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Guidelines for Ensuring Longevity in Airport Sound Insulation Programs (2014)

Chapter: Section 5 - Construction Administration

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Suggested Citation:"Section 5 - Construction Administration." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidelines for Ensuring Longevity in Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22439.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 5 - Construction Administration." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidelines for Ensuring Longevity in Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22439.
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Page 31
Suggested Citation:"Section 5 - Construction Administration." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidelines for Ensuring Longevity in Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22439.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 5 - Construction Administration." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidelines for Ensuring Longevity in Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22439.
×
Page 32
Page 33
Suggested Citation:"Section 5 - Construction Administration." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidelines for Ensuring Longevity in Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22439.
×
Page 33
Page 34
Suggested Citation:"Section 5 - Construction Administration." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidelines for Ensuring Longevity in Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22439.
×
Page 34
Page 35
Suggested Citation:"Section 5 - Construction Administration." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidelines for Ensuring Longevity in Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22439.
×
Page 35

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29 Construction Administration The construction phase of a program is a time when all of the work of participant selection, design activities, and production of the contract documents finally comes to the severe test of actual implementation and the expenditure of significant amounts of FAA and sponsor funds. Poor workmanship and incorrect installation procedures can lead to big problems that may go unnoticed at the time of installation, only becoming apparent at a later date. Apply- ing treatments to a home to improve the sound insulation properties requires much more careful workmanship than contractors are generally used to providing. Thorough and meticulous construction management during every single step of the construction administration program will result in a high-quality project that will meet and exceed all require- ments and expectations. The construction administration phase generally includes the process shown in Figure 5-1 and described in the follow- ing sections. 5.1 Bid Advertisement To ensure an open and fair competition, government entities are required to follow the competitive bid process. State and local governmental entities must take into account various laws and rules when using public money to fund their projects. Bid solicitations must be carefully prepared considering all the requirements of the contract. Sponsors will often advertise the solicitation on their own website, in local newspapers, in trade publications, and/or on specific Internet-based noti- fication sites. The notification will identify the nature of the work, provide certain deadlines, identify a method by which to obtain more information or ask questions, identify the point of contact for the solicitation, and indicate whether there is a pre-bid meeting. The notification will also explain how a copy of the full solicitation can be obtained. The terms and conditions for bidding on the project are described in the “Instructions to Bidders” section of the contract documents. Bid packages may contain a small or large number of units. Contractors like larger bid packages of approximately 50–100 homes at a value of $2–5 million. This allows for lower prices (quantity discounts), lower overhead, and quicker production to increase the pace of construction.2 Bids must be received prior to the specified time and date at a designated place. All responses to the solicitation must be received by the deadline or they will not be accepted. There is rarely an exception to this rule. Bids received after the deadline will be returned unopened. Timely receipt of bids/proposals is the sole responsibility of the vendor; therefore, it is in the bidder’s best interest to take into account the possibility of unforeseen delays when submitting bids. Any interested party can attend the bid opening. In the case of bids where pric- ing information is contained in the solicitation response, the vendor’s name and total price will be announced and recorded. A bidder may withdraw a bid upon written request and approval. 5.2 Bid Review and Contractor Selection Bids must be carefully reviewed and a responsive contrac- tor with a solid record of performance selected. The review of bid submittals is very complex and includes issues such as review of all required FAA and sponsor’s forms and cer- tificates and contractor license validation. The required FAA forms include the following: • Bidder Statement of Previous Contracts Subject to Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Clause, • Certification of Non-Segregated Facilities, • Assurance of Disadvantaged Business Enterprise Parti - cipation, S E C T I O N 5 2 Sound Insulation Program Stakeholders Meeting Summary, March 6, 2013, Los Angeles, CA.

