National Academies Press: OpenBook
« Previous: Section 6 - Quality Control
Page 40
Suggested Citation:"Section 7 - Maintenance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidelines for Ensuring Longevity in Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22439.
×
Page 40
Page 41
Suggested Citation:"Section 7 - Maintenance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidelines for Ensuring Longevity in Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22439.
×
Page 41
Page 42
Suggested Citation:"Section 7 - Maintenance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidelines for Ensuring Longevity in Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22439.
×
Page 42
Page 43
Suggested Citation:"Section 7 - Maintenance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidelines for Ensuring Longevity in Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22439.
×
Page 43
Page 44
Suggested Citation:"Section 7 - Maintenance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Guidelines for Ensuring Longevity in Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22439.
×
Page 44

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

40 Maintenance A survey of early sound insulation programs indicated that maintenance was the main issue in the homes showing dete­ rioration in performance of the sound insulation products. This section discusses the proper maintenance procedures, commissioning, replacements, and warranties for sound insulation projects. 7.1 Maintenance Procedures Proper maintenance and care for the installed products are key factors affecting the durability of acoustical perfor­ mance in sound insulation products. Building owners play an important role in maintaining the products. Wood products and sealants are the most vulnerable materials in installed products, and lack of proper maintenance will contribute to failure. Wood products require repainting or refinishing regularly to prevent moisture or ultraviolet damage and wear. As discussed in previous sections, durability based on the interdependence of systems may become apparent long after the construction is completed. For example, programs can specify and install the most expensive acoustically rated win­ dows, but the homeowner’s neglect in fixing or replacing cracked sealants and caulk can result in moisture penetrating and becoming trapped around the window. This can, in turn, result in damage to window framing and eventually create a path for noise to penetrate the building. It is essential to inform owners of the importance of maintenance and care for their new products and include a dedicated acknowledge­ ment section in the plans for the owner to read and sign. At the same time, most product manufacturers provide owners with a maintenance manual to inform them of how to care for their new product and maintain the warranty. Certain types of maintenance are required for the warranty to be honored. The specifications should require a maintenance manual to be submitted during the product submittal phase and as a condition of product approval. 7.2 Commissioning Commissioning is the process of verifying that building systems are operating as planned/designed and plays an important role in making sure that installed products and systems perform to their potential and therefore result in a durable outcome (LEEDuser, n.d.; WBDG Project Manage­ ment Committee, 2012). ASHRAE defines commissioning as “the process of ensuring that systems are designed, installed, functionally tested, and capable of being operated and main­ tained to perform in conformity with the design intent.” In addition, commissioning will improve building performance to some degree, depending on building type and complexity. Commissioning is becoming an increasingly important step in architecture as energy­efficient designs and sustainability demand are growing. Table 7­1 summarizes the key commis­ sioning steps involved in each phase of the project. Commissioning is a quality­assurance­based process that formalizes review and integration of all project expectations during planning, design, construction, and occupancy phases through inspections, tests, oversight, and record documenta­ tion (WBDG Project Management Committee, 2012). Com­ missioning can be performed either by the design/construction team or can be contracted to a third party. Sound insulation design and construction teams currently employ some of the steps listed in Table 7­1 in their programs. However, implement­ ing a full process will improve the performance of a building. Building commissioning has emerged as the preferred method of ensuring that building systems are installed and operated properly to provide the performance envisioned by the designer (Energy Systems Laboratory, Texas A&M University System, and University of Nebraska, October 2002). In order to start commissioning in a project, sound insula­ tion programs should undertake a series of activities: deter­ mine the available utility and government resource, hire a lead, specify the project scope and objectives, identify the team’s capabilities, assess the need for hiring consultants, and include S E C T I O N 7

