan.

Airport Planning—General 29 which unacceptable delay occurs. This is compared to the aviation forecasts to determine if any additional capacity is needed in terms of facilities. By comparing the inventory of existing facilities and results of the capacity analysis to the forecasts, the required facilities needed for the airport can be identified. Typical facilities evaluated include but are not limited to run- way length, width, and alignment; aircraft parking; fuel storage and location; security; access; NAVAIDS; and utilities. Numerous FAA documents (AC 150/5300-13, Airport Design; 14 CFR Part 77, Safe Efficient Use, and Preservation of Navigable Airspace; AC 150/5060-B, Airport Capacity and Delay, and AC 150/5070-6B, Airport Master Plans) provide guidance to airports on identifying appropriate facilities and ensuring they meet FAA standards. Future facility requirements will provide the basis for evaluating alternative development actions that might be adopted to satisfy the need for improved facilities. 4. Alternatives Development and Evaluation. Based on the results of the previous task, feasible alternatives for developing all facilities on the airport will be evaluated (Chapter 2 provided examples of various types of GA facilities and Chapters 4 and 5 will provide guidance on planning for these facilities). Alternatives evaluated will take into consideration the long-term development of the airport while planning for near-term implementation of projects. Each of the identified alternatives will be compared based on overall merits and deficiencies and then ranked quantitatively and qualitatively according to their ability to meet the goals of the FAA (e.g., safety, capacity, and compatibility). Once a preferred development has been selected, the next step is to update the airport’s airport layout plan (ALP) to illustrate all existing and planned facility development at the airport. 5. Airport Layout Plans (ALPs). An ALP is a package of plans that present the existing and future development of the airport. As a condition of receiving grants, FAA requires airport sponsors to maintain a current ALP at all times. Developing an ALP requires close coordination between the airport sponsor, the FAA, and the consultant to ensure that the ALP is comprehensive and meets FAA design standards. The FAA provides guidance (FAA Order 5100.38, Airport Improvement Program Handbook; AC 150/5300-13C, Airport Design and AC 150/5070-6B, Airport Master Plans) on developing an ALP. The specific plan sheets that comprise an ALP plan set will vary with each airport planning project, depending on the level of effort identified in the pre-planning process. Typical plan sheets in an ALP set include the following: • Cover Sheet. This plan sheet has the airport’s name on it and an index of drawings included in the plan set. • Airport Data Sheet. This airport data sheet summarizes important existing and planned airport information. • Airport Layout Plan. The ALP sheet is developed using guidelines identified in FAA AC 150/5300-13, Airport Design. Features depicted include prominent airport facilities (e.g., runways, taxiways, buildings, and parking areas) and any facilities to be phased out or added in the future. Areas available for aviation development and services (e.g., airport maintenance areas) and rotorcraft operating areas are also defined on the ALP. • Airport Airspace Drawing. The airspace plan or FAR Part 77 airspace drawings depict penetrations of the FAR Part 77 imaginary surfaces. • Inner Portion of the Approach Surface Drawing. Runway approach drawings depict plan and profile views of the runways and governing approach surfaces. These plans include existing and future safety areas identified in FAA AC 150/5300-13, Airport Design. • Terminal Area Plan. A detailed terminal area plan depicts aircraft parking/tie-down areas, fueling facilities, aircraft storage/hangars, buildings, and security facilities. • On-Airport Land Use Drawing. The on-airport land use drawing divides the airport into aviation-related functional areas and can include noise contours to depict the level of sound occurring on the airport as a result of aircraft operations. • Off-Airport Land Use Drawing. The off-airport land use drawing depicts existing and future land use of the parcels of land surrounding the airport.

30 Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning • Airport Property Map or “Exhibit A.” The airport property map shows the boundary of the airport and any avigation easements owned by the airport. • Runway Departure Surface Drawing. This drawing depicts departure surfaces as defined by FAA AC 150/5300-13, Airport Design. • Utility Drawing. The location and capacity of major utilities on the airport and in the sur- rounding area are shown on this drawing. 6. Implementation Plan/Capital Improvement Plan (CIP). By this task, the master plan pro- cess has identified the various projects and facilities necessary to implement the preferred alternative. Cost estimates associated with this list of projects are developed to help determine the desired sequencing of projects over the planning periods. A Capital Improvement Plan (CIP) is developed as part of this task to help determine when projects will occur. 7. Financial Feasibility Analysis. The final task in the master plan process is the financial evalu- ation of the benefits and costs associated with the recommended development plan. This financial analysis can include the following: • Projection of expenses, revenues, and debt service; • Assessing rates and charges; and • Establishing financial feasibility. Standalone Airport Layout Plan An ALP shows the existing and proposed airport boundaries and facilities (airside and land- side) and the location of existing and proposed non-aviation areas and improvements. Airports are required by the FAA as a condition of receiving grants to keep ALPs up to date at all times. The FAA defines an ALP’s purpose as the following primary functions: • To receive financial assistance under the AIP grant program and to receive Passenger Facility Charges (commercial service airports only), • To create a blueprint for airport development in accordance with design standards and safety requirements, • To become a public document that serves as a record of aeronautical requirements both pres- ent and future, • To enable the airport sponsor and the FAA to plan for facility improvements, and • To serve as a working tool for the airport sponsor. While an ALP is part of a master plan, an update to an ALP can be done without going through the full master plan process. A standalone ALP project is viewed as appropriate by the FAA when “fundamental assumptions of the previous master plan have not changed.” Using the ALP check- list provided in Appendix F of the FAA AC 150/5070-6B, Airport Master Plans, airport sponsors and management can develop the scope of work for a new or updated ALP and move forward with a standalone ALP. A standalone ALP typically involves fewer components than a full master plan; however, it still requires close coordination between the airport sponsor, the FAA, and the consultant preparing the ALP. The basic components of a standalone ALP project follow: • Narrative Report. This report explains the changes to the ALP and contains the following elements: – Basic aeronautical forecasts – Basis for proposed items of development – Rationale for unusual design features and/or modifications to FAA Airport Design Standards – Summary of the three (short-term, mid-term, long-term) stages of development and draw- ings of the major items of development in each stage – An environmental overview to document environmental conditions that should be consid- ered in analyzing development alternatives and proposed projects

