National Academies Press: OpenBook

Guidelines for Ensuring Longevity in Airport Sound Insulation Programs (2014)

Chapter: Section 3 - Design Process and Bid Documents

« Previous: Section 2 - Program Management
Page 11
Suggested Citation:"Section 3 - Design Process and Bid Documents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidelines for Ensuring Longevity in Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22439.
×
Page 11
Page 12
Suggested Citation:"Section 3 - Design Process and Bid Documents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidelines for Ensuring Longevity in Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22439.
×
Page 12
Page 13
Suggested Citation:"Section 3 - Design Process and Bid Documents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidelines for Ensuring Longevity in Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22439.
×
Page 13
Page 14
Suggested Citation:"Section 3 - Design Process and Bid Documents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidelines for Ensuring Longevity in Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22439.
×
Page 14
Page 15
Suggested Citation:"Section 3 - Design Process and Bid Documents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidelines for Ensuring Longevity in Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22439.
×
Page 15
Page 16
Suggested Citation:"Section 3 - Design Process and Bid Documents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidelines for Ensuring Longevity in Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22439.
×
Page 16
Page 17
Suggested Citation:"Section 3 - Design Process and Bid Documents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidelines for Ensuring Longevity in Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22439.
×
Page 17
Page 18
Suggested Citation:"Section 3 - Design Process and Bid Documents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidelines for Ensuring Longevity in Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22439.
×
Page 18
Page 19
Suggested Citation:"Section 3 - Design Process and Bid Documents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidelines for Ensuring Longevity in Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22439.
×
Page 19

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

11 Design Process and Bid Documents This section provides an overview of the design process and explains each step of the process in detail. In construction projects, proper design, specification of appropriate prod- ucts, and accurate detailing optimize the longevity of the final product and ensure that the products meet their potential performance goal. 3.1 Eligibility and Objectives The goal of a sound insulation project is to effectively reduce the noise that enters the living spaces of homes or other sensi- tive receptors in eligible areas in accordance with an airport’s Part 150 mitigation program, as approved by the FAA. Per the Airport Improvement Program (AIP) Handbook, Order 5100.38C (APP-520, 2005), and Program Guidance Letter (PGL) 12-09, “Eligibility and Justification Requirements for Noise Insulation Projects” (November 7, 2012), the FAA fur- ther requires that eligible properties must be (1) built prior to October 1, 1998, and be (2) located in an existing Day-Night Average Sound Level (DNL) 65 decibel (dB) or Community Noise Equivalent Level (CNEL) 65 dB noise contour, with an interior noise level equal to or greater than DNL/CNEL 45 dB. The FAA also requires that noise insulation efforts be designed to achieve interior noise levels of 45 dB in habitable rooms, but with a minimum increase in noise level reduction of 5 dB. Please refer to ACRP Report 89 for more information on his- tory (Payne et al., 2013), the AIP Handbook (APP-520, 2005) program development, and design goals. 3.2 Process Overview Plans and specifications for modifications designed to achieve the noise goals listed in the previous section are required for three purposes (Wyle, 1992): 1. To document the implementation plan and form part of the grant application package when FAA funds or other funds are being sought, 2. To form the basis for soliciting bids from contractors to perform the work, and 3. To allow local building departments to issue construction permits. Figure 3-1 presents an overview of the process. The following paragraphs explain the details for preparing the construction documents. 3.3 Initial Site Visits The initial contact with property owners is usually through the program sponsor or program management consultant who receives an application for participation in the program. After the application process is completed and the site is deemed eligible for sound insulation improvements, the initial site surveys are conducted. For preparation of existing floor plans, accurate measurements are taken and any item that may require acoustical modification for sound insulation purposes is noted. Detailed field survey checklists can be used to compile adequate information for program design and con- struction documents. This checklist may include the following: • Type of existing fenestration with measurement of size and sill height and presence of windows, shutters, inset window treatment, window air-conditioning unit, alarms, security bars, and any other interfering factors; • Type of door with size measurements and notation, if applicable, of a secondary door, alarms, mail slots, and pet doors; • Number and size of attic vents, vents with motorized fan, attic insulation and amount, knob and tube wiring, location and number of recessed lights, if any; • Rooms with flat roof ceiling or exposed beam ceiling and information regarding the existing roof structure; • Range hood, recirculating fans, microwave fan, smoke hole, and indication of whether these items exhaust through the exterior of the house; S E C T I O N 3