30 • Suspension and Debarment Requirements for All Contracts Over $25,000, and • Buy American—for steel and manufactured products. Residential sound insulation projects do not require a large-, or even medium-size, general construction contract- ing corporation, so smaller firms will attempt to bid. Review of these firms’ bids requires particular attention to financial condition and past history in other noise-mitigation or related projects. A bid is responsive if it provides all of the information requested. This evaluation is usually strict and the consequences often harsh. Failure to sign a form or include a certain docu- ment can result in the entire bid being rejected. Once the evaluation process is concluded and the bidders are ranked, the most highly ranked bidder will be awarded the contract. The winning bidder will normally be notified of the award by telephone, email, or letter. Sometimes awards are announced at a public meeting. Once the contract is awarded, the winning bidder must either enter into a contract with the government entity or negotiate a contract. Often times, the contract is included in the solicitation document so the bidder knows the terms of the contract in advance. 5.3 Contractor Training It would be a good practice if the technical specifications of a project required the product manufacturer to be at the project site for the first few days, observe the installations, and provide feedback. This issue was discussed in the Sound Insulation Stakeholders Program Meeting,3 and the contractors were open to the practice, but the manufacturers stated that they would not be able to absorb the cost if they had not planned in advance for reimbursement. Aside from requiring the manufacturers to be present at the site, there are other training opportunities available that can be incorporated into technical specifications. Examples of these training opportunities are the AAMA InstallationMasters™ courses available nationwide for new construction and replace- ment of windows and exterior glass doors in residential and light commercial markets and routine training sessions provided by manufacturers at their site. 5.4 Pre-Bid and Pre-Construction Conferences A pre-bid meeting involves meeting potential bidders and discussing the project requirements, FAA requirements, and other regulations affecting the project and highlighting the differences between a sound insulation project and other projects in which the contractor may have been involved. The purpose of a pre-bid conference is to promote a dialogue between the contractors and the project staff; to provide bid- ding instructions; and to ensure that contractors understand how to interpret the contract documents—including the plans, specifications, and details. Contractors will be encouraged to ask questions during the pre-bid conference and prior to bid deadlines. A pre-bid conference is a useful forum for discussing com- mon problems encountered during bidding and construction. It ensures a competitive bid process and can provide clarifica- tion of techniques for installing acoustical windows and unique or complex specifications requirements. Any changes to the plans or schedules can be discussed at this meeting, and the expectations of the program can be underlined. It is a good practice for all programs to host mandatory pre-bid meetings and require potential subcontractors to be represented at the pre-bid and pre-construction meetings. At the pre-construction meeting, guidelines for construc- tion coordination, directions to contractors, and change order control will be highlighted. Other topics covered will include goals and objectives, working with property owners, payment, sound insulation basics, schedule, submittals, and other policies and procedures. For additional information, please refer to FAA’s Advisory Circular 150/5300-9B (AAS-100, 2009). Completion and Closeout Figure 5-1. Overview of the construction administration process. 3 Sound Insulation Program Stakeholders Meeting Summary, March 6, 2013, Los Angeles, CA.

