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Integrating Community Emergency Response Teams (A-CERTs) at Airports (2013)

Chapter: Chapter 2 - Airport CERT Training Program

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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Airport CERT Training Program." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Integrating Community Emergency Response Teams (A-CERTs) at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22468.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Airport CERT Training Program." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Integrating Community Emergency Response Teams (A-CERTs) at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22468.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Airport CERT Training Program." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Integrating Community Emergency Response Teams (A-CERTs) at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22468.
×
Page 7
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Airport CERT Training Program." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Integrating Community Emergency Response Teams (A-CERTs) at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22468.
×
Page 8
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Airport CERT Training Program." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Integrating Community Emergency Response Teams (A-CERTs) at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22468.
×
Page 9
Page 10
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Airport CERT Training Program." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Integrating Community Emergency Response Teams (A-CERTs) at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22468.
×
Page 10
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Airport CERT Training Program." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Integrating Community Emergency Response Teams (A-CERTs) at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22468.
×
Page 11

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5 Rationale CERTs have the potential to positively contribute to the airport community’s ability to respond to airport-related disasters, such as an aircraft incident or accident, on- or off-airport, that may have multiple fatalities, or natural disasters that damage airport facilities. These teams provide invaluable manpower to airports that have exhausted their resources following a disaster when first responders are not yet on scene or are overwhelmed. Providing airport-specific CERT train- ing would dramatically increase the resources available to airport management, which may oper- ate with reduced resources and a limited number of staff. Each airport should determine its own highest and best use of a volunteer cadre. Audience A-CERT training is supplemental training of existing CERT volunteers. Working with the CERT team’s sponsoring agency from the local jurisdiction, the airport manager can establish a partnership for the coordination of training and use of CERT volunteers. Should the airport manager choose to sponsor his or her own CERT team or start new vol- unteer training from the beginning, the CERT basic training class is a required prerequisite to delivery of the A-CERT Annex. Contact the local jurisdiction’s CERT sponsor or Citizen Corps to coordinate the basic training. Airports may also wish to conduct background checks on any potential A-CERT volunteers. Implementation Timeline Table 1 presents a sample implementation timeline for A-CERT training. The Phase Tasks column includes the action to be taken along with an estimated number of days needed to com- plete each task. Estimated Resource Requirements Whether you choose to start and maintain an independent A-CERT or use the local commu- nity CERT at your airport, some personnel, funding, and/or other resources may be necessary. The CERT National program offers guidance for identifying resources requirements. Depending on how you tailor your program, many of these suggestions may apply to you. The following information was taken from the CERT National website article entitled “Starting a CERT Pro- gram: Identifying Resources.”2 C H A P T E R 2 Airport CERT Training Program 2 Starting a CERT Program, Step 2: Identifying Resources. http://www.citizencorps.gov/cert/start-1-2.shtm.

6 Integrating CERTs at Airports: What Is CERT and How Do I Use It? Depending on an airport’s intended use of the A-CERT, trained volunteers may need to be given identification, accountability tags, a laminated map or drawing of the airport showing key locations and reporting sites, basic contact information, and a communications cheat sheet to use as a quick reference on communications requirements such as frequencies. CERT Program Personnel Resources3 A CERT program will not be successful without help. To run a healthy, growing CERT pro- gram, you will need the following: • Administrative assistance (check with groups such as Senior Corps or AmeriCorps for volunteers). • A cadre of well-qualified instructors from professional responders and airport personnel. • Volunteers who take responsibility for parts of the program from civic groups, local CERTs, airport personnel, off-duty pilots, flight attendants, and ground crew. CERT Program Coordinator As the CERT Program Coordinator, you are responsible for the overall success of the program in your community. But what does a Program Coordinator do? Some key responsibilities are listed herein. As you progress through program development and introduce program mainte- nance, you will identify other responsibilities. When you do, add them to this list as a reminder of what it takes to run a CERT program. General Management • Develop the initial plan for implementing a CERT program in the community. • Develop forms and records or a database to track training, program participation, exercises, mailings, etc. • Develop a budget and obtain funding or in-kind donations. • Maintain records (financial, inventory, database of CERT members, etc.). • Coordinate a CERT electronic newsletter or other mailings to maintain contact with current CERT volunteers. Phase Tasks, Milestones and/or Deliverables Estimated Duration (days) 1 srentraP htiw etaD gniniarT hsilbatsE 4 slairetaM gnitekraM etubirtsiD/etaerC Schedule Facilities, Instructor 4 rosnopS TREC lacoL dna ,s Register Participants (Note: Background Checks Required Before Registration) 30 7 rosnopS TREC lacoL dna ,tropriA ,srotcurtsnI eraperP Create Logistics Schedu 7 snoitavreseR dna el Volunteer Background Verification 1 reganaM tropriA ot dettimbuS 1 .cte ,sdraC tneT ,sretsoR etaerC dna slairetaM gniniarT tnirP 2 noisseS gniniarT dloH 1 gniniarT etaulavE Table 1. Implementation timeline template. 3 Starting a CERT Program, Step 2: Identifying Resources. http://www.citizencorps.gov/cert/start-1-2c.shtm.