12 • Existing electrical and mechanical information; • Existing gas service; and • Existing mail service (i.e., mail slots). Accurate measurements of the floor plan and all affected items must be taken and deficiencies such as termite damage, dry rot, water damage, and code deficiencies must be identified as part of the initial survey. Code deficiency surveys can assist programs in deciding whether to include a property or not. This survey includes potential violations such as the following: • Garage conversion, • Apparent additions, • Bedrooms with no windows, • Lack of bathroom exhaust fans, • Missing ground-fault circuit interrupters (GFCI) outlets, • Missing smoke detectors, • Apparent structural issues, • Illegal wiring, • Knob and tube, and • Mechanical/electrical issues. A survey report along with pictures is the first working document produced for any property entering the system. Most programs will fix minor deficiencies such as smoke alarms or carbon monoxide detectors. However, participation of a dwelling with a major code deficiency is contingent upon the owners fixing the problems and submitting documentation to show the issue is remedied. Hazardous material testing can be performed at the same visit to identify lead-based paint and asbestos-containing materials that would impact construction. Acoustical testing is performed on a sample of homes to confirm baseline con- ditions and required acoustical modifications. These sample homes are referred to as “control homes.” The acoustical testing is repeated after construction modifications are completed on these control homes in order to document the improvement to the dwelling units and confirm success in meeting the pro- gram goals. The site survey information allows design staff to develop an initial design for the dwelling unit considering the impact of sound transmission paths such as windows, doors, chimneys, attic baffles, and other building elements. In addition, any existing conditions (such as lightweight construction, historical homes, egress requirements, and existing structural integrity) that may impact design and construction should be identified. 3.4 Preparation of Plans After documenting existing conditions, architectural plans in the form of drawings and textual documents containing a thorough description of the existing conditions are prepared for each dwelling. This information will be used in the acous- tical analysis for preparation of designs. Upon completion of the architectural plans, either a stan- dard set of acoustical designs will be applied to each individual dwelling or new acoustical designs will be prepared depending on the requirements of each program. Any special or unusual case will be carefully studied, and possible treatment options recommended. These options will be further investigated for selection of the best and most cost-effective treatment. In order to meet the program’s objectives (listed in Sec- tion 3.1), the following factors should be considered in Owner Consultant Sponsor • Assist with Field Measurement Verification • Provide Modifications and Clarifications • Prepare Bid Documents • Cost Estimations Advertise for Construction Bids Site Visits • Architect Survey • Acoustical Audit • HazMat Tests Plans • Drawings • Designs • Details • Initial QC Design Review • Meeting with Homeowner • QC of Drawings • QC of Designs Revisions • Integrate Homeowner Choices • Final QC Application Submitted Figure 3-1. Overview of the design process.

