National Academies Press: OpenBook

Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices: 2014 (2014)

Chapter: Research Results Digest 18

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Suggested Citation:"Research Results Digest 18 ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices: 2014. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22438.
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Suggested Citation:"Research Results Digest 18 ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices: 2014. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22438.
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Suggested Citation:"Research Results Digest 18 ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices: 2014. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22438.
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Suggested Citation:"Research Results Digest 18 ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices: 2014. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22438.
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Suggested Citation:"Research Results Digest 18 ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices: 2014. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22438.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Research Results Digest 18 ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices: 2014. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22438.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Research Results Digest 18 ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices: 2014. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22438.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Research Results Digest 18 ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices: 2014. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22438.
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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration January 2014 Responsible Senior Program Officer: Michael R. Salamone INTRODUCTION Airport administrators, planners, engi- neers, and researchers often face problems for which information already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and practice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and uneval- uated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviating the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to the airport industry. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a sys- tematic means for assembling and evaluat- ing such useful information and making it available to the entire airport community, the Airport Cooperative Research Program authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing study. This study, ACRP Project A11-03, “Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Prac- tices,” searches out and synthesizes useful knowledge from all available sources and SYNTHESIS OF INFORMATION RELATED TO AIRPORT PRACTICES This is a staff digest of the progress and status of ACRP Project A11-03, “Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices,” for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research. Individual studies for the project are managed by Gail R. Staba, Senior Program Officer, Donna L. Vlasak, Senior Program Officer, and Jon M. Williams, Program Director, Synthesis Studies, serving under the Studies and Special Programs Division of the Transportation Research Board, Stephen R. Godwin, Director. Research Results Digest 18 You can submit your recommenda- tion at: http://www.trb.org/Synthesis Programs/Suggest.aspx under “Syn- thesis Topic Submittals.” Topics sug- gested must be accompanied by a brief (one or two paragraphs) scope state- ment, including a discussion of the problem. A title (preferably 10 words or less) and the name and affiliation of the submitter are also necessary. Sug- gestions for updates of published syn- theses are also welcome. The ACRP Project Panel meets once each year to make the final selections. To be con- sidered at the next annual meeting, all submissions should be received by October 2014. If a topic is not se- lected, the problem statement must be resubmitted the following year to be reconsidered. Interested in writing a synthesis? For details, see the Synthesis homepage (address above) under “New Topics.”