Airport CERT Training Program 7 • Establish standard operating procedures (SOPs) for the use of CERTs in disaster and non- disaster situations. • Evaluate the overall program. Marketing • Gain support by marketing the plan to airport management, local leaders, unions, first responders, citizens, employers, and potential partners. • Pitch to the media to gain public recognition of CERT capabilities and accomplishments. Training • Train administrative staff to handle public inquiries by phone and email about the program. • Schedule training, follow-up training, exercises, special events, etc. • Arrange all program logistics, including classroom setup. • Identify, recruit, train, and schedule instructors. • Recruit class participants. • Maintain the course content. • Provide an orientation at the beginning of each course (very important for new programs, less important in well-established programs). • Monitor classroom delivery. • Evaluate training and results. • Arrange for speakers at graduation. • Develop supplemental classes, exercises, and projects to keep CERT members involved and improve their skills. Administrative Assistance (Paid or Volunteer) Development and ongoing administration of CERTs come with a host of administrative duties. While you are marketing the program to key stakeholders and running classes, you will need someone reliable to assist you by doing the following: • Answering telephone calls and responding to routine inquiries. • Processing mailings. • Processing registrations. • Arranging the training logistics. • Maintaining the CERT member database. • Arranging for the printing of course materials, flyers, brochures, and other CERT materials. • Helping with a newsletter and/or website. You may be able to delegate other responsibilities. CERT members may have leadership, administrative, and creative talents that can help you. Ideas for Obtaining CERT Resources4 This following list includes some sources of funding or in-kind contributions, in addition to agency support, that have been successful for CERT Program Coordinators. As you review the list, consider your airport and your community. You may identify other sources for the resources you need. • Request a line item in the airport budget. Airports that are committed to emergency pre- paredness and response may be able to support at least part of your program costs on a con- tinuing basis. 4 Starting a CERT Program, Step 2: Identifying Resources. http://www.citizencorps.gov/cert/start-1-2b.shtm.

