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Safety Reporting Systems at Airports (2014)

Chapter: Appendix A - Detailed Survey Responses

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Detailed Survey Responses ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Safety Reporting Systems at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22353.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Detailed Survey Responses ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Safety Reporting Systems at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22353.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Detailed Survey Responses ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Safety Reporting Systems at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22353.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Detailed Survey Responses ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Safety Reporting Systems at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22353.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Detailed Survey Responses ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Safety Reporting Systems at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22353.
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Page 53
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Detailed Survey Responses ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Safety Reporting Systems at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22353.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Detailed Survey Responses ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Safety Reporting Systems at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22353.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Detailed Survey Responses ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Safety Reporting Systems at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22353.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

48 Table A1 provides detailed comments from the 35 airport respondents related to the number of dedicated and collateral duty staff participating in safety-related programs. See the section in chapter four “Staff Dedicated and Collateral Duties” for additional information. appendix a deTaiLed SURVeY ReSpOnSeS TABLE A1 SAFETY-RELATED STAFF AND DUTIES COMMENTS FROM RESPONDENTS Hub Size Number of Dedicated Staff Number of Collateral Duties Staff Comments Large 0 23 Three primary staff, not dedicated and 23 others in Operations Large 0 71 Sixteen in Operations, 25 in Maintenance, and 30–40 for Police/Fire Dispatch Large 0 75 Includes a team of 3 total focused on safety; however, not dedicated duties Large 1 75 A total of 75 Operations staff Large 0 90 A total of 90 in Operations; many other staff in ARFF, EMT, Police Large 0 615 A total of 615 Operations, ARFF, Police, and Security staff Large 0 >200 A total of 80 public safety personnel and more if maintenance is included Large 1 110+ A total of 110 ARFF police, operations and landside Large 1 160+ A total of 60 Operations and 100+ Police/Fire Large 3 Not provided No collateral duty staff information provided. Medium 0 15 Each department has an assigned safety committee member; airport-wide there are 15 safety representatives. Medium 1 31 One person shared among multiple airports for safety-related support Medium 0 80 Eighty Operations, Police, Fire Medium 0 103 Twenty Operations, 45 Police, and 38 ARFF Medium 1 125 Operations, Police, and Fire totaling 125 staff Medium 1 147 One Dedicated Safety Manager, 12 Operations, 35 Police, 1 Risk Manager, 50 to 60 Maintenance staff, and 50 administrative support staff. Not all dedicated directly to safety but support the airport operation. Medium 1 300+ One SMS Manager, and approximately 300 Operations, Police, Fire Medium 4 60+ No staff are dedicated solely for SMS duties; however 4 key staff are managing safety. 60 Operations, Police, ARFF Medium 0 80 to 85 Approximately 80 to 85 staff including Operations, Police, ARFF, Maintenance, and Dispatch Small 0 5 Five total staff for safety related operations Small 3 74 Three primary points of contact relating to safety and 74 employees including Operations, Maintenance, Custodial, and EMS Small 0 300 No formal safety system; all staff are responsible for safety throughout the airport Small 2 40 - 50 Includes Operations, Police, Fire Non 1 2 One staff member is the airport facilities manager who has been assigned the “safety manager” role, and as such is responsible for SMS related activities and issues. Non 0 6 One SMS Manager and 5 Operations staff to support the effort. Not a dedicated SMS Manager Non 0 7 A total of 7 staff in Operations including assistance from a regional security officer and a state safety officer Non 0 8 Eight total staff to operate the airport