41 commissioning requirements in the specifications to ensure that contractors are required to participate in the commission­ ing (Portland Energy Conservation, Inc., 2006). The main guidelines for the commissioning process are the following: • ASHRAE Guideline: The Commissioning Process (ASHRAE 0­2005, 2005), the industry­accepted commissioning guideline; • NIBS Guideline 3-2012, Building Enclosure Commissioning Process BECx, National Institute of Building Sciences, 2012; • NIBS Guideline 3-2006, Exterior Enclosure Technical Require- ments for the Commissioning Process, National Institute of Building Sciences, 2006; and • The Building Commissioning Guide, U.S. General Services Administration, 2005 (WBDG Project Management Com­ mittee, 2012). 7.3 Replacement According to industry surveys summarized in Durability by Design (NAHB Research Center, Inc., 2002), windows and doors are among the most commonly reported products with durability issues in a new construction project. This is shown in the frequency and cost of homeowner warranty claims and overall expenditures for repairs, maintenance, and replace­ ment. Air and water leakage, glass fogs, and frosts are the main performance problems with windows and skylights, while poor weather stripping, checking and splitting of panels, and swelling are widespread problems for exterior doors. Window durability problems depend to a large degree on the window framing material and its assembly details (Vigener & Brown, 2012). Wood, vinyl, and fiberglass are currently the most widely used window frame materials in residential construction. Steel frames are less common. Wood frames are prone to separation of frame joints from moisture and thermal, structural, and transportation move­ ments. Wood frames are also more likely to decay from pro­ longed contact with moisture unless they are pressure treated and properly coated. Many new wood windows are protected by a durable exterior finish or cladding that prevents moisture from forming underneath (EWCG, 2011). As mentioned in Section 4.5.1, aluminum frames are strong and inherently corrosion resistant in most environments if anodized and properly sealed or painted; however, they readily conduct heat. Condensation and even frost can be an issue with aluminum windows as well. Thermal breaks reduce conduction and improve condensation resistance; however, the durability of thermal breaks varies by type and quality (EWCG, 2011). Another metal alternative would be steel frames, which depend on an applied coating for corrosion resistance (Vigener & Brown, 2012). Vinyl window frames provide better energy performance than aluminum frames due to lower thermal conductivity, and vinyl frames offer welded components that seal the joinery. Vinyl window frames provide good moisture resistance and are low maintenance, but they tend to expand or contract with changes in temperature. Recent designs have improved dimensional stability and resistance to ultraviolet radiation and temperature extremes (EWCG, 2011). New wood/polymer composite and fiberglass window frames are strong and dimensionally stable. They provide better moisture and decay resistance than conventional wood (EWCG, 2011). With regard to products used in sound insulation projects, ACRP Project 02­31 has shown that retrofit treatment of buildings for sound insulation projects will provide a long­ term sound insulation goal without much need for actual replacement of the windows or door units. As noted in Section 7.1, maintenance has a direct effect on longevity of products. Lack of maintenance will result in depreciation of products or their components. The list that follows includes major sound insulation products or compo­ nents that are prone to deterioration, which may cause sound leaks, usually through or around windows and doors: • Weather stripping. Aging, as well as wear and tear due to product use, causes weather stripping to shrink and/or lose its resilience until it is no longer able to seal air and sound gaps. • Hardware. Building structures tend to settle racking door and window jambs out of square. This makes it difficult for the window sash or door panel to contact the sill or threshold evenly enough to achieve an airtight seal. This also causes Table 7-1. Commissioning process by project phase. Project Phase Commissioning Process Steps Planning Establish goals Establish budget Select commissioning lead Establish schedule Establish testing needs and requirements Select a commission lead Create initial commissioning plans Design Update commissioning plan Perform commissioning-focused design review Develop commissioning specifications Develop checklists for verifications Develop training requirements Construction Review submittals and shop drawings Perform construction monitoring Perform diagnostic testing Verify training Develop reports Occupancy Verify systems are performing as designed Perform necessary testing Perform near warranty–end review Sources: ASHRAE 0-2005, 2005; Portland Energy Conservation, Inc., 2006.