2Table 2 ACRP SYNTHESIS STUDIES—2014 Projects No. Title S01-09 Practices to Develop Effective Stakeholder Relationships at Small Airports S01-10 Strategies for Maintaining Air Service S02-12 Lessons Learned from Airport Sustainable Master Planning Programs S03-09 Cell Phone Lots at Airports S03-10 Preservation and Development of Seaplane Facilities and Services S04-12 Post-traumatic-event (disaster/emergency) Recovery Techniques for Airports S09-06 Snow Removal Practices at Small Airports with Limited Budgets S10-13 Issues with Airport Fueling System Operations and Maintenance S10-14 Issues Related to Accommodating Animals Passing through Airports prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute an ACRP report series, Synthesis of Airport Practice. THE SYNTHESIS PROGRAM This synthesis series reports on current knowl- edge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be most successful in resolving specific problems. To develop these syntheses in a comprehensive manner and to ensure inclusion of significant knowl- edge, TRB employs a consultant to gather and analyze available information from numerous sources, includ- ing airport operations agencies. A panel of experts in the subject area is established to guide the consultant in organizing and evaluating the data collected on each topic and to review the synthesis report. For each topic the project objectives are (1) to locate and assemble documented information; (2) to learn what practice has been used for solving or alleviating the problems; (3) to identify all ongoing research; (4) to learn what problems remain largely unsolved; (5) to organize, evaluate, and document the useful information that is acquired; and (6) to dis- seminate the synthesis information to all who might benefit from it. Each synthesis is an immediately useful docu- ment that records practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. New knowledge can be expected to be added to that which is now at hand and eventu- ally the synthesis may need to be updated or redone. The readers and users of the syntheses are in the best position to know when this has occurred. Whenever you believe that a synthesis should be updated, it would be appreciated if you would contact TRB and propose a synthesis update by contacting Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager, Transportation Re- search Board, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington D.C. 20001 by e-mail at msalamone@nas.edu. Studies in Progress and Planned for 2014 Work is currently under way on the topics listed in Table 1. Topics selected for the 2014 program are listed in Table 2. Questions on these topics should be addressed to the project study manager, Gail R. Staba, by e-mail at gstaba@nas.edu, or by phone at 202/334- Table 1 ACRP SYNTHESIS STUDIES—In Progress as of December 2013 No. Title S13-01-08 Understanding the Value of Social Media at Airports for Customer Engagement S13-02-10 Outcomes of Green Initiatives at Airports S13-03-07 Integrating Airport GIS Data with Public Agency GIS S13-03-08 Backcountry Airstrip Preservation S13-04-10 Safety Reporting Systems at Airports S13-04-11 Effective Cooperation Among Airports and Local and Regional Emergency Management Agencies for Disaster Preparedness and Response S13-07-01 Impacts of Aging Travelers on Airports S13-10-10 Habitat Management to Deter Wildlife at Airports S13-10-11 Electric Vehicle Charging Stations at Airport Parking Facilities S13-10-12 Airport Planning for Non-aeronautical Events 2442; Donna L. Vlasak, by e-mail at dvlasak@nas.edu and 202/334-2974; or the Synthesis Study Director, Jon M. Williams, by e-mail at jwilliams@nas.edu, or by phone at 202/334-3245. Available Publications The syntheses of airport practice that have been completed under this project are listed in Table 3.

3Table 3 PUBLISHED ACRP SYNTHESES No. Title/Pages 1. Innovative Finance and Alternative Sources of Revenue for Airports (2007) 43 pp., $34 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_001.pdf 2. Airport Aviation Activity Forecasting (2007) 32 pp., $34 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_002.pdf 3. General Aviation Safety and Security Practices (2007) 44 pp., $44 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_003.pdf 4. Counting Aircraft Operations at Small and Non-towered Airports (2007) 33 pp., $44 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_004.pdf 5. Airport Ground Access Mode Choice Models (2008) 104 pp., $39 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_005.pdf 6. Impact of Airport Pavement Deicing Products on Aircraft and Airfield Infrastructure (2008) 58 pp., $42 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_006.pdf 7. Airport Economic Impact Methods and Models (2008) 67 pp., $45 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_007.pdf 8. Common Use Facilities and Equipment at Airports (2008) 121 pp., $52 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_008.pdf 9. Effects of Aircraft Noise: Research Update on Select Topics (2008) 90 pp., $50 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_009.pdf 10. Airport Sustainability Practices (2008) 112 pp., $52 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_010.pdf 11. Impact of Airport Rubber Removal Techniques on Runways (2008) 108 pp., $52 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_011.pdf 12. Preventing Aircraft–Vehicle Incidents During Winter Operations and Periods of Low Visibility (2008) 70 pp., $45 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_012.pdf 13. Effective Practices for Preparing Airport Improvement Program Benefit-Cost Analysis (2009) 65 pp., $43 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_013.pdf 14. Airport System Planning Practices (2009) 71 pp., $41 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_014.pdf 15. Identification of the Requirements and Training to Obtain Driving Privileges on Airfields (2009) 43 pp., $48 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_015.pdf 16. Compilation of Noise Programs in Areas Outside DNL 65 (2009) 104 pp., $51 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_016.pdf 17. Approaches to Integrating Airport Development and Federal Environmental Review Processes (2009) 34 pp., $38 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_017.pdf 18. Aviation Workforce Development Practices (2010) 36 pp., $39 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_018.pdf 19. Airport Revenue Diversification (2010) 55 pp., $41 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_019.pdf 20. Airport Terminal Facility Activation Techniques (2010) 127 pp., $58 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_020.pdf 21. Airport Energy Efficiency and Cost Reduction (2010) 73 pp., $47 http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_syn_021.pdf 22. Common Airport Pavement Maintenance Practices (2011) 103 pp., $54 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/165167.aspx 23. Bird Harassment, Repellent, and Deterrent Techniques for Use on and Near Airports (2011) 32 pp., $41 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/165829.aspx 24. Strategies and Financing Opportunities for Airport Environmental Programs (2011) 218 pp., $70 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/165852.aspx 25. Strategies for Reuse of Underutilized or Vacant Airport Facilities (2011) 62 pp., $42 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/166101.aspx (continued)