8 Integrating CERTs at Airports: What Is CERT and How Do I Use It? • Apply for a grant. FEMA, through the states, makes grant funding available for local CERT training. In addition, some corporations also offer grants for specific causes, including emer- gency preparedness. Remember, though, that grant funding is temporary. Even if you get a grant to get your program started, you will have to find a permanent source of funding for program maintenance. • Solicit donations. Some corporations, businesses, and service clubs have a history of sup- porting community programs and include it in their donations plan. Businesses located at the airport may be particularly willing to both offer their employees and support the program with funding. Try to determine how CERT can benefit them and can fit into their donations plan before you approach them. The worst thing that can happen is that they will say no. When soliciting donations, ensure that you recognize business contributions on your website or in your newsletter. Talk with your budget person to see if monetary donations can be managed as a separate account for CERT within your department. • Solicit in-kind contributions. Corporations may be more willing to donate materials or sup- plies for CERTs than money. If this is the case, try to gain donations for items that are critical to the program. You will need hardhats, flashlights, batteries, rope, printing services, recharg- ing of fire extinguishers, and a lot more. Offer attribution as a sponsor of CERT programs in exchange for the donation, and follow up with a formal thank you. Furthermore, utility companies have a track record for providing the mockups you will need to demonstrate how to turn off gas and electrical utilities. Approach your local utilities to explain your program. You might be surprised at what they will offer. They may also have supplemental training programs to offer your CERT graduates. • Charge a fee. Some communities charge a fee to CERT students to cover costs of their materi- als and equipment. While this is not the preferred method for funding CERT programs, it is a viable alternative in some communities. Be careful if you plan to develop CERTs in low- income areas. Many residents in low-income areas cannot afford to pay for a CERT program and will not be able to attend if there are out-of-pocket costs involved. Businesses may be more willing to pay for CERT training because they can show a direct benefit to their operations. One community charged businesses for the training, explaining that this money would be used to support neighborhood training. • Establish a not-for-profit organization. Some CERTs have established themselves as not- for-profit organizations, which are also called 501c(3) organizations. Organizations need to complete and submit an application for 501c(3) status and, typically, CERTs that have done so are well established rather than startup groups. However, if CERTs can be organized as 501c(3) organizations, they are able to raise funds through tax-deductible contributions from donors. Airport Resources Table 2 lists some of the key human resource requirements for training an A-CERT. Table 3 shows the estimated material resources that may be required to train A-CERT volunteers. Training Management Instructor Selection and Preparation Plan Instructors can be selected by the airport manager, airport emergency services, airport secu- rity, local public safety agencies, and the local CERT sponsor agency and should have requisite skills established by this group. Conduct a planning meeting to prepare each instructor before the class. Typically, each instructor will be discussing their areas of expertise as related to their specific airport.

Airport CERT Training Program 9 Training Facilities Plan Training rooms at the airport or other local establishments can be used for the training ses- sions; they will need to be reserved ahead of time. CERTs may wish to partner with law enforce- ment officer training programs at local community colleges. Airports may consider student and instructor access to the aircraft movement area, which is normally restricted for security and safety reasons. Airports may grant CERT students and instructors access during the orientation tour according to their TSA-approved airport security plan (ASP). If the airport does not plan to use CERT members in the aircraft movement area, escorts will still need to be provided and coordinated by the airport. The airport may still choose to require CERT members, students, and instructors to successfully complete appropriate credentialing training to comply with their ASP. Credentialing and preparation may take several weeks to schedule prior to the training. Advance Awareness and Marketing Plan Advance awareness activities should be discussed with all partners and the local CERT spon- sor agencies: • Discuss the CERT training with airport management, instructors, and local CERT sponsors to prepare them for training availability, work process changes, and impacts. Role Duration Effort Estimated Total Hours Establish Training Date with Partners 1 day 2 hours 2 Create and Distribute Marketing Materials 4 days 1 hour per day 4 Schedule Facilities, Instructors and Local CERT Sponsor 4 days 3 hours per day 12 6 htnom rep sruoh 6 htnom 1 stnapicitraP retsigeR Prepare Instructors, Airport, and CERT 1 week 5 hours per week 5 Create Logistics Schedule and Reservations 1 week 4 hours per week 4 Student Background Check Submitted 1 day 2 hours per day 2 Print Training Material, Rosters, Tent Cards, etc. 1 day 8 hours per day 8 48 yad rep sruoh 42 syad 2 noisseS gniniarT dloH 21 yad rep sruoh 21 syad 1 gniniarT etaulavE Table 2. Estimated human resource requirements. Tools and Other Resources Number/Amount 03 slaunaM tnedutS 1 tnioPrewoP 1 slaunaM rotcurtsnI Tables and Chairs in Classroom (Per Person) 38 DBT smitciV esicrexE Total Resources Table 3. Estimated material resource requirements.