42 the locks, balances, and hinges not to work as intended, leaving cracks for sound leaks. • Sealants and caulks. Due to structure settlement or aging, the caulking surrounding building components may crack or deteriorate (see Figure 7­1). This may result in air and sound gaps or water intrusion and deterioration of frames and other construction, creating other sound transmission paths. • Wall insulation. Some early programs installed cellulose insulation blown into the wall cavity. Over time, cellulose can settle, compromising the acoustic performance of the upper portion of the wall. • Insulated glass unit (IGU). The life of an IGU varies depending on the quality of materials used, workmanship, and installation location in terms of sun exposure and geography. Lack of proper maintenance also affects the longevity of IGUs. If IGUs are altered, such as by installing a solar control film, the durability of the unit is limited, and the warranty may be voided by the manufacturer. • Aluminum frames. Aluminum frames installed in an area near the ocean may corrode due to the salt­laden air. • Door bottom seals. These seals experience loss of effective noise reduction due to the effects of deterioration and aging. Some programs have utilized automatic door bottoms that drop down when the door is closed to provide a positive seal. These automatic door bottoms have a tendency to require adjustment to ensure a good seal. Also, the gasket sealing against the floor can be pulled out during operation, and this creates a major air gap providing a path for noise penetration; therefore, further occasional adjustments may be necessary. • Wood doors. There have been instances of the delamination of exterior doors due to incorrect installation of glazing ele­ ments or untested manufacturing processes. This delamina­ tion causes the doors to fail, yielding air and sound leaks. Although the research for ACRP Project 02­31 did not indicate widespread deterioration, the study team encountered instances of low performance due to lack of maintenance. For instance, it is advisable to replace exterior caulks every 7 to 10 years or maintain the exterior envelope by refinishing the wood sidings and fixing cracks. This maintenance will mini­ mize the possibility of water penetrating the cracks, which is one of the factors contributing to failure of a door or window. There are situations when not just window and door parts should be replaced, but entire window or door units should be replaced. Frame materials deteriorate to some degree through environmental factors. A study performed on the life cycle of window frame material shows that window frame material— polyvinyl chloride (PVC), wood, and aluminum—can be affected by environmental factors. PVC is sensitive to heat and ultraviolet radiation, aluminum will corrode near indus­ trial and coastal areas, and wood is sensitive to moisture (Asif, Davidson, & Muneer, 2002). Figure 7­2 illustrates dete­ rioration of window frame materials. Figure 7­2a shows an uncoated aluminum sample before (left) and after (right) an immersion test. Figure 7­2b shows a crevice opening in a timber sample after a cyclic test. Figure 7­2c shows a PVC sample before (right) and after (left) an ultraviolet test. Factors that contribute to replacement of windows and doors include failure of thermal breaks in aluminum windows, breaks of other components, difficulty in operation of win­ dows, delamination of doors, deformation of vinyl frames, and unpleasing aesthetics. The findings regarding the life expectancy of sound insulation projects in ACRP Project 02­31 are somewhat consistent with the life expectancy of building components reported in numer­ ous publications (Morrison Hershfield Limited, 2002; NAHB Research Center, Inc., 2002; Kesik, 2002; SHSC, 2004; The Old House Web, n.d.; InterNACHI, 2010; Mayer, 2005). This infor­ mation is summarized in Table 7­2. FAA­funded sound insulation programs will provide modifications to each dwelling only once. The owners are Figure 7-1. Crack in sealant.

43 responsible for any replacements needed due to aging and regular wear and tear. If replacement is due to a defective product or poor workmanship, the owners have the option to work with program sponsors, contractors, and the manu­ facturers depending on when the problem was detected. This procedure is further explained in Section 7­4. 7.4 Warranty As an additional layer of quality assurance and homeowner protection, sound insulation programs require warranties on installation (contractor’s warranty) and installed products (manufacturer’s warranty). If issues arise after the completion of the program treatment, the warranties ensure that they can be resolved without additional cost to the program. 7.4.1 Contractor Warranty The contractor’s warranty requires the general contractor to provide a full warranty covering all labor and materials necessary to address problems or failures of installed modifi­ cations. The contractor’s warranty runs concurrently with any manufacturer’s warranty in place. The contractor’s warranty excludes maintenance and damage to the products after final inspection. Upon final acceptance by the program manager, the con­ tractor must provide a warranty package for each dwelling and an additional copy (digital or hard) for program records. It is recommended that homeowners sign an acknowledgement of receipt upon issuance of the warranty packet. The warranty package should include the following: • A list of sponsors, consultants, and contractors and their respective contact information; • A statement outlining the terms of the 1­year contractor’s warranty, including the start and/or expiration dates of said warranty; • A list of installed products, warranty periods, and the manufacturers’ contact information; • Copies of all manufacturers’ warranties; and • Copies of maintenance, instruction, and/or installation manuals for individual products. Homeowners should be provided with instructions on how to make a warranty claim during the warranty period and after the expiration of the contractor’s warranty. While the contractor’s warranty is in effect, it is common for programs to require the homeowners to contact the contractor directly for warranty issues. The benefit of this method is that it mini­ mizes the involvement of program management and costs. The disadvantages are that there will be a lack of program oversight and thereby an inability to ensure timely contractor response, the quality of any repair, and/or to track reoccurring issues. Due to these disadvantages, some programs have opted to manage the contractor’s warranty. In this scenario, home­ owners submit their claims directly to program staff. Program staff members have the ability to determine the validity of the claim, ensure notification and response from the contractor, Source: Asif, Davidson, & Muneer, 2002. (a) (b) (c) Figure 7-2. Before and after test results on aluminum, wood, and PVC. Building Material Replacement Cycle (Years) Window glazing 10 Vinyl windows 20 Aluminum windows 25 Aluminum doors 25 Wood windows 15–20 Acoustical wood doors 15–20 Insulated glass 10 Caulk 7–10 Hardware 10 Sealant 7–10 Insulation 30 Repaint 1–10 HVAC 20 Table 7-2. Building materials life expectancy.