13 developing the modifications that will be included in the acoustic design: • Exterior DNL/CNEL at the dwelling location; • Dwelling location, shielding, and orientation to the airport; • Construction type; and • Field inspection of site conditions. Plans will consist of drawings, a scope of work, schedules, specifications, and details. Drawings may include the following: • Scaled floor plans or dimensioned drawings; • Size, form, location, and arrangement of various elements of the project; • Overall dimensions of the dwelling; • Exterior material and construction; • Schedules of windows and doors; • Construction details and connections between materials; • Location and type of any penetration through the exterior envelope such as roof vents, air-conditioning systems, mail slots, and so forth; and • Work limitations. Experience has shown that wherever possible it is important to maintain a consistent treatment approach among eligible homes and neighborhoods. Such consistency ensures program continuity and prevents neighbors from feeling slighted because they received a substantially different package of modifications than someone else. In addition, all plans should be in accordance with all applicable codes and regulations—building code, mechanical and electrical code, fire code, energy code, and environmental regulations. Each state has a different set of building codes that need to be followed. International Building Code (IBC) is a model building code that has been adopted by most states partially or in whole. 3.5 Design Reviews and Revisions When initial plans outlining the modifications are ready, they should be reviewed with the owner. Although this review can be performed at the sponsor’s or consultant’s office, experience has shown that an on-site review at the participant’s dwelling is a better option. An on-site review allows the homeowner to relate the acous- tical design plans with the various elements to be modified in the home and to make choices on various design options. The owner will be presented with the plans and a modification list for review and approval. At this stage, owners are informed of the construction process and asked to formally acknowledge their responsibilities as owners, such as providing access to areas that are affected by the construction. It is important for the design team to verify building elements and referenced details on the plans with building elements in the field, and to further ensure the constructibility of the design at this visit. Any unresolved property owner issues will be noted for further discussion. Once all final decisions are made, two copies of the plans are given to the property owner for signature rep- resenting concurrence with the plans. One copy is retained by the owner, and the other is for distribution. 3.6 Final Plans Final plans are prepared incorporating owner choices and concerns expressed during the on-site review. Quality control checks are also performed at this stage before submission to plan check. The quality control review ensures that the design is consistent with the design criteria, maintains consistency throughout the program, minimizes change orders, and pro- vides clear direction to the eventual contractor. The final plans consist of a floor plan; a written description of improvements; window and door schedules; heating, ventilation, and air- conditioning (HVAC) design; electrical design; and structural calculations and details as necessary. At this stage of the process, building permit applications should be completed, final plans are submitted to the building department for plan check, and construction cost estimates are prepared. 3.7 Construction Cost Estimate Construction cost estimates will be completed toward the end of design process, before submission of plans for plan check. Chapter 11 of ACRP Report 89 outlines different approaches to construction cost estimating and the variables impacting cost (Payne et al., 2013). The most effective method of estimating for established programs is to use material and labor costs, add overhead and profit, and include any contingencies. The labor rate can be determined by the estimate of anticipated hours for the job class and utilizing the prevailing wage published with the bid documents. Material costs can be obtained through resources such as R.S. Means or directly from product manufacturers. Since material costs fluctuate in today’s market, this infor- mation must be updated periodically, and the estimation must consider the extent and frequency of price variations (Manfredonia, Majewsk, & Perryman, 2010). A sample of this approach is shown in Figure 3-2. 3.8 Corrections and Clarifications Plan check corrections and potential FAA review recom- mendations should be incorporated into the design prior to obtaining owner concurrence for any changes and releasing the package for bidding.

14 Figure 3-2. Sample cost estimation sheet.

15 3.9 Construction Documents Construction documents are the written and graphic documents prepared for communication of the design and administering the contract for its construction (CSI, 1996). There are two major groups of construction documents: 1. Bidding requirements: – Bid solicitation (advertisement/invitation to bid), – Instructions to bidders, – Information available to bidders, – Bid forms and supplements; and – Addenda. 2. Contract documents: – Contract forms (agreement, required bonds, and certificates), – Conditions of the contract (general and supplementary conditions), – Specifications (organized in accordance with Master- Format Divisions 1–49), – Drawings, – Addenda, and – Modifications. The project manual is the bound, written portion of the contract documents that provides the core set of project data. The project manual includes bidding requirements, contract forms, contract conditions, and specifications. The project manual is organized based on MasterFormat. The Construction Specifications Institute’s (CSI’s) Manual of Practice (CSI, 1996) has an informative illustration for construction documents. 3.9.1 Specifications The “Specifications” section of the contract documents accompanies the drawings and describes in detail the work, design, materials, quality of workmanship, any applicable codes, performance requirements, descriptions, and procedures for alternate material. The Specifications section should detail the requirements of the project and the quality of workman- ship from manufacturing through installation and finishing. There are four different methods for preparing specifications (Rosen, Kalin, Weygant, & Regener, 2010): 1. Descriptive—provides description of materials and methods of installation in detail without using proprietary names. 2. Performance—specifies required results and the criteria for verification of the performance. The contractor is free to provide any material complying with the performance criteria. 3. Reference standard—references the established standards to which the specified products and processes should comply or conform. 4. Proprietary—specifies actual brand names, model numbers, and other proprietary information. Any combination of the four methods mentioned above can be used for sound insulation projects as long as they are “open” specifications, that is, the type required for public work that are written in a way that does not limit competition. Proprietary specifications can be made “open” by adding the phrase “or equal to” after the specified products’ trade, brand, model, or style. Specification language should be clear, accurate, and con- cise so as not to leave room for interpretation. A well-written specification not only specifies appropriate products and systems, required performance, codes and standards, require- ments for product submittals and shop drawings, quality of workmanship, and installation requirements; it also addresses the interrelationship between building products and provides directions for verification. Additionally, specifications should be clearly organized so that the contractors, estimators, or any individual using the specifications can find the information easily. Organizing the specifications based on divisions of MasterFormat, as published by CSI, and further into its groups and subgroups creates the necessary uniformity with which the construction industry is familiar, minimizes the chance of omission and duplication, and has worked well in sound insulation projects for many years (Rosen, Kalin, Weygant, & Regener, 2010). In this format, the specifications are divided into three parts: • Part 1—General. Describes the administrative requirements. • Part 2—Products. Specifies products, equipment, material, and systems. • Part 3—Execution. Describes the installation requirements from preparation to cleaning. Table 3-1 is a sample of paragraph categories in a Master- Format section as published in Construction Specifications Writing: Principles and Procedures (Rosen, Kalin, Weygant, & Regener, 2010). Technical Non-technical Materials Scope of work Fabrication Delivery of material Workmanship Samples and shop drawings Installation Permits Tests Warranties Schedules Cleaning Preparation Job conditions Table 3-1. Paragraph categories.

