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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook for Energy Facilities Compatibility with Airports and Airspace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22399.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook for Energy Facilities Compatibility with Airports and Airspace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22399.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook for Energy Facilities Compatibility with Airports and Airspace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22399.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidebook for Energy Facilities Compatibility with Airports and Airspace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22399.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP REPORT 108 TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2014 www.TRB.org Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation • Energy • Environment Guidebook for Energy Facilities Compatibility with Airports and Airspace Stephen B. Barrett Philip M. DeVita Jesse R. Lambert Harris Miller Miller & Hanson inc. Burlington, MA i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Clifford K. Ho sandia national laboratories Albuquerque, NM Bryan Miller beM international, llc Sheridan, WY Yu Zhang University of soUtH florida Tampa, FL Mary Vigilante synergy consUltANTS, Inc. Seattle, WA

AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans­ portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and inter­ national commerce. They are where the nation’s aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal respon­ sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Coopera­ tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near­term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon­ sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. It is modeled after the successful National Coopera­ tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research Pro­ gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, mainte­ nance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport opera­ tors can cooperatively address common operational problems. The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100­Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International­North America (ACI­NA), the American Associa­ tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orga­ nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and respon­ sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by iden­ tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport pro­ fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels pre­ pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooper­ ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended end­users of the research: airport operating agencies, service providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work­ shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport­industry practitioners. ACRP REPORT 108 Project 02­38 ISSN 1935­9802 ISBN 978­0­309­28390­8 Library of Congress Control Number 2014934730 © 2014 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not­for­profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not­for­profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at http://www.national­academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 108 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Theresia H. Schatz, Senior Program Officer Terri Baker, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natassja Linzau, Editor ACRP PROJECT 02-38 PANEL Field of Environment Scott R. Brummond, Wisconsin DOT, Madison, WI (Chair) Jeannette Hilaire-Stoufer, Denver International Airport, Denver, CO Douglas M. Moss, AeroPacific Consulting, Reno, NV Katie R. Servis, Massachusetts DOT, Aeronautics Division, East Boston, MA Anthony C. Tezla, Mead & Hunt, Inc., Santa Rosa, CA James J. Walker, Ameresco, Inc, Framingham, MA Amy Hanson, FAA Liaison John L. Collins, Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison Cover photo: Courtesy of Adam Parsons, Environmental Operations Analyst, Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport.

F O R E W O R D By Theresia H. Schatz Staff Officer Transportation Research Board ACRP Report 108: Guidebook for Energy Facilities Compatibility with Airports and Airspace describes practices for aviation safety associated with planning, developing, and construct­ ing energy production and transmission technologies at and around airports. The guide­ book is a resource for aviation and energy industry professionals to improve energy technol­ ogy project siting at and around airports in order to meet U.S. domestic energy production needs while ensuring a safe and efficient national airspace system. The guidebook considers different types of energy technologies that could be installed in and around airports, including, but not limited to, solar, wind, power generation plants, oil and gas drilling, and electricity transmission lines and towers. Best practices and guidelines for a wide range of types and sizes of airports compatible with air transportation systems, for all airspace, including special use airspace, both on and off airports are provided. In addi­ tion, design and siting or location guidelines for each of these types of energy technologies are provided to mitigate and minimize the impact on aviation, such as, height and distance criteria for wind turbines, distance and angular criteria for solar panels, and thermal plume effects on aviation. Projected demand for energy will increase in the upcoming years requiring the develop­ ment of new or expanded energy sources. Recognizing the need to significantly increase energy production and transmission infrastructure, energy stakeholders must consider aviation safety and airport safety concerns. The FAA recently published Technical Guidance for Evaluating Selected Solar Technologies on Airports (November 2010). The ACRP Synthesis 28: Investigating Safety Impacts of Energy Technologies on Airports and Aviation takes another step in describing how various energy technologies affect airports. Initial findings and dis­ cussions with experts suggest, though, that the scope of the safety impacts may be greater, extending far beyond the immediate airport environs. This research further evaluates the safety effects that energy technologies may have on the air transportation system (includ­ ing aircraft in flight and on and off the airport environment) and develops best practices to address such effects. This research was conducted under ACRP Project 02­38 by Harris Miller Miller & Hanson Inc. in association with Sandia National Laboratories, BEM International, Univer­ sity of South Florida, and Synergy Consulting. Their research consisted of collecting and reviewing data received from direct investigations with the experts associated with govern­ ment, academia, and private industry on energy technologies and its impact on aviation and airports. The research findings are provided as best practices organized by technology including general siting and design criteria.

AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under ACRP Project 02­38 by Harris Miller Miller & Hanson Inc. (HMMH). Stephen B. Barrett, Director of Clean Energy at HMMH, was Principal Investigator. The other authors of this report are Philip M. DeVita, Director of Air Quality, and Jesse R. Lambert, Senior Consultant, HMMH; Clifford K. Ho, Ph.D., Concentrating Solar Technologies Department, Sandia National Laboratories; Bryan Miller, Lt Col USAF (Ret.), Command Pilot, Principal, BEM International, LLC; Yu Zhang, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, University of South Florida; and Mary Vigilante, Principal, Synergy Consultants, Inc. The authors would like to thank the following organizations and individuals for contributing to the research: Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport: Richard Bosse, Cathy Boyles, Sandra Lancaster, Adam Parsons, Ed Simon Jr., Steven Tobey Indiana County Jimmy Stewart Airport: Todd Heming Denver International Airport: Erik Skjerseth Albuquerque International Sunport: Jessica Dickman Rockford­Chicago International Airport: Matt Zinke Manchester­Boston Regional Airport: Richard Fixler Federal Aviation Administration: Thomas Cuddy, Rick Etter, Sheri Edgett­Baron, Peter Markus, Danielle Rinsler U.S. Department of Defense: Michael Aimone Rockford­Chicago Air Traffic Control Tower: Carmen Riley Air Line Pilots Association: John Perkinson Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association: John Collins Southwest Airlines: Joyce Shaw Massachusetts Department of Transportation: Kathleen Mahoney Crawford Murphy & Tilly: Brian Welker Sandia National Laboratories: Evan Bush, David Minster, Cianan Sims, Julius Yellowhair Harris Miller Miller & Hanson: Michael Hamilton, Wanda Maldonado The authors would also like to thank Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi­program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration.

C O N T E N T S 1 Executive Summary 3 Chapter 1 Introduction 3 1.1 ACRP Problem Statement 4 1.2 Drivers 4 1.2.1 Advancing Technology 4 1.2.2 Decentralization of the Energy Network 5 1.2.3 Alternative Airport Revenue Sources 5 1.3 Organization of the Guidebook 6 1.4 Audience 7 Chapter 2 Airspace and Airports 7 2.1 Governing U.S. Airspace 8 2.2 Airspace Operations 10 2.3 Airspace Users 11 2.4 NextGen Implementation 13 2.5 Protecting Airspace through Airport and Land Use Planning 14 2.5.1 Obstruction Height Zones 14 2.5.2 TERPS 16 2.6 Aviation Safety Evaluation of Energy Technologies 20 Chapter 3 Energy Technologies and Aviation Safety Impacts 20 3.1 Solar Power 20 3.1.1 Research Context 20 3.1.2 What Is Glare? 22 3.1.3 How Is Glare Characterized? 22 3.1.4 How Is Glare Managed? 25 3.1.5 Case Study: Manchester­Boston Regional Airport 28 3.1.6 Lessons Learned 28 3.2 Wind Power 28 3.2.1 Research Context 29 3.2.2 What Are the Impacts of Wind Power? 34 3.2.3 Characterizing and Managing Impacts 36 3.2.4 Meteorological Evaluation Towers 37 3.2.5 Offshore Wind 39 3.2.6 Case Study: Fire Island Wind Farm and Anchorage International 40 3.2.7 Lessons Learned 40 3.3 Oil and Gas Drilling 40 3.3.1 Research Context 42 3.3.2 What Are the Impacts of Oil and Gas Drilling? 44 3.3.3 How Are Impacts Characterized and Managed? 48 3.3.4 Case Study: Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) 50 3.3.5 Lessons Learned

51 3.4 Power Plant Stacks and Cooling Towers 51 3.4.1 Research Context 51 3.4.2 Characterizing Impacts 55 3.4.3 Managing Plume Impacts 57 3.4.4 Helicopters 57 3.4.5 Case Study: Eastshore Energy Center 58 3.4.6 Lessons Learned 58 3.5 Electricity Transmission Infrastructure 58 3.5.1 Research Context 58 3.5.2 Characterizing Impacts 59 3.5.3 Managing Impacts 60 3.5.4 Airspace Case Study: Texas Competitive Renewable Energy Zones (CREZ) 61 3.5.5 Lessons Learned 62 Chapter 4 Guidance 62 4.1 Best Practices Listed by Technology 63 4.2 Siting Guidance and Design Criteria for Energy Structures 64 4.2.1 Siting Guidance 64 4.2.2 Design Observations 67 Chapter 5 Moving Forward 67 5.1 Conclusions on Current Status of Energy and Aviation 68 5.2 Future Work 68 5.2.1 No­Glare Solar Panel 68 5.2.2 Wind Radar and Turbulence Research 68 5.2.3 Gain Experience with Modeling Tools 68 5.2.4 Status of Electric Transmission Infrastructure as an Obstruction 68 5.3 Coordination and Collaboration 68 5.3.1 Interagency Coordination on Wind Energy Siting 69 5.3.2 IFT&E Results 69 5.3.3 Outreach to Energy Industry A-1 Appendix A List of Acronyms and Technical Terminology B-1 Appendix B Bibliography C-1 Appendix C Accident Report Data D-1 Appendix D Solar Module Reflectivity Testing Data E-1 Appendix E Pilot Glare Survey Data Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.

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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 108: Guidebook for Energy Facilities Compatibility with Airports and Airspace describes processes to plan, develop, and construct energy production and transmission technologies at and around airports. The guidebook emphasizes aviation safety practices in order to help ensure a safe and efficient national air system while still helping to meet U.S. domestic energy production needs.

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