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Page 36
Suggested Citation:"Section 6 - Quality Control." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidelines for Ensuring Longevity in Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22439.
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Page 37
Suggested Citation:"Section 6 - Quality Control." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidelines for Ensuring Longevity in Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22439.
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Page 38
Suggested Citation:"Section 6 - Quality Control." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidelines for Ensuring Longevity in Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22439.
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Page 38
Page 39
Suggested Citation:"Section 6 - Quality Control." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidelines for Ensuring Longevity in Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22439.
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Page 39

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36 Quality Control Quality control is one of the most important items in pro- moting durability and longevity. Effective quality control depends on a multiphased approach to excellence in technical implementation and management. The most efficient quality control action is to minimize the occurrence of errors. Quality assurance methods differ from firm to firm. One effective method of quality assurance is Total Quality Management (TQM). TQM is a management approach aimed at delivery of quality service based on participation of all team mem- bers from management to design personnel to suppliers and customers, with the goal of long-term customer satisfaction. TQM involves maintaining a quality standard, a set of pro- cedures that cover all key processes in the business. The pro- cedures typically include the following: • Monitoring the process to ensure its effectiveness; • Incorporating a disciplined methodology for monitoring conformance with standards, tracking non-conformance, and ultimately resolving any non-conformance; • Identifying, assessing, and mitigating performance, schedule, costs, and risks early in the task management process; • Checking outputs for defects and promoting corrective actions when necessary; • Keeping adequate records; and • Promoting continual improvement. The following material describes the steps necessary at each stage of the sound insulation project. 6.1 Design Steps that can be taken to ensure a quality job during design include the following: • In-house team meetings; • Meeting with the entire project team; • Use of checklists (standard quality control forms and check- lists can be used during initial design and final design phases such as the International Conference of Building Officials [ICBO] and the CSI quality assurance reviewing guides and tools); • Code compliance review; • Obtaining clients’ approval at the end of each phase; • Documentation and approval of key decisions; • Development and use of library of standard details; • Third-party peer review or review by a senior staff member not involved in the project; • Procedures for coordination with consultants; • Maintaining awareness of product changes; and • Assigning senior quality assurance staff in the project team to perform final review. 6.2 Shop Drawing Reviews Shop drawings are a set of drawings prepared by the man- ufacturers or the contractor with emphasis on particular products or installations and excluding additional notes or information concerning other products. This can include job site dimensions verified through job walks to special fabri- cation notes. Since fabricators rely solely on shop drawings (and not the construction documents), these drawings must be clear, concise, and free of error. Preparing and reviewing shop drawings is a necessary part of the construction process. If these tasks are not taken seriously, there is a risk of error in installation and delays. Arthur O’Leary referred to shop drawings as a “necessary evil”: “To the construction industry, shop drawings seem to be a necessary evil. Contractors find them expensive to produce and architects find them unappealing to review. Both find them time-consuming and costly to administer”(O’Leary, 2003). Therefore, the architect/designer should incorporate a highly thorough, organized, and timely review process. S E C T I O N 6