Airport Planning—General 31 • ALP Set. The ALP set contains the following elements: – Airport Layout Drawing – Airport Airspace Drawing – Inner Portion of the Approach Surface Drawing – Terminal Area Drawing – Land Use Drawing – Airport Property Map – Airport Departure Surfaces Environmental Planning Signed into law in 1970 by President Richard Nixon, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) has become the cornerstone law by which we protect our environment. The Act assures that proper technical, economical, and environmental analyses are performed before develop- ment occurs. The FAA’s Airport Environmental Program helps airports implement NEPA regu- lations as well as other federal environmental laws. Each state also has environmental laws that should be followed. A basic overview of how environmental considerations fit into the overall planning process is discussed in this section. Ideally, when airports are planning the development of their facilities, they follow state and federal environmental regulations, as well as, including the FAA early in the process of planning facilities. FAA Order 5050.4B, NEPA Implementing Instructions for Airport Projects, emphasizes the importance of airport planning during the environmental process because it helps to • Define the airport sponsor’s proposed project • Describe the purpose and need and identify reasonable alternatives to address the purpose and need • Provide analyses of potential environmental impacts the proposed project and its reasonable alternatives could cause • Develop the full scope of reasonably foreseeable airport development critical to the Federal action’s cumulative impact analysis Planning data and analyses conducted as part of strategic plans, airport master plans, and ALPs that can influence environmental analyses include • Inventory data of existing facilities • ALP showing proposed development • Aviation/aeronautical forecasts • Design aircraft and fleet mix • Facility requirements • Planned project linkages versus independent utility As with the planning documents, key steps should be followed to ensure a successful project (see Exhibit 3-4). For environmental planning these steps include pre-planning, public involve- ment, and process/guidance. FAA Orders 1050.1, Environmental Impacts: Policies and Procedures, and 5050.4B, NEPA Implementing Instructions for Airport Projects, provide guidance for compliance with NEPA reg- ulations. There are three types of environmental reviews which airports can complete based on the complexity and nature of a development project. FAA Order 1050.1 identifies these major levels of review as • Categorical Exclusion (Cat Ex). This first level of review is the simplest of the three. If a proj- ect or action meets certain criteria that a federal agency has previously determined as having

32 Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning no significant impact, the project or action can be categorically excluded from a detailed environmental analysis. • Environmental Assessment (EA). The next level of review is when a project or action must undergo an EA to determine whether or not a federal undertaking would significantly affect the environment. If the answer is no, the FAA issues a Finding Of No Significant Impact (FONSI). The FONSI may address measures that may have to be taken to mitigate any impacts. • Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). An EIS is the most detailed of environmental reviews. At the end of the EIS, the FAA prepares a public record of its decision addressing the findings of the review. An EIS is conducted because (1) an EA determines that the environ- mental consequences of a proposed project or action may be significant, (2) FAA determines that the project is environmental controversial, or (3) FAA anticipates the project may signifi- cantly impact the environment. In addition to following NEPA regulations, other types of environmental planning and requirements that could affect GA facility development include • Aircraft Noise Compatibility Planning. FAR Part 150 is the administrative rule promulgated to implement the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act of 1979. FAR Part 150 sets require- ments for airport operators who choose to undertake an airport noise compatibility study with federal funding assistance. Part 150 provides for developing noise exposure maps (NEM) and a noise compatibility program (NCP). Terminal areas, hangars, and aprons are examples of GA facilities that serve as concentration points for aircraft activity and are include in the analyses conducted in Part 150 study. • Compatible Land Use Planning. The most successful methods for regulating land use incom- patibilities surrounding airports are local planning efforts including comprehensive plans, zoning ordinances, and airport master plans. The FAA’s Land Use Compatibility and Airports, A Guide for Effective Land Use Planning provides guidance to airports on how to establish and maintain compatible land uses around airports. Land use planning issues can and should be considered during the airport master planning process. Some states have environmental requirements in addition to and/or more stringent than federal environmental approval requirements. Exhibit 3-4. Key steps in environmental planning. Pre-Planning •During the airport master planning process, airports should consider alternative project layouts that could eliminate or reduce environmental impacts Public Involvement •Early and frequent coordination with FAA •Determine Complexity of Public Involvement Program Process/ Guidance •FAA Order 1050.1, Environmental Impacts: Policies and Procedures •FAA Order 5050.4B, NEPA Implementing Instructions for Airport Projects •14 CFR Part 150 Regulation: Airport Noise Compatiblity Planning •150/5020-1, Noise Control & Compatibility Planning for Airports Source: FAA AC 150/5070-6B, Airport Master Plans

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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 113: Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning provides guidance for planning airport facilities that accommodate general aviation aircraft. The guidance is designed to help airport practitioners plan flexible and cost-effective facilities that are responsive to industry needs.

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