National Academies Press: OpenBook

Airport Leadership Development Program (2013)

Chapter: Part 1 - Report of Research

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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

P a r t 1 Report of Research

S e c t i o n a Background Research and Needs Assessment

7 1.1. Introduction In November 2010, the Ohio State University Center for Aviation Studies teamed with Direct Effect Solutions, Inc., the Columbus Regional Airports Authority, and HNTB, Inc., to create a lead- ership development program for the airport industry through ACRP. As noted in the ACRP’s initial problem statement, programs that are designed to assist existing and future airport leaders in assess- ing, obtaining, and refining their individual leadership skills are lacking in the industry. As such, the objective of this research has been to design, develop, pilot test, and evaluate a complete airport leadership development program that fills this need. The primary deliverable associated with this project is this guidebook for developing an airport leadership development program. This guide- book includes a comprehensive and ordered curriculum of written materials, multimedia presenta- tion resources, individual and group activities, and assessment tools that may be used either directly as provided or modified to create a customized airport leadership development course. As part of the guidebook, this document reports the research performed to create the Airport Leadership Development Program. The tasks associated with creating the program occurred in two phases. These phases are reflected in the two parts of this report. Within each phase, a number of tasks were performed. The individual chapters of this report are organized by task. Part 1 of this document is the research report, which contains three sections. Within these sections are seven chapters. Section A: Background Research and Needs Assessment provides motivation for this research, investigates leadership development programs and associated literature on leadership that exist within and, in particular, outside the airport/aviation industry, and identifies the gap between existing opportunities and the needs of the industry. Chapter 1: Introduction provides an introduction to and the motivation for this project. Chapter 2: Review of Existing Leadership Development Sources provides a description of leadership development programs that exist within the aviation industry, including academic institutions and industry professional organizations that offer education and training specific to the aviation industry. This chapter also provides a description of a number of leadership devel- opment programs that exist outside of the aviation industry. Many of these programs are found in academic institutions that do not necessarily provide aviation-related education. In addition, many of these programs were found to be housed within large non-aviation corporations. The chapter concludes with a summary of the findings from the review of these sources. Chapter 3: Needs Assessment and Focus Group Analysis describes the activities and findings associated with the research team’s conducting of several focus groups with airport industry leaders from airports throughout the United States of varying sizes and organizational structures. C H A P T E R 1 Introduction

8 Airport Leadership Development Program This chapter then describes the overall gap between existing leadership development programs found within the aviation industry and the needs of the industry as represented through the focus group research. Section B: Curriculum Development and Assessment describes the actual development of the curriculum. Chapter 4: Curriculum Development describes the determination of curriculum topics, materials, and alternative delivery methods. Chapter 5: Pilot Program Delivery and Assessment describes the beta testing of the developed program through a 3-day pilot short course. An assessment of the course, evaluated through post-course surveys completed by the participants, is provided. Chapter 6: Program Curriculum Materials and Presentation Strategies describes the created Airport Leadership Development Program, based on the culmination of the research activities. Chapter 7: Conclusions and Suggestions for Further Research describes suggested follow-up activities that could further enhance the leadership development opportunities for the airport industry. Section C contains supplemental materials to this report, including materials associated with the focus group activity conducted; an outline of curriculum contents, including multi- media presentation slides, suggested readings, and program activities; and a summary of the feedback provided by the participants of the pilot short course. Part 2 is the Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum developed by the research team. The curriculum is divided into three modules: Module I: Leadership Concepts, Module II: Leadership Fundamentals, and Module III: Leadership Execution. Materials for each of the modules are found within four sections. Section 1 is a program facilitator guide that is designed to explain to a facilitator, or a person attempting self-study, the curriculum topics and the use of curriculum materials, including pre- sentation slides, activities, and assessment tools. Section 2 is an annotated collection of presentation slides that may be used to accompany the Program Facilitator Guide when the curriculum is offered in a group setting. These slides are also provided in Microsoft PowerPoint 2010 format on the CD-ROM that accompanies this document. Section 3 is a program participant workbook and a series of assessment tools, known as assessment centers, to be used by participants when working through the curriculum. Section 4 is a facilitator guide and materials associated with a 360-degree leadership perfor- mance assessment tool. Participants are encouraged to work with their organizations to complete this assessment prior to engaging in this curriculum. This document ends with a combined list of references/bibliography that may be used to complement this curriculum. It contains full citation information to the works referenced in both the report and the Airport Leadership Development Program curriculum. 1.2. Background/Motivation for the Research Aviation and airport leadership are the same as in any other industry; investment in leadership development is crucial to success in the global economy. Attention to the development of leaders within an industry attracts high performers and fosters interest in professional growth that leads