31 5.5 Submittal Review Submittals by the contractor consist of all the proposed product and material information required by the contract documents, including forms to be used by the prime contrac- tor and payment forms and samples of certified payroll, key schedules, warranties, and physical samples. Product submit- tals review should be comprehensive and check all required performance, required tests, and code compliance factors. The submittals should include a transmittal letter to list the applicable specifications section number, title, paragraph number, and drawing detail as references for the submittal. This will facilitate the submittals review process. All submittals should be reviewed for conformance with contract documents and approved by the contractor before submission to the architect. AIA Document A201™, General Conditions of the Contract for Construction, (A201) states: By approving and submitting Shop Drawings, Product Data, Samples, and similar submittals, the Contractor represents that the Contractor has determined and verified materials, field measurements and field construction criteria related thereto, or will do so, and has checked and coordinated the information within such submittals with the requirements of the Work and of the Contract Documents. The architect may return the submittals that are not marked as reviewed for conformance with the contract documents and approved by the contractor without any action. A201 states: The Contractor shall perform no portion of the Work for which the Contract Documents require submittal and review of Shop Drawings, Product Data, Samples or similar submittals until the respective submittal has been approved by the Architect. Product submittals should be reviewed to ensure submitted products adhere to the requirements of construction docu- ments and applicable codes by the architect. In general, the architect’s role in reviewing the submittals is to make sure the submittals follow the design content and are in confor- mance with the contract document. According to A201: . . . Review of such submittals is not conducted for the purpose of determining the accuracy and completeness of other details such as dimensions and quantities . . . all of which remain the responsibility of the Contractor . . . The architect marks up the submittals accordingly. The architect also marks up the submittals that are reviewed by sub- consultants for their effect on the architectural work, noting that the review is for architectural scope only. After the review, the architect affixes the stamp, specifying whether the submittals are satisfactory or follow-ups are necessary (Atkins & Simpson, 2006). Options may include “approved,” “no exceptions taken,” “approved as noted,” “revise and resubmit,” and “rejected.” Deviation from basic materials, manufacturers, models, and sizes should be noted in the review process, and resubmission should be requested if necessary. Minor deviations can be corrected by a simple notation on the submittals. When the contractor intends to submit a product that deviates from the contract document, a substitution request should be sub- mitted in accordance with the requirement of the contract documents, allowing enough time for review and acceptance. The following are steps to improve the submittal review process: • Allow adequate review time in the owner-architect agree- ment for review of the submittals. • Have the contract documents require a submittal schedule. • Review the submittal process in the pre-bid meeting and again during the pre-construction meeting. • Use a checklist. Compiling a checklist of items for review along with products’ attributes, such as required tests, is useful and facilitates the submittal review process. This checklist can be distributed to contractors during the pre- construction phase to assist them with the preparation of submittals and ensures a smooth and flawless submittal review phase. Figure 5-2 shows an example of a windows submittal checklist. • Create a detailed log. A detailed log of submittals, including description, contractor, date of receipt, and note of approval and resubmit or rejection should be prepared and distributed to the project team. At least three copies of each submittal are typically provided. One copy is retained by the architect, one by the city and one is returned to the general contractor. 5.6 Product Inspection To deal with quality control of delivered products, it is best for programs to incorporate a detailed product inspection. One random window in each style and one random door, slid- ing glass door, and storm door will be selected and thoroughly inspected. All features will be compared with approved prod- uct submittals and construction documents to make sure that the submitted products match the approved products. Special devices can be used for measuring the thickness of glass in acoustic windows, detecting laminated glazing, and measur- ing the maximum operating force of a sliding glass door or a window to ensure that it meets AAMA specifications. A material inspection is also an opportunity to verify the accuracy of window and door orders and to ensure that materials are being stored in accordance with the manufac- turers’ requirements. This is important because warping and or damage that may occur during storage can ultimately delay the construction schedule. Product inspection is a crucial step in verifying the quality of the products. Therefore, it would be a good practice for the consultant familiar with the products or the manufacturer to be present during the inspection and assist the contractor in spotting the potential problem areas.

32 GROUP #: Contractor Name: Spec Section 08 51 13 Acoustic Windows - Aluminum Model/Type # Model/DH Model/FIX Model/HS Model/XOX Model/CAS Entire Submittal Not faxed & legible Manufacturer contact info Contractor and bid group info Contractor stamp/signature for compliance with spec Min. & Max. Sizes Egress Calculation Color & Styles available Drawing Dimensioned and scaled: Type & Thickness Low E Air space amount Water test with pressure of Min. 4.5 psf Structural Max. permanent set < 0.272 inches Air infiltration Max. .15 CFM/sf. Forced entry resistance Pass by AAMA/ANSI Operating force 25 lbf for HS 35 lbf for DH Max SHGC of 0.63 Max. U value of 0.66 NVLAP STC 40 Adjustable for HS Low profile Crank in addition to standard Time required to deliver materials to the project, and a statement assuring that the materials will be delivered That the design of the window not changed since tested. Operation XX for DH & HS Installation Instruction & maintenance Warranty 10 years STC 30 Window submittals?? Notes: Statement Thermal XX Products Received: Cover Sheet Data Sheet Make Indicated Corrections and Re-submit Rejected Glass Handle Review Options Approved No Exception taken Approved with Noted Conditions Figure 5-2. Sample checklist for submittal review.