10 Integrating CERTs at Airports: What Is CERT and How Do I Use It? • Conduct staff and instructor meetings to discuss the CERT training as needed as the date of training date approaches, two weeks prior, and finally one week prior to the class. • Announce changes via email and website. Session Scheduling Plan For CERT volunteers from the community, training sessions are usually scheduled for a Friday evening and all day Saturday. If you are using airport employees or employees of businesses at the airport, you may wish to use a workday schedule. A contingency date should be scheduled should absences or scheduling issues arise. Participant Registration Plan Participants can register through their normal CERT training process with the local CERT sponsor agency or through the airport manager. Background check verification should be pro- vided to the airport manager two weeks in advance of the class. There will be no continuing education credits that might require communications with certifying bodies. Training Sessions Plan If an airport will be using outside CERT volunteers who normally work during the week, the training session can be held from 6 to 9 p.m. on Friday evening and 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. on Saturday, outside of normal business hours. The class concludes with an exercise, usually an hour long, followed by a 10-minute debrief. If an airport is using internal employees then alternate training schedules may be used. See the suggested time plan in the Instructor Guidance for further details. Evaluation Plan As a common best practice in emergency management, it is recommended that program eval- uations be conducted. The suggested three perspectives are as follows: • Evaluation of CERTs at airports. • Evaluation of training. • Evaluation of drills and exercises. Evaluation of CERTs at Airports As a CERT is established or when an existing CERT team in the community is trained to assist an airport, every step must be evaluated, and the results of the evaluations must be used in the continuous improvement process. The following activities must be evaluated during the initial stand-up of the CERT and periodically thereafter: • Training courses. • Drills. • Exercises. • Mobilization. • Recruitment. • The match between CERT capabilities and the airport’s expectations. Evaluation of Training At a minimum, during the initial training and follow-up training, CERT members must be evaluated. At the very least, there should be a post-course written or practical quiz for each student, an evaluation of the course and instructor by every student, and an evaluation of the

Airport CERT Training Program 11 course by the instructor or instructors. In addition, much can be gained by administering a pre-course quiz. There are ready-made quizzes for the standard CERT courses, but courses to prepare CERT members for assigned duties at an airport will require the CERT instructor and airport liaison or CERT leader to prepare site- and function-specific quizzes. Evaluation of Drills and Exercises Every drill and exercise in which CERT members participate as part of the CERT should be evaluated as part of a systematic after-action review (AAR). CERTs work best when their members are fully engaged in all aspects of the CERT, so CERT members should fill out evalu- ation forms as should the controllers of the drills and exercises. Sample forms are provided in Appendix A. Evaluation of Deployment or Mobilization in Real Incident As part of the AAR of an incident at an airport, any role or functions performed by the CERT should be evaluated. The evaluation should address both how well the CERT and its members functioned in CERT terms and how well the CERT’s contributions met the airport’s needs and expectations. The CERT should be represented in the debrief and in the full AAR meetings and reviews. For the CERT, the debrief and AAR should be learning opportunities and the occasion for the application of the continuous improvement process for the CERT’s overall program and training procedures. Individual members of the CERT should fill out evaluation forms from their personal points of view. The forms for evaluation of drills and exercises included in Appendix A can be adapted for use after a real incident, or the periodic evaluation form may be used. Periodic Evaluation Periodic evaluation and volunteer engagement are important for any CERT program. In fact, the longer a CERT program has been running, the more valuable and useful periodic evaluations can be. Periodic evaluations can accomplish the following: • Identify if your volunteers are maintaining interest or if your program is growing stale. • Provide input to help you identify additional training that would be useful. • Identify new ways to use CERTs. • Offer new recruiting ideas. Periodic evaluations should be carried out for both individual CERT members and for the program. Both forms are included in Appendix A. An airport’s CERT or the part of a local government’s CERT that serves an airport should be evaluated periodically. Such evaluation should take place at least annually. A useful time for the program evaluation would be the annual exercise required for a commercial airport to maintain its certification.

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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 95: Integrating Community Emergency Response Teams at Airports (A-CERTs) provides guidance and tools designed to help organize and operate a citizen volunteer program to assist airport staff in emergency events or disasters.

The report, produced as a three part set, consists of the following:

• Part 1, What is a CERT and How Do I Use It?, explains what an community emergency response team (CERT) program is and how it can be used in the airport environment.

• Part 2, Basic Training Instructor Guide, includes a detailed curriculum designed to train volunteers to potentially assist at an airport during emergency events or disasters.

• Part 3, Basic Training Student Guide, is based on the instructors guide and is a resource for students as well as a takeaway from the training.

Also produced as part of ACRP Report 95 are customizable PowerPoint slides—for use by the instructor during training—and a video that can be used to educate the community and solicit volunteers.

View the ACRP Impacts on Practice for this report.

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