49 As discussed in chapter five, Table A2 provides a list of existing airline, charter, and maintenance voluntary reporting programs. TABLE A1 (continued) Hub Size Number of Dedicated Staff Number of Collateral Duties Staff Comments Non 0 8 One Operations Manager, an FBO Manager, 4 Operations staff, 4 Maintenance Staff, and seasonal workers to operate the airport Non 1 14 One full time Safety Manager and a total of 15 safety personnel including public safety and operations Non 0 15 A total of 13 Full time staff and 2 Part time staff for all airport operations. Non 0 18 A total of 18 airport staff with an increase to 21 for winter operations support Non 0 30 Thirty Total staff, including 19 Operations and 8 Maintenance staff NA GA 0 <10 No dedicated Safety Manager, Airport Director is the Accountable Executive and approximately 10 staff to operate the airport NA Reliever 0 >15 Assigned Safety Manager; however not dedicated and approximately 15 staff to operate the airport TABLE A2 VOLUNTARY REPORTING PROGRAMS Acronym System Primary Audience Third Party Hosted? Purpose Reference(s) Website Link or Contact Information ASAP - Commercial Airline Aviation Safety Action Program Part 121 or Part 145 *No information found Prevent accidents and incidents by encouraging employees of certificate holders to voluntarily report safety issues and events. (FAA) AC 120-66B FAA Order: 8000.82 FAA 8900.1 CHG 0 ASAP hotline (901) 224-5203 ASAP Hotline 855-358-7233 ASAP Reporting Flow Diagram http://www.faa.gov/about/initiatives/asap/ policy/media/asap_policy_flow_ac_ 120-66b.jpg ASAP - Maintenance Aviation Safety Action Program Airline Maintenance *No information found A non-punitive error- reporting program intended to encourage reporting of errors made by employee groups so that systemic solutions could be developed and error-inducing conditions could be minimized. (FAA) See ASAP DOT/ FAA /AR- 09/28 www.faa.gov/about/initiatives/asap/ reports_presentations/media/Maintenance_ ASAP_DOT-FAA-AR-9-28.pdf ASAP - Charter Airline Aviation Safety Action Program Part 135 and Part 135/91K ACSF Voluntary, self-reporting program designed to identify and reduce possible flight safety concerns. (ACSF) See ASAP http://acsf-safety.wbat.org/ ASIAS is a system that ties together 146 databases from various government sources. Aviation Safety Information Analysis and Sharing (System) All interested parties in aviation safety including government, air operators. MITRE Corporation hosts the air carrier proprietary data only Consolidated safety data that enables users to perform integrated queries across multiple databases, search an extensive warehouse of safety data, and display pertinent elements in an array of useful formats. (FAA) See ASIAS www.asias.faa.gov/pls/apex/f?p=100:1: www.asias.aero/ (continued on next page)

50 TABLE A2 (continued) Sources: All information was retrieved from multiple Internet searches using www.Google.com resulting in the links in the last table column with the month of September 2013. Acronym System Primary Audience Third Party Hosted? Purpose Reference(s) Website Link or Contact Information WBAT Web-Based Application Tool Airline employees Universal Technical Resource Services, Inc. (UTRS) WBAT is an open source, secure, web-based software operation designed for Airlines and Operators to enhance their Safety Program including both voluntary and mandatory safety programs. WBAT is also used for data collection, analysis, and report formation associated with SMS. (UTRS) See ASAP Each airline has a designated website for reporting with features that send the report to ASAP or to the airline safety group. GSIP Ground Safety Improvement Program Ground Handlers, GSPs Airline program Voluntary reporting for GSPs supporting airline operations. Used in conjunction with WBAT programs for GSPs (Specifically called out in Hawaiian airlines) See ASAP http://hawaiiansafety.wbat.org/ ASRS Aviation safety reporting system Pilots, Dispatch, Maintenance, and Cabin Crew (See ATSAP for Air Traffic) NASA FAA system that collects voluntarily submitted aviation safety incident / situation reports from pilots, controllers, and others and analyzes and responds to reports to lessen the likelihood of aviation accidents. (NASA) AC 00-46E FAR 91.25 FAAO JO 7200.20 http://asrs.arc.nasa.gov/index.html ATSAP Air Traffic Safety Action Program Controllers and Other Employees CSSI ATSAP is modeled after ASAP and specifically supports the Air Traffic community for voluntary safety reporting. See ASAP www.atsapsafety.com FOQA Flight Operational Quality Assurance Part 121 or 135 operators Airline Specific Flight Data Analysis Program (FDAP) Voluntary safety program designed to improve aviation safety through the proactive use of flight recorded data. (FAA) AC 120-82 Part 193 Part 13, Section 13.401 www.faa.gov/about/initiatives/atos/air_ carrier/foqa/ NTSB National Transportation Safety Board All Transportation None Independent agency that investigates significant accidents and develops fact-based records and reports and provides safety recommendations. 49 CFR 830 www.ntsb.gov/doclib/forms/6120_1web _nopwx.pdf VDRP Voluntary Disclosure Reporting Program Parts 21, 107, 108, 109, 121, 125, 129 (security program violations only), 133, 135, 137, 141, 142, 145, and 147 None FAA believes that the open sharing of apparent violations and a cooperative as well as an advisory approach to solving problems will enhance and promote aviation safety. (FAA) AC No: 00-58B https://av-info.faa.gov/vdrp/