426. Current Airport Inspection Practices Regarding FOD (Foreign Object Debris/Damage) (2011) 86 pp., $54 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/165911.aspx 27. Airport Self-Inspection Practices (2011) 111 pp., $54 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/166012.aspx 28. Investigating Safety Impacts of Energy Technologies on Airports and Aviation (2011) 39 pp., $41 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/166099.aspx 29. Ramp Safety Practices (2011) 59 pp., $46 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/166314.aspx 30. Airport Insurance Coverage and Risk Management Practices (2011) 51 pp., $43 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/166472 31. Airline and Airline–Airport Consortiums to Manage Terminals and Equipment (2011) 596 pp., $98 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/166364.aspx 32. Managing Aerial Firefighting (2012) 44 p., $42.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/167310.aspx 33. Airport Climate Adaption and Resilience (2012) 87 pp., $57 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/167238.aspx 34. Subsurface Utility Information for Airports (2012) 50 pp., $46 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/167502.aspx 35. Issues with Use of Airfield LED Light Fixtures (2012) 35 pp., $43 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/167509.aspx 36. Exploring Airport Employee Commute and Parking Strategies (2012) 70 pp., $49 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/167704.aspx 37. Lessons Learned from Airport Safety Management Systems Pilot Studies (2012) 63 pp., $46 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/167600.aspx 38. Expediting Aircraft Recovery at Airports (2012) 100 pp., $57 http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/168018.aspx 39. Airport Wildlife Population Management (2013) 69 pp., $52.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/168836.aspx 40. Issues with Airport Organization and Reorganization (2013) 32 pp., $44.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/169008.aspx 41. Conducting Aeronautical Special Events at Airports (2013) 119 pp., $61.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/168988.aspx 42. Integrating Environmental Sustainability into Airport Contracts (2013) 68 pp., $52.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/169023.aspx 43. Environmental Assessment of Air and High-Speed Rail Corridors (2013) 36 pp., $44.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/169411.aspx 44. Environmental Management System Development Process (2013) 50 pp., $46.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/168917.aspx 45. Model Mutual Aid Agreements for Airports (2013) 56 pp., $49.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/169180.aspx 46. Conducting Airport Peer Reviews (2013) 40 pp., $44.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/169124.aspx 47. Repairing and Maintaining Airport Parking Structures While in Use (2013) 46 pp., $46 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/169084.aspx 48. How Airports Measure Customer Service Performance (2013) 93 pp., $58.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/169468.aspx 49. Helping New Maintenance Hires Adapt to the Airport Operating Environment (2013) 52 pp., $46.00 http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/169521.aspx Table 3 (Continued) No. Title/Pages