37 Including references to the construction documents, draw- ings, and specifications assists the architect and engineer in their review of the shop drawings. The shop drawings should also incorporate notes concerning changes or differences from the original documents for approval by the architect and engineer. The purpose of reviewing the shop drawings is checking for conformance with the information given and the design concept expressed in the contract documents. 6.3 Manufacturing Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) plays an important role in durability long after the manufacturing process is completed. Manufacturers over time have developed QA/QC procedures, and they have invested in this phase. The quality control process can be lengthy and complex. Incorporating procedures as outlined below has proved to be successful: • Developing quality control plans and standard work instructions; • Developing control charts; • Incorporating regular calibration of equipment; • Incorporating product inspection processes for material, equipment, and procedures; • Performing audits and random in-process inspections; • Testing products to uncover defects; • Hiring quality control engineers; • Incorporating additional training and corrective actions as uncovered through testing and auditing; • Emphasizing competence, such as knowledge, skills, expe- rience, and qualifications; • Obtaining recognized certifications in the QA/QC process such as ISO 9001, international standard for design and manufacturing excellence, or incorporating ASTM or AAMA requirements for manufacturing; and • Reviewing shop drawings thoroughly to make sure they match project specifications. In a discussion at the 2013 Sound Insulation Stakeholders meeting,4 contractors expressed their frustration with the lack of manufacturer quality control and inaccurate inventories. Improving quality control in manufacturing and having accurate inventory numbers streamlines the product order process and reduces the amount of hardship for owners, con- tractors, and manufacturers and ultimately contributes to a well-functioning program. 6.4 Product Inspection Inspecting products for defects and non-conformance at delivery helps control quality by identifying problems before product installation. Both delivered products and confor- mance with manufacturers’ storing requirements should be checked during this phase. In some cases, the inspection will require specialized skills and expertise in examining products and equipment to verify the technical specifications of the products. Inspection of the products before installation adds another layer of quality control and provides an opportunity for the manufacturer/contractor to alleviate the problem and offer solutions before a property is opened for construction. For more information regarding product inspection, refer to Section 5.6. 6.5 Installation and Workmanship The best products can be specified and purchased, but they are only as effective as the method of installation. Through experience from the early sound insulation programs, instal- lation methods have improved by introducing more rigorous training for contractors and more detailed inspection proce- dures throughout construction. Whereas in early programs, contractors tended to regard sound insulation jobs as just the same as any other house upgrade, they now realize that sound insulation construction requires much more attention to details. Poor contractor performance contributes to problems dur- ing and after construction. Specifically, when the contractor or a subcontractor does not follow the plans, there is increased risk of products not performing as intended. Examples of poorly executed work that can cause problems are as follows: • Not supporting the windows completely at the sill. Techni- cal specifications or design documents include requirements for fully supported sills, and the construction managers should pay close attention to this item. • Inadequate attachment of the window to the building structure at jamb locations. Design documents and details include requirements to address this issue, such as follow- ing the manufacturer’s written installation instructions, mandatory trainings by the manufacturer, and specifying adequate installation experience for window installers. • Rushing through the job in a short time or cutting corners. A very fast paced construction schedule can force the trade to work very quickly, making it difficult to maintain the quality of the work at an acceptable level without con- stant supervision. A requirement needs to be put in place to avoid this situation, and acceptable supervision by the program and experienced construction managers/building inspectors is necessary to keep contractors accountable for 4 Sound Insulation Program Stakeholders Meeting Summary, March 6, 2013, Los Angeles, CA.

38 the quality of their installations and adherence to plans and details. • Improper finishing of the wood doors. Some programs include finishing/sealing instructions in their technical specifications, outlining requirements for finishing and seal- ing all six edges of the doors and any cut holes. Some other programs have made it mandatory for doors to receive the primer and the first coat in the warehouse in a dry, controlled environment. In addition, manufacturers of wood doors list finishing requirements in the warranty language so that the programs and contractors pay close attention to this item. Additionally, the following tools and procedures utilized in sound insulation programs can minimize problems associated with installations: • Utilizing request for information (RFI)/request for change order (RFCO) forms and procedures; • Employing experienced construction managers to ensure contractor performance (oversight of the construction pro- cess and contractor performance are crucial for appropri- ate installation and finishing of acoustical products because these enhance the products’ performance); • Conducting detailed pre-bid and pre-construction meetings to communicate the specific acoustical goals of the program with the contractors; • Specifying liquidated damages if the contractor does not finish the project on schedule; and • Specifying the prevailing wage, which means that contrac- tors will pay higher rates to their employees, but thereby also makes it possible to hire the best in the trade, which should minimize potential worker performance problems associ- ated with less-experienced workers and ensure a smooth construction phase. 6.6 Quality Control Testing Procedures Field testing is an effective tool for verifying that the installed products live up to the promise of product submittals and manufacturer manuals. Although specifying field testing includes additional cost, the quality control benefit it offers out- weighs the cost. Common field tests include installed window testing for air infiltration, water penetration, and acoustical performance and balancing tests for installed mechanical sys- tems. Other field tests are thermal evaluation, glass evaluation (bow/warp and frost point), blower door, and thermal imaging. There are ASTM and AAMA standards for field testing such as the following: • ASTM E 783 and E 1186 testing to determine and evaluate air leakage in building envelopes and fenestration; • ASTM E 1105, Standard Test Method for Field Determina- tion of Water Penetration of Exterior Windows, Skylights, Doors, and Curtain Walls; • AAMA 502, Voluntary Specification for Field Testing of Newly Installed Fenestration Products; • AAMA 501.2, Quality Assurance and Diagnostic Water Leakage Field Check of Installed Storefronts, Curtain Walls, and Sloped Glazing Systems; • AAMA 511, Voluntary Guideline for Forensic Water Pen- etration Testing of Fenestration Products; and • The measurement of sound transmission through building facades and facade elements (ASTM Guide E 966). ASTM E 783, Field Measurement of Air Leakage through Installed Exterior Windows and Doors, is conducted at 1.57 psf (25 mph). According to AAMA 502-12, the allowable air leak- age is 1.5 times the laboratory requirements. AAMA 502-12 also allows water pressure to be ²⁄3 of the laboratory-specified value during field testing (ATI, n.d.). These standards can be incorporated into technical specifica- tions for identifying and evaluating design and/or construction defects. Usually templates are used for specifying field testing such as MasterSpec or AAMA short forms. It is also advisable for specifications to require selection of one random window and door from delivered products to be sent for independent laboratory testing prior to the start of construction. While not many programs utilize field testing of uninstalled products due to the associated cost, these tests have been very effective in identifying manufacturing problems before and during construction. 6.7 Energy Testing Given the necessity of incorporating energy-efficiency mea- sures into sound insulation programs, it might be necessary for future programs to perform energy evaluation, analysis, and modeling, and to assist owners in making an informed decision. The level of effort can vary from a simple walk- through to more comprehensive energy audits, analysis, and modeling depending on the needs of the program in general or for dealing with special cases. Currently, some programs perform energy auditing as part of standard design services on 10% of the homes before and after construction. The audit involves the blower door test to provide the program with information regarding energy sav- ings. This effort can be expanded to perform a comprehensive performance evaluation and modeling. Energy audits and modeling can accompany acoustical designs when necessary for either conforming to codes or dealing with special cases, such as assisting owners in selecting the most energy-efficient acoustical treatment available.