51 Table A3 provides a summary of respondent comments by data use for preventive measures, as discussed in chapter seven. TABLE A3 DATA USED FOR PREVENTIVE MEASURES, RESPONDENT COMMENTS Type Comment Construction Management Formal SRAs for construction efforts provided hazard identification Construction Management SRA for construction provided safety information Construction Management Construction safety and construction safety mitigations were developed as a result of conducting a formal SRA Construction Management Construction SRA was performed and safety information was collected and used for construction oversight Construction Management SRAs provide preventive data for risk management Maintenance Management Preventive maintenance program provides proactive information for maintenance management Maintenance Management Preventive maintenance program; data are used to manage maintenance Maintenance Management ARFF truck maintenance; information is tracked and used to manage oversight Operations Management Ground handling procedures improved through safety data collection and analysis Operations Management Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for compressed gas help to manage safety Operations Management We track key events using a process where the on-duty manager writes an incident report, describing operational impact, key events, and briefly what went well or didn’t go well. The information is shared to recommend changes to keep the action from happening again. Staff follows up on action items and are responsible for tracking and trending. Operations Management FOD data are trended over seasons to help manage sweepers and other FOD management program activities Operations Management Ground vehicles and pedestrian accidents and incidents are being tracked and used to improve markings and operations Operations Management Reduction of FOD by 30% through tracking Operations Management Erosion control and pavement data are being tracked and trended, especially relating to seasonal impacts Operations Management An SRA for the non-movement area provided beneficial safety recommendations for the construction project Operations Management Stop signs installed on a parking lot based on safety data reports and trending Operations Management Ramp problems are tracked month-by-month; staff patrol the ramp and submit requests for improvements based on observations and inspections Risk Management Risk profiling is conducted and tracked to prevent accidents and incidents Risk Management Prevented accidents using general oversight of accident and incident information Risk Management Improved safety from accident investigations and review Risk Slip, trip falls have been resolved (mostly in terminal) due to reports and trends that are tracked Management Wildlife Management Discussion among airport groups to resolve wildlife management issues related to a specific season have improved management Wildlife Management Wildlife management and related techniques to manage wildlife through counts etc Wildlife Management Wildlife trend to manage wildlife issues and be more proactive Wildlife Management Wildlife management is based on prior trends that result in more knowledge, which is used as a means to wildlife prevention.