33 5.7 Homeowner Preparation/ Existing Conditions It is important to keep owners informed on the construction process in their homes. Homeowner preparation starts at first contact for the field measurement verification appointments. Necessary contact information should be given to owners, with assurance that their concerns will be addressed. This has proven to be a significant aid for the construction team when needing to convey or listen to pertinent issues that may arise during this very busy process. Communicating with and preparing the owner for the construction process not only conveys to the owner that the process is being managed pro- fessionally, but also makes them feel that they are a part of the process. The following information should be provided: • Name of general contractor, subcontractors, and their non- working supervisors; • Emergency contact numbers for general contractor and program staff; • Checklist for preparing the home for construction; • Problem resolution procedures; and • “SAVE” stickers for items that the owner wishes to salvage. Coordinated measurement verifications/contractor walk- throughs should be scheduled immediately after the pre- construction meeting. The most important part of this walk-through is for the prime contractor, subcontractors (window installers, door installers, mechanical team, electri- cian, and HAZMAT), and manufacturers’ representatives to obtain accurate window and door dimensions as well as veri- fying all existing conditions impacting construction. It is the responsibility of the contractor to verify measurements and make sure they meet the manufacturers’ tolerances. The con- tractor is also responsible for confirming any noted issues and typical wear and tear that may complicate the installation of the new windows and doors, especially in older homes that have not been maintained properly. The contractor walk-through is the first and best opportunity for those responsible for the actual construction process to interact with the property owner and verify all aspects of the specified work. In an effort to standardize the quality control efforts, it is best to develop a checklist of items to be followed and require a design team representative to be present at the walk-through to conduct a systematic inspection and order verification pro- cess with the contractor and property owner to remove any uncertainty. 5.8 Photographs Experience has proved that photographically recording all aspects of the construction process, both before and after construction, is immensely helpful for all parties involved. Each dwelling has its own unique characteristics that must be photographed before, during, and after construction. Photographs during construction are often useful as a record of materials and techniques that may not be apparent after completion of the work. Figure 5-3 shows before, during, and after photographs of a window replaced as part of a sound insulation program. 5.9 Labor Compliance Monitoring and Inspection Certified payroll forms should be submitted and moni- tored in accordance with Federal Contracts-Working Con- ditions and applicable state provisions. The U.S. Department Figure 5-3. Retrofit installation.

34 of Labor states, in regard to the Davis-Bacon Act and related acts: The Davis-Bacon Act requires that all contractors and sub- contractors performing on federal contracts (and contractors or subcontractors performing on federally assisted contracts under the related Acts) in excess of $2,000 pay their laborers and mechanics not less than the prevailing wage rates and fringe ben- efits listed in the contract’s Davis-Bacon wage determination for corresponding classes of laborers and mechanics employed on similar projects in the area. Davis-Bacon labor standards clauses must be included in covered contracts. Apprentices may be employed at less than predetermined rates if they are in an apprenticeship program registered with the Department of Labor or with a state apprenticeship agency recognized by the Department. Trainees may be employed at less than predetermined rates if they are in a training program certi- fied by the Department. Programs must make sure that the prevailing wages in construction contracts are paid and reported according to guidelines. Each contractor and subcontractor must, on a weekly basis, provide the program a copy of all payrolls indi- cating the required information for the preceding weekly payroll period. Each payroll submitted must be accompanied by a “Statement of Compliance.” For more information, visit www.dol.gov/compliance/guide/dbra.htm. Interviews should be conducted with workers in order to record the wages being paid and document the type of work being performed at the time of the interview. These items are then compared to the wages and the trade reported on the certified payroll to ensure the accuracy of certified payrolls. Public works programs require that either the state or the federal Davis-Bacon wage rates be paid to all construction personnel (whichever is higher). A table of the required rates is typically included in the bid documents. During the pre- construction period, the prime contractor can be notified regarding these requirements and steps can be taken to make sure the contractor understands the tables correctly. 5.10 Proper Installation Knowing that the success of a program relies on the ability of contractors to complete the intended scope of work in the time allotted, it is important to take a proactive approach in the construction observation and punch inspection process. It is important for the construction project and activities to be observed and documented on a daily basis by a seasoned construction manager to make sure the contractors are adher- ing to plans as intended by the architect. For example, given their heavy weight, if acoustical windows are not securely connected to the structural members, it is inevitable that they will sag or lose their ability to perform as intended soon after construction is completed. If the window sill does not receive the necessary support, the window will sag, and fail to perform. 5.11 Punch List and Final Inspection It is the contractor’s responsibility to prepare the punch list request form, but if the contractor does not prepare a punch list request form, an “Auto Punch” inspection prior to the scheduled completion date should be prepared. This procedure expedites inspection of the work and allows the contractor to mitigate the remaining items prior to the end date and avoid any potential penalties. The construction manager or the archi- tect should assist during punch list inspections and document any outstanding items for the contractor’s attention. The con- tractor then has a number of days, based on the contract docu- ments, to correct any deficiencies. During the punch inspection, any issues the property owner may have should be discussed, and the property owner must be informed of how to operate and maintain all of the newly received products and materials. 5.12 In-Situ Testing Procedures Field testing is an important part of quality control pro- cedures. Such testing can detect any deviation of products from what is promised through approved product submittals and can uncover potential problem areas. This procedure is explained in more detail in Section 6.6. 5.13 Closeout The purpose of the closeout phase is to detail the ending of a project, its formal acceptance, and the hand over to the customer. A successful project closeout will benefit all parties— owner, architect, and contractor. To have a successful project closeout phase, it has to be planned ahead of time. The closeout phase consists of but is not limited to the following: • Performing punch list inspections. It is recommended that the A/E firm identified at the beginning of the project work alongside the construction team or take full respon- sibility for development of the project closeout punch list. • Preparing and issuing a certificate of substantial comple- tion and or notices of final completion with attached punch lists. AIA Document G704-2000, “Architect’s Cer- tificate of Substantial Completion,” defines this stage as: “the stage in the progress of the Work where the Work or designated portion is sufficiently complete in accordance with the Contract Documents so that the Owner can occupy or utilize the Work for its intended use.” It is crucial that these documents are prepared, signed, and dated as they represent the point in time when the owner takes responsibility for maintenance and the warranty period commences.