39 The different levels of energy auditing are described below—energy accounting, blower door test, thermographic inspection, and energy modeling tools. Sound insulation programs, depending on the need, can incorporate one or a combination of these tests to evaluate the efficiency of the building components or systems and suggest the best treat- ment options. 6.7.1 Energy Accounting Energy accounting is a process of collecting, organizing, and analyzing energy data including electricity, water, and fuel. For electricity accounts, usage data normally are tracked and should include metered kilowatt-hour consumption, metered peak demand, billed demand, and rate schedules. Similar infor- mation will be collected for water and fuel usage. These data can be obtained through analysis of utility data and energy bills (New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, 2006). Home performance evaluation includes items such as the following: • Check envelope for tight fit, • Inspect attic for leaks around barrier, • Determine how well the insulation insulates, • Inspect holes that electrical lines pass through, • Inspect performance of the furnace and water heater, and • Locate insulated ductwork or any duct leakage. The energy assessment reveals areas where energy is wasted and provides a comprehensive home energy report. 6.7.2 Blower Door Test A blower door test incorporates a special fan called a blower door to depressurize the home. First, the inspector closes all doors, windows, and anything else that lets in outside air. With doors and windows closed and fan running, it is easy to capture the leaks with an infrared camera. Often, energy- efficiency incentive programs, such as the DOE/EPA Energy Star program, require a blower test to confirm the “tightness” of the house. This test can be performed in less than an hour (DOE, 2012a). Figure 6-1 illustrates a fan used for a blower door test. There are two types of blower doors: uncalibrated and calibrated. Uncalibrated blower doors can only detect leaks. Calibrated blower doors have several gauges to measure leakage and allow the auditor to quantify the amount of air leakage and the effectiveness of any air-sealing job. This is the test recommended by DOE (DOE, 2012a). 6.7.3 Thermographic Inspection A thermographic inspection is either an interior or exte- rior survey. It measures the surface temperature with infrared videos and cameras. Depending on the weather conditions, the auditor selects either an interior or exterior survey for the best results. Interior scans are used more often since they are generally more accurate, and they benefit from fewer wind effects (DOE, 2012b). 6.7.4 Energy Modeling Energy modeling tools can be utilized for more compli- cated projects to accurately model the building components, analyze how certain modifications impact energy usage, and predict associated costs. This approach involves more extensive data collection to allow for performing a detailed comparative analysis of building designs. The software considers the effect of external factors such as weather data. Common tools for energy modeling are EnergyPlus, DOE-2, and eQuest. Source: Holtkamp Heating & A/C, Inc. Figure 6-1. Blower door test. Summary—Quality Control 1. Employ a TQM approach. 2. Provide more rigorous training for contractors and perform detailed inspection procedures throughout construction. 3. Incorporate field testing requirements into the construction documents and plan for laboratory testing of one random window/door.

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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 105: Guidelines for Ensuring Longevity in Airport Sound Insulation Programs provides best practices in all phases of a sound insulation program to reduce or eliminate future deterioration issues.

ACRP Report 105 complements ACRP Report 89: Guidelines for Airport Sound Insulation Programs.

The contractor’s final report, which assesses sound insulation treatments as part of the first phase of the project that developed ACRP Report 105, is available for download.

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