52 Table A4 provides detailed responses from chapter seven regarding data collection and the dura- tion required to identify trends. 1. The duration of data depends on the issue. Regarding slips and falls, three months worth of data may be adequate and lights out on taxi way signs could be trended within a month. However, the longer the amount of data is collected better quality data results. 2. For long-term fixes, such as a security system, additional data would be necessary for better trending. 3. Demonstrating an increase in repair costs over a three-year period would make justifying capital cost increases easier. 4. It depends on what is being trended; five years is a good solid duration for airfield operations but, if construction is underway, it might take longer to get a baseline for normal operations. 5. Trending is relative to what is being collected. For example, with wildlife, if you assess a couple of seasons, at least one or two years of data is decent but two to three years is better to be comfortable with any significant seasonal changes. The most effective is 10 years worth of data to take into account surprise elements such as fall time floods and other anomalies. In the case of wildlife longer data trends is more effective. 6. Data collection duration depends on the airport. For example, at our airport three general aviation mishaps is not considered a trend, because we consider that only one event merits a response for analysis and mitigations. 7. Two years would be a good start, one year to gather information and another year to assess and observe if improvements have been made. 8. A specific duration is difficult to answer; it depends on a location or type of issue, but in about 6 months hopefully we would be able to see some trends in some areas. 9. We would want to establish statistical guidelines but, realistically, data trending can be daily, weekly, or monthly depending on what you are analyzing. For example, regarding employee injuries we have data from 2007 to the present and we can see that certain controls we have implemented are starting to have an effect on the number of injuries through declining points. TABLE A4 COMMENTS REGARDING DATA COLLECTION DURATION A summary of most significant benefits from safety data collection is presented in chapter eight; Table A5 provides a list of comments from the surveyed airports. Note that not all respondents pro- vided comments. Hub Size Most Significant Benefit Large Awareness and prevention Large Awareness of safety issues and trends Large Better information, better quality results Large Forward trend analysis, planning, and schedule more efficiently Large Identifies risks and hazards providing a more timely response through analysis and preventing incidents and accidents through forecasts Large Identifying hazards before possible accidents occur Large Knowledge and awareness, accident prevention Large Safety data to share with our aviation community Large Use prior events to correct hazards Medium Able to analyze trends and identify issues Medium Awareness and recognition of safety concerns Medium Data helps to shape safety insights and reactions Medium Formalized methods of collecting data and managing safety Medium Hazard prevention Medium Helps to accurately reflect reality through data Medium More employees will become aware of SMS and safety through data program Medium Understanding where the real concerns are within our operations Medium Safety benefit TABLE A5 MOST SIGNIFICANT BENEFIT

53 A summary of most significant challenges from safety data collection is presented in chapter eight; Table A6 provides a list of comments from the surveyed airports. Note that not all respondents provided comments. TABLE A5 (continued) Hub Size Most Significant Benefit NA Increased awareness of hazards NA Better safety culture through awareness of hazards Non Ability to recognize trends in safety Non Identify underlying trends for safety Non Promotes safety through safety awareness and concrete safety data Non Identifies issues that would otherwise go unnoticed Non Improved communications based on safety data and trends Non Preventive repairs with cost justification based on data Small Reduced claims, accidents, incidents Small Forecasts and awareness of safety issues Small Fewer incidents and accidents based on trending and tracking safety data Small Specific safety related approach to airport management Small With data, the information is documented and we can review it. We don't have to rely on memory or institutional knowledge. We can go back into the data get a better perspective on past and current safety related activities providing a resolution to our “operational void”. TABLE A6 MOST SIGNIFICANT CHALLENGE (continued on next page) Hub Size Most Significant Challenge Large Data sharing of tenant information Large Not having an electronic system to collect and query information; it is a manual process and very difficult to see trends Large Quality of reports and information within the system Large Custom software, breaking culture of bad habits customize the software, hurdles to learning a new program, break the cultural habit associated with change. Large Obtaining accurate data Large Follow up on reactive monitoring and management Large Making senior staff aware of the need for a formal safety system Large Consistency and accuracy of data Large Getting people to report Medium Sorting out useless data Medium Waiting for final FAA rule making to move this program forward Medium Getting people to report Medium Getting accurate and consistent reports Medium Getting airlines to participate without a national mandate and data protection Medium One of the downsides is there is too much information and none of it is organized so the data is not as valuable as it could be if it were organized in a way we can use it. Medium Building the culture of safety reporting is a challenge Medium Managing the entire system from collection, analysis, and reporting Medium Engaging people in safety culture NA High turnover in staff and challenges for keeping everyone trained NA Difficulty in collecting data