5Table 4 ACRP PROJECT PANEL A11-03 Name Affiliation Chair Julie Kenfield Jacobsen/Daniels Associates Member Randall P. Burdette Virginia Department of Aviation Member Kevin C. Dolliole Unison Consulting, Inc. Member Linda Howard Consultant, Bastrop, Texas Member Arlyn Purcell Port Authority of New York & New Jersey Member Burr Stewart Burrst Liaison Paul Devoti Federal Aviation Administration Liaison John L. Collins Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association TRB Liaison Christine Gerencher Transportation Research Board ACRP Synthesis Staff Gail R. Staba Transportation Research Board ACRP Staff Michael R. Salamone Transportation Research Board Copies of these syntheses can be downloaded from the web at no charge or obtained from the Publications Office, Transportation Research Board, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, D.C., 20001; by calling 202/334-3213. Please send check orders to: TRB, PO Box 741494, Atlanta, GA 30374-1494, or fax to: 202/334-2519. All ACRP reports are available as online publications (http:// www.trb.org/Publications/PubsACRPSynthesis Reports.aspx). Selection of Topics ACRP Synthesis Oversight Panel A11-03 meets each year to select topics for study using funds from the upcoming fiscal year. The membership of this committee is given in Table 4. Current funding allows for initiation of about six syntheses per year. These, plus some alternate topics, are selected by the committee at its annual project meeting. The following factors are considered in the selec- tion process for synthesis topics: • The topic should address a problem that is wide- spread enough to generate broad interest in the synthesis. • The topic should be timely and critical with respect to safety, economic, or social impact. • The topic is appropriate if current practice is nonuniform or inconsistent from agency to agency, or if the validity of some practices appears to be questionable. • The quality and quantity of useful available in- formation should indicate a need to organize and compress that which has already been learned and written on the topic. • The topic should not be one where ongoing research or other activities in progress might be expected to render the synthesis obsolete shortly after completion. Each year more topics are suggested for the com- mittee’s consideration than can be programmed for study in Project A11-03. Nevertheless, the contin- ued success of this project depends on a constant supply of worthy synthesis topics. The interest of those who have recommended topics is sincerely ap- preciated, and they are urged to continue. Candidate topics are suggested by members of the panel and by a variety of other sources, including airport, airline, and state aviation personnel; FAA and TRB commit- tees; aviation organizations; and other practitioners and researchers. Conduct of the Studies Following the Synthesis Oversight Panel’s selec- tion of topics, studies are initiated in the order of pri- ority assigned by the panel. A topic panel consisting of practitioners and researchers is formed for each topic. At its first meeting, this topic panel thoroughly dis- cusses the topic, refines the scope, suggests sources of information, and identifies and selects potential topic consultants based on expressions of interest received in response to an industry-wide solicitation. Following this meeting, a consultant is hired to gather information on the topic, synthesize it, and draft a report. Typically, the agreement covers a pe- riod of six to seven months. Information gathering and preparation of the first draft of the synthesis report takes about four months. This draft is reviewed by the topic panel with the consultant, often at the second

6Table 5 INDEX TO SYNTHESES AND STUDIES (2013) panel meeting. A revised draft is then prepared by the consultant. Subsequent drafts and meetings are sched- uled, if needed, although this rarely occurs. After the staff is substantially satisfied with the report, a final draft is sent to members of the topic panel for their last chance to review the report and then ACRP Synthesis Oversight Panel A11-03 for final approval. The report is subsequently published as an ACRP Synthesis of Airport Practice. Index of Topic Studies Table 5 is a key word index of published syn- theses. Access control 3 Aeronautical revenue 1, 19 Aeronautical events 41 Aerial firefighting 32 Air and rail 43 Aircraft noise 9, 16 Aircraft recovery plan 38 Airfield driving 12, 15, 49 Airport access/egress 5, 15, 49 Airport budgeting, 22, 31 Airport construction 20, 21, 47 Airport design 20, 21 Airport development environmental review 7, 8, 10, 13, 16, 17, 21 Airport environment 10, 17, 21, 24 Airport facilities, 25 Airport human resources 12, 15, 18, 20 Airport Improvement Program (AIP) 2, 13, 14, 24, 34 Airport maintenance 11, 21, 22, 26, 47, 49 Airport management 23, 30, 31, 36, 39 Airport operations 3, 4, 8, 11, 12, 13, 15, 20, 21, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 33, 36, 39, 46, 48 Airport organization 40 Airport planning 14, 22, 28, 31 Airport system planning 14 Airport terminal facility activation 20 Air pollution 43 Asset management 47 Aviation activity forecasting 2, 4, 5 Aviation noise abatement 16 Aviation operations 12, 28 Baggage 8 Benefit-cost 13 Capital financing 1, 21 Climate change 33 Commercial development 1, 21, 25 Common Use 8, 19 Common Use Passenger Processing Systems (CUPPS) 8, 19 Common Use Self-Service (CUSS) 8, 19 Community Noise Equivalent Level (CNEL) 9, 16 Computer aided design and drafting 34 Consortiums 31 Contracting 31, 42 Corrosion damage 6 Cost recovery 4, 19, 21, 25 Counting aircraft 4 Customer service 48 Data collection 26, 29 Day-Night Average Sound Level (DNL) 9, 16 Debris removal 26 Debris detection, 26 Disabled aircraft 38 Economic development 7, 10, 13, 19, 25 Economic impact 7, 25 Electronic information 34, 45 Emergency plan 45 Employee commute options 36 Energy audit 10, 19, 21 Energy conservation 35 Energy management system 10, 19, 21 Energy technologies 28 Environmental assessment 13, 17, 33, 43 Environmental practices 10, 11, 21, 42 Environmental initiatives 24 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) 17 Environmental management system 44 Environmental sustainability 42 Facility activation 20 Federal Interagency Committee on Noise (FICON) 9, 16 Financing 23 Foreign object debris/damage 26, 29, 37 General aviation 1, 3, 4, 17, 19, 20, 21, 26 Ground service equipment 29 Ground vehicle operations 49 Hazard, wildlife 39 Hiring 49 Incident 37, 38 Infrastructure 6, 47 Innovative finance 1