16 Although there is a tendency to think that specifications overrule drawings, specifications and drawings are comple- mentary, and together provide the information required for a project. The course of action should be clear in the contract documents in cases where discrepancies become apparent. A well-designed project accompanying organized and well-written specifications and details will result in a smooth construction process and a long-lasting outcome. 3.9.2 Details Details are part of the graphic portion of contract docu- ments and show small parts of design on a larger scale to indi- cate how components and parts are connected. Details enable contractors to construct an item as intended by the designer. In order to minimize confusion during the bidding and construction phase, sufficient details should be provided to cover challenging circumstances and, if necessary, be accom- panied with comprehensive photographs. The items in the bulleted list that follows directly impact durability, as shown in previous research projects and also listed in literature such as Durability Guidelines for Building Wall Envelopes (Public Works & Government Services Canada, 1997) and Architectural Detailing: Function—Constructibility—Aesthetic (Allen & Rand, 2007); these items thereby require special attention in detailing of sound insulation projects: • Controlling moisture and water leakage. There are a num- ber of ways to keep water from penetrating gaps in building assemblies. Incorporating flashing, washes, and sufficient overlapping of weather-resistant material, as well as specify- ing reglets and rain caps is crucial in water control. When designing for fenestration replacements, it is important to determine the existing condition of the fenestration. In order to accurately prepare a detail for “pocket” installa- tion or “going to the rough” installation, it is important to note any settlements, dry rot, and moisture damage, as well as the squareness of the opening and egress requirements. When replacing fenestration requires replacement of existing frames, details should design for new building paper installa- tion, addition of flashing, and sufficient overlap of the exist- ing building weather-resistant barriers and new ones. Water leakage is less of an issue for pocket installations. However, suitable caulking and sealing must be specified to meet the depth and size of the gaps, and backer rods must be specified when needed. In the event that portions of water-resistant barriers were cut out during fenestration installation, they must be replaced by lapping a proper width of a new piece of water-resistant barrier over the intact weather-resistant barrier, allowing sufficient overlapping, and sealing the overlapping material to the existing one. This will require the removal and replacement of a portion of façade. • Dimensional tolerances. As noted in Architectural Detailing: Function—Constructibility—Aesthetic, “A dimensional toler- ance is a maximum amount by which a dimension can be expected to vary from the intended measurement because of normal inaccuracies in manufacture and installation” (Allen & Rand, 2007). The joint between the fenestrations and the structure should be carefully detailed since noise will penetrate through the weakest point. For instance, it is acceptable for new window replacements to be somewhat smaller than the opening for ease of installation and for deal- ing with field conditions. In a sound insulation project, win- dows must be sized so there is no more than a ¼-in. gap at the sides and ³⁄16-in. gap at the top. In addition, backer wood stripping must be installed for any gaps larger than ¹⁄8 in. • Proper support and adequate attachments. The same amount of attention should be given to the detailing of smaller components of the building as is given to main framing to make sure that they contain the necessary sup- port. For example, acoustical windows are much heavier than regular windows, and it is necessary for them to be sit- ting on a continuous solid sill to minimize any deflection in the window frame. For the same reason, these windows need to be tied directly to the jamb studs with sufficient attachment to withstand the weight of the window. Large, heavy doors need frames and frame-to-wall attachments. They also require hinges with adequate structural strength. • Accommodation of movement. Allowances must be pro- vided to allow for movements that result from variation in temperature or moisture, especially in design of joints, by specifying flexible sealants. • Compatibility of adjacent material. Chemical compatibil- ity of adjacent material should be considered in detailing. Dissimilar metals in contact with each other may cause gal- vanic action causing corrosion, and some aluminum alloys corrode rapidly when in contact with mortar or moist con- crete. Figure 3-3 shows the aluminum frame of a sliding glass door damaged by magnesite, a common additive to concrete. • Control of heat flow. Although insulation is used for multiple purposes, such as reducing energy consumption or controlling condensation, in sound insulation projects its main use is for noise absorption. Incorrect placement of insulation may cause condensation and affect the durability of building materials. • Adequate ventilation. It is important to design for adequate ventilation in sound insulation projects. The interior of a building will become more airtight after a sound insulation project is complete. Lack of ventilation might contribute to product deterioration. Without improving the air quality, the chance for moisture built-up and mold increases, and this speeds up wear and tear on wood frames or sealants that can, in turn, contribute to failure of intended performance.