54 A summary of final comments from survey respondents is presented in chapter eight; Table A7 provides a list of comments. Note that not all respondents provided comments. TABLE A6 (continued) Hub Size Most Significant Challenge Non FAA Rulemaking delaying the process that is stalling the investment and commitment to begin collecting safety data Non Getting people to use system Non Getting people to use the system Non Paper-based system is difficult to analyze trends Non Training and inconsistent data entry Non Determining best tracking methods that are useful Non Inconsistent inputs and subjective data Small Education of lower level employees to understand value of reporting Small Not having a software system or electronic program to collect data; we need to collect data on multiple data points, but the solutions are part of the whole, not the whole. We want one system not multiple systems to manage our safety program. Ideally we want a solution that helps with all safety-related functions such as inspections and maintenance work orders with a centralized way to get safety reports. Small Getting everyone on board with reporting Small Different people are collecting data and each person sees things differently; if data program doesn’t allow the individual to hone in on the safety specifics then there is the potential for too much variance and inconclusive reports. Small Finding time to report and review safety data throughout day TABLE A7 FINAL AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS BY RESPONDENTS Hub Size Comments Large Our software project is critical for SMS integration and data projection. Large When is congress or the FAA going to give immunity to ramp personnel for voluntary safety reporting; it needs to be the same as other non-punitive programs. If the FAA going to have a mandatory reporting program for airports they need to protect the people reporting. Large So much occurs on the airfield that goes unreported; how to capture that information will help with preventive safety but how to get that information is a huge challenge. Large Wildlife management is an interesting perspective on safety data collection; our data collection knowledge is being used a means as prevention. Large We have no formal data collection system in place; for a large airport getting a system is going to be expensive and complicated. Medium The ability to analyze data needs to be the same at all airports; the program needs to be scalable but comprehensive so the trends can be consistent. This proposed safety data program will need to address the potential transfer of liability and responsibility from the airlines to the airport; this will require assistance at the national level to make it work. Medium If safety reporting is going to be required at rural airports, it will be a challenge. We are already short staffed with required Part 139 operations and oversight responsibilities. We need to make sure whatever is implemented doesn’t increase our current workload but actually minimizes it. Medium Airports could benefit greatly from sharing information with each other to assess trends; how that is implemented is the key challenge. Medium There are many data sources, with multiple systems, recipients, and platforms that we need to access for safety. Determining what data I actually need; i.e., what is a new hazard vs. part of our daily safety operations (through Part 139 inspections) that the task of designing a database in-house that captures the data needed, in a useable format, and with the ability to function for both hazard analysis and accident/incident documentation is daunting.

55 TABLE A7 (continued) Hub Size Comments Medium Despite the fact that Part 139 is reactive, standard mitigations are part of 139 oversight, which ensures we continue to operate safely. Part 139 accomplishes this; so with SMS how will we integrate the two philosophies effectively. I am skeptical that it will actually improve operational safety. Medium If we can achieve a set of structured data through regulations such as Part 139 (consider our current wildlife management and centralized database), then with the information we capture and store we can more conversant about safety factors as part of SMS. Small Our biggest challenge is getting something approved; getting a budget approved to procure software and to assign staff to begin using data for safety. Small We continue to wait on rulemaking; we plan on reassessing software after our current 2-year trial. Employees seem receptive to the program so we anticipate moving forward. Non This [SMS] is an unworkable process for small airports, wasting time and money. For what has been spent developing the SMS program the most value we have gained is through the software that could have been procured for less. Non Reports and systems should allow for varied airport size and operations; one approach probably won’t work for all airport size and operations. Non For safety data collection and use to work we need to anticipate a culture shift; we have a vision of information management but getting people to participate has been difficult. Our two most significant challenges are budget and culture. Non Regarding FAA what’s good for the goose is good for the gander...if FAA wants to talk the talk they need to walk the walk. Protecting data and helping airports manage their tenants is going to be extremely difficult without a national plan or program.

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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 58: Safety Reporting Systems at Airports describes safety reporting methods and systems for airports certificated under Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 139 by assessing current practices, processes, and systems used to collect and analyze safety data and information.

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