7Table 5 (Continued) Inspection practices 26, 27 Lighting 35 Low visibility 12 Maintenance 47, 49 Management, 32 Management systems 8, 21, 22, 40, 44 Master plans 17 Mode choice/mode of transportation 5 Modeling 5, 7 Mutual Aid agreement 45 National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) 9, 17, 24, 43 National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems (NPIAS) 2, 7, 13, 14 Noise 9, 16, 43 Non-aeronautical revenue 1, 19 Organizational structure 40 Parking 36, 47 Passenger facility charge 1, 20 Passenger services 8, 19, 47 Pavement 6, 22 Pavement deicing 6 Peer reviews 46 Performance measures 48 Performance standards 31 Personnel, airport 49 Planning, aeronautical 41 Preservation, pavement 22 Privatization 1 Quality assurance 48 Ramps 29 Rehabilitation, pavement, 22 Rehabilitation, structures 47 Reuse, 25 Revenue 1, 13, 19, 25 Risk financing 30 Risk management 30, 37 Rubber removal 11 Runway safety 3, 11, 12, 15, 23, 26 Safety 3, 11, 12, 15, 23, 26, 27, 28, 29, 32, 35, 39, 45 Safety management system 29, 37 Safety risk management 37 Schultz Curve 9 Security 3 Signage 8, 45 Skid resistance 11 Sound Exposure Level (SEL) 9, 16 Structures, parking 47 Subsurface utilities 34 Sustainability 10, 14, 42, 44 Terminal area forecast 2 Training 3, 12, 15, 18, 20, 27, 29, 49 Travel forecasting 2, 5, 13, 14 Vehicle-aircraft incidents 12 Voice over IP (VoIP) 8, 20 Waterblasting 11 Wildlife control 23, 39 Wildlife risk management 23, 44 Winter operations 6, 12 Workforce development 3, 12, 15, 18, 20, 47

Transportation Research Board 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 These digests are issued in order to increase awareness of research results emanating from projects in the Cooperative Research Programs (CRP). Persons wanting to pursue the project subject matter in greater depth should contact the CRP Staff, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. Subscriber Categories: Aviation • Energy • Environment • Education and Training • Finance Maintenance and Preservation • Safety and Human Factors • Terminals and Facilities ISBN 978-0-309-27115-8 9 780309 271158 9 0 0 0 0

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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Results Digest 18: Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices is a digest of the progress and status of ACRP Project 11-03, Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices.

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