17 • Constructibility. A good detail should not be too difficult to achieve in order for construction to proceed smoothly and economically. A constructible detail will produce fewer defects and fewer disputes among the stakeholders. Con- structibility can be summarized in three general guidelines (Allen & Rand, 2007): – A detail should be easy to assemble; – A detail should be forgiving of small inaccuracies and minor mistakes; and – A detail should be based on efficient use of construction facilities, tools, and labor. Another item that the designer should pay close atten- tion to in detailing for sound insulation projects is noise and vibration control of new mechanical systems. It is important to minimize the noise and vibration that the HVAC system generates as well as the noise it transmits from the exterior. Specifications for vibration isolators, determination of the best location of HVAC systems, utilization of correct duct material and size, and elimination of direct open air paths from exterior to interior are important considerations in detailing HVAC systems. Organizations such as the ASTM International (ASTM), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) or Under- writers Laboratories (UL) have created numerous standards for materials and construction assemblies that can be ref- erenced for details and specifications to create a baseline of safety, performance, and quality in the work that meets code requirements and designers’ expectations. 3.10 Treatment Options Noise penetrates into a building either through direct paths—such as cracks in walls or joints between the fenes- tration and walls—or by vibrating the partition. In the case of aircraft sound insulation projects, the building envelope is the partition between the aircraft noise and the interior of the building. The main goal of a sound insulation project is to minimize the transfer of noise into the building. This goal can be achieved by following the steps presented below (Wyle, 1992) and illustrated in Figure 3-4: • Eliminating openings and flanking paths, • Reducing the vibration of the partition, • Designing the interior surface to minimize the conversion of vibration into radiated sound, and • Increasing absorption between the noise source and the interior. Usually a standard design package of acoustic products and materials is created to ensure that the noise reduction goals are achieved. The envelope of the home, attic space, roof open- ings, mechanical penetrations to the exterior, and other passive openings to the exterior are acoustically treated. Interior walls, doors, garage windows, and so forth, do not require treatment. Sound insulation programs mostly use a basic design prin- ciple of “like-for-like” that means, in most cases, windows and doors are replaced with new acoustic products of the same type and operation as those existing. Other treatment options Figure 3-3. Damaged aluminum frame. Source: THC Figure 3-4. Noise paths. Source: Wyle