35 addition to the acoustical tests, the final report provides a history of the project, a summary of the plans, the schedule, and the financial data. This report can be used during grant application to FAA for reimbursement. The requirement of closeout procedures can be included in the “general requirements” section of the specifications. It is important to determine closeout responsibilities before sign- ing the contract, and it is a best practice to integrate closeout into construction administration. For a successful closeout, the owner, the architect, and the contractor should be satisfied, and their goals should be met (AIA, 2007). • Completing final change orders. If the cost of the project is different from the specified allowances on the project, the architect should prepare the final change order. • Conducting maintenance training. Maintenance, as stated in subsequent sections, is crucial in maintaining the perfor- mance of the products and should be conducted accordingly. • Delivering project records. Complete and accurate project record drawings should be maintained by the general con- tractor or construction manager from the beginning of the project. • Delivering operation and warranty manuals. The contrac- tor should create a booklet containing all product warranties and operation manuals for submittal to the owner at the end of the project. • Collecting liens. The contractor shall compile lien waivers from subcontractors and suppliers. These documents should be reviewed carefully by the architect before certifying the final and retention pay application. • Reviewing closeout materials. The closeout material should be reviewed by the architect in order to determine contract compliance for submittals. It is very important to ensure that documentation is complete. • Processing the progress and final pay applications. All payment applications should be submitted by the contrac- tor and then reviewed and certified by the architect for payments. Before certifying the final payment, the architect must ensure that completed certified payrolls are in place; that all vendors, suppliers, and subconsultants have been paid; and that the final project meets the requirements of the contract documents and satisfies the owner. • Submitting the final reports. Preparing the final report and documenting that the project goals set by the FAA and other involved parties are met is one of the most critical parts of the closeout procedure. This involves performing the acoustical measurements outlined in the 1992 guide- lines for both pre-construction and post-construction. In Summary—Construction Administration 1. During the contractor selection process, pay close attention to contractors’ performance history in other projects. 2. Provide opportunities for contractor training. 3. Perform detailed product inspection to verify that delivered products are in accordance with approved product submittals and contract docu- ments. It recommended that the manufacturer and/or the consultant familiar with the products participate in the inspection. 4. Create checklists for submittal reviews, product inspections, field measurement verifications, and punch inspections as part of the quality control plan. 5. Employ a seasoned construction manager to observe and document the construction process on a daily basis to make sure that the contractors are adhering to plans as intended by the architect.

Next: Section 6 - Quality Control »
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 Guidelines for Ensuring Longevity in Airport Sound Insulation Programs
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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 105: Guidelines for Ensuring Longevity in Airport Sound Insulation Programs provides best practices in all phases of a sound insulation program to reduce or eliminate future deterioration issues.

ACRP Report 105 complements ACRP Report 89: Guidelines for Airport Sound Insulation Programs.

The contractor’s final report, which assesses sound insulation treatments as part of the first phase of the project that developed ACRP Report 105, is available for download.

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