44 and track the types of warranty claims submitted. The track­ ing process can be useful for identifying potentially substan­ dard products or installation issues, which may need to be addressed by program staff on a larger scale. Upon completion of the contractor’s warranty, the manufacturer’s warranties for some products will still be in effect. 7.4.2 Manufacturer Warranty Each product should be required to be covered for a mini­ mum time period as listed in the specifications. The amount of time is determined through industry standards and the specific requirements of sound insulation projects. Refer to Section 4.8 for details. 7.4.3 Warranty Issues Most manufacturers of building products provide some length of warranty for their products. However, most war­ ranties are honored only if the products were installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions. In this case, as discussed in Section 5, the construction admin­ istration plays an extremely important role in making sure the manufacturer’s installation instructions are followed and documented by the contractors. In addition, the warranties have other restricting clauses such as climate factors, proximity to the ocean, and transferability. Sound insulation projects have been significantly impacted by the tight restrictions that wood door manufacturers have imposed on door warranties. These restrictions include requir­ ing oil­based paint finishes, requiring a 4­ft overhang in each direction to protect the door, or requiring the addition of storm doors. Sometimes it is difficult to design for a door replacement and meet all the requirements listed in warranty certificates. There are other times in which following these requirements is not possible without creating code violations. For example, adding a 4­ft overhang to an outswing door located at a side yard with only 3 ft of setback will encroach on the neighbor’s property. To date, programs have not been successful in requiring wood door manufacturers to revise these requirements. To address this issue, some programs require the contractor to provide the necessary warranty, to add storm doors or overhang whenever possible, use metal core doors, or obtain an owner’s acknowledgement regarding the shortcoming of the wood door warranties. Climate and ocean proximity mostly affect aluminum prod­ ucts. Fortunately, the newer finishes perform much better. This has enabled aluminum window manufacturers to provide more durable products that are more resistant to the climate factor and presence of salt in the air. Another equally important issue relating to warranties is the period of workmanship warranty, which for most sound insulation projects is 1 year. Any issues related to contractor performance will not be covered under this warranty beyond 1 year. In general, construction project contracts require a 1­ to 2­year warranty period for workmanship. Sound insu­ lation projects usually require a 1­year period of warranty. However, some defects related to workmanship might take longer than a year to become apparent. Increasing the work­ manship warranty beyond 2 years might not be practical, and it may be cost prohibitive. Therefore, it is recommended that the workmanship warranty be increased from 1 to 2 years. Another important issue to keep in mind is that when pro­ gram staff members accept a product or constructed item, it is deemed final. Programs generally do not have “implied” warranty rights except if specified in the contract or in any warranties furnished by the contractor. In construction proj­ ects, some defects caused by failure in design, workmanship, and products may not become apparent during the warranty period. Under most state laws, contractors have legal obliga­ tions for their work. For federal projects, if a latent defect5 exists, the government is entitled to revoke its earlier accep­ tance of the contract (Chu & Briglia, 2002). Therefore, the end of the warranty period does not mean that the contrac­ tor or manu facturer is released from all liability. The statute of limitations for patent (obvious) defects is usually limited and defined by the contract documents. For latent defects, the liability period varies in different jurisdictions from 2 to 12 years. To pursue claims related to latent defects, several proofs are required. One key requirement is that a reason­ able inspection by the program staff before acceptance would not have revealed the defect. Therefore, it is critical to keep records of daily inspections, punch list inspections, and final inspection. 5 Defect that cannot be discovered by observation or an inspection made with ordinary care. Summary—Maintenance 1. Inform owners of the importance of maintenance and care for their new products. 2. Incorporate a full commission process into the programs. 3. Carefully select and specify required provisions for manufacturers’ and contractors’ warranties and provide instructions to owners on how to make claims on the warranties.

Next: References »
Guidelines for Ensuring Longevity in Airport Sound Insulation Programs Get This Book
×
 Guidelines for Ensuring Longevity in Airport Sound Insulation Programs
Buy Paperback | $47.00
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 105: Guidelines for Ensuring Longevity in Airport Sound Insulation Programs provides best practices in all phases of a sound insulation program to reduce or eliminate future deterioration issues.

ACRP Report 105 complements ACRP Report 89: Guidelines for Airport Sound Insulation Programs.

The contractor’s final report, which assesses sound insulation treatments as part of the first phase of the project that developed ACRP Report 105, is available for download.

READ FREE ONLINE

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!