18 are available, such as repairing or reinforcing fenestration, if replacement is not an option. Some examples follow: • Example 1: Sliding glass doors will be replaced with new acoustic sliding glass doors. • Example 2: French doors will be replaced with new acoustic French doors. • Example 3: Windows must be replaced with new, similar acoustic windows. Remodeling and/or resizing existing Building Component Treatment Option1, 2, 3 Adding one layer of gypsum wall board to the interior. Adding sound board and gypsum board. Hang the gypsum boards on resilient channels. Frame out the interior wall using 2x framing and add gypsum board and insulation. Add insulation as needed. Remove the existing ceiling tiles. Install a new 5/8" gypsum board ceiling hung using resilient channels with batt insulation above. Add 5/8" gypsum board to existing ceiling. Add 5/8" gypsum board to existing exposed beams and add insulation above. Hang the ceiling gypsum board(s) using resilient channels and add insulation above. No treatment. Add secondary roof. Replace with STC-rated window. Improve weather stripping and add secondary window. Improve weather stripping. Replace glazing with 1/2" laminated glass. Add 1/4" secondary glazing. Replace skylight with STC-rated skylight. Add secondary skylight to the interior. Replace door with new STC-rated door. Replace door and STC-rated storm door. Improve weather stripping and add storm doors. Improve weather stripping. Garage access doors Replace with solid core door and improve weather stripping. Replace door with new STC-rated door. Replace door and add STC-rated storm door. Improve weather stripping and add storm doors. Improve weather stripping. Do not treat. Add noise control baffle. Attic access panel Replace with 1/2" plywood panel/attach insulation. No treatment. Add underfloor noise control baffle to vents. Add glass doors. Add chimney top damper. Add glass doors and chimney top damper. Kitchen vents Add noise control baffle. Bathroom vents No treatment. Close off. Add noise control baffle. Ventilation and/or HVAC To be added. 1. Comply with all codes and regulations. 2. Refer to ACRP Project 02-24 and Guidelines for Sound Insulation of Residences Exposed to Aircraft Operations (Wyle, 1992) for detailed information. 3. The acoustical consultant is to decide on appropriate treatment (i.e., not all projects need wall treatments, existing condition and the structure of the wall will contribute to decision for wall treatments). Skylights Wall Ceiling with attic Vaulted ceiling Roof Windows Swing doors Sliding glass doors Attic vents Misc. opening Crawl space Fireplace Table 3-2. Treatment options. window openings are accepted only for egress com- pliance or on a case-by-case basis, as permitted by the programs. Guidelines for Sound Insulation of Residences Exposed to Aircraft Operations (Wyle, 1992) includes a complete discussion of how the building envelope behaves in the presence of aircraft noise, as well as treatment options for the building elements. Table 3-2 is built upon the infor-

19 Figure 3-5. Design phase timeline. Figure 3-6. Construction administration phase timeline. Summary—Design Options 1. Maintain a consistent treatment approach among eligible homes and neighborhoods. Create a standard design package to ensure that noise reduction goals are achieved. 2. Incorporate plan check corrections and potential FAA review recommendations into the design prior to obtaining owner concurrence for any changes and releasing the package for bidding. 3. Provide a clear course of action in the contract documents for any discrepancy between speci- fications and drawings. 4. Provide sufficient details to describe the work. Utilize details that are field tested and incorpo- rate standards such as ASTM, ANSI, and UL for materials and construction assemblies when avail- able. Pay special attention to detailing, especially for moisture control, and provide adequate fastening and proper support for new products. mation presented in Guidelines (Wyle, 1992), acoustical engineering, and experience gained through many years of performing sound insulation projects. The selection of each treatment option or combination of options is depen- dent on the existing condition of the building and its rela- tion to the aircraft path, the cost, the acceptable standard package, and the owner’s preference, as long as it is a viable option. 3.11 Timeline The approximate timeline required for the design and con- struction administration phases for a bid group of 30 dwell- ing units is shown in Figures 3-5 and 3-6. This timeline can vary and be adjusted depending on program needs and the speed they require. Section 4 discusses the products used for treatment options in more detail.

Next: Section 4 - Current and Future Products »
Guidelines for Ensuring Longevity in Airport Sound Insulation Programs Get This Book
×
 Guidelines for Ensuring Longevity in Airport Sound Insulation Programs
Buy Paperback | $47.00
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 105: Guidelines for Ensuring Longevity in Airport Sound Insulation Programs provides best practices in all phases of a sound insulation program to reduce or eliminate future deterioration issues.

ACRP Report 105 complements ACRP Report 89: Guidelines for Airport Sound Insulation Programs.

The contractor’s final report, which assesses sound insulation treatments as part of the first phase of the project that developed ACRP Report 105, is available for download.

READ FREE ONLINE

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!