Introduction 9 to excellence and new heights. Airport leaders must learn to become agile, flexible respondents to ever-changing economic drivers and must learn to navigate community interest and industry expectations. As they balance strategy with tactical management of work, projects with services, and organizational priorities, they must remain good stewards of the limited resources avail- able to them: time, money, and people. Leadership is about capability: the capability of leaders to listen and observe, to use their expertise as a starting point to encourage dialogue between all levels of decision making, to establish processes and transparency in decision making, and to articulate their own values and visions clearly but not impose them. Leadership is about not just reacting but setting short-term and long-term agendas, identifying problems, and initiating change that makes for substantive improvement. Leadership must focus on synchronous orga- nizational work efforts to provide strategically aligned results. Leaders in the aviation industry are comparable in breadth of responsibility to leaders within a community that are visible and make an impact on the economic strength of the region. Aviation leaders will often be asked to participate in business and civic boards and will be required to represent the aviation business perspective as well as balance the competing demands of resources and the needs of other busi- nesses and the community. Being strategic and communicating interest effectively, both inter- nally and externally, are necessary in the aviation industry. Leadership remains one of the most critical and relevant aspects of the organizational context. However, there has been little formalization on how to continuously develop updated leadership at the top levels of airports and transfer those skills from existing leaders to emerging leaders in most environments. Despite this lack of formalization, it is clear to industry leaders that there are key characteristics that are found in successful leaders: • Understanding the difference between leadership and management: Although the two terms are often used interchangeably, airport leaders appreciate the difference between leading the direction of an organization rather than simply managing existing operations. • Strategic positioning: Airport leaders understand the need to effectively position their organiza- tions in such a way that they best meet both the current and future missions of the organization, and in turn best meet the needs of the communities they serve. • Enterprise risk management: Particularly in a complex environment, airport leaders appreci- ate not only understanding, but strategically managing the risks associated with airports, as well as seizing opportunities for growth and meeting the airport’s strategic goals. • Communicating to diverse audiences: Airport leaders are often placed in environments where public communication is critical, for instance in presenting to their boards or to the media. • The ability to develop and foster positive organizational culture: As with any business, the focus, morale, and buy-in of airport staff to the mission of the airport are critical to the orga- nization’s effectiveness. Airport leaders understand the need for a unified culture within the organization to meet this mission. • Awareness of self: Leadership comes from within. Effective airport leaders understand their individual strengths and weaknesses, and they leverage each to continuously improve their ability to lead their airport staff. Application of these general characteristics to the airport industry environment formed the basis of this research. In addition, a significant amount of input from airport industry leaders from around the United States revealed other important factors to be considered in the develop- ment of an airport leadership development curriculum. It was clear from industry feedback that such a program was needed within the industry. To that end, the Ohio State University (OSU) assembled a uniquely qualified team to approach the research from a 360-degree perspective. The team included academic experts, airport leadership, organizational and leadership consultants, aviation consultants, and university

10 Airport Leadership Development Program graduate assistants to provide the resources, expertise, and perspective needed to conduct this research effort. The research team brought thorough knowledge and ability from various disciplines to ensure comprehensive information gathering and the skills to digest and dissect the data to develop an effective airport leadership development program that has scalability and sustainability. 1.3. Research Approach and Tasks The overall objectives of this research were to design, develop, pilot test, and evaluate a com- plete airport leadership development program that can be used by others to assist existing and future airport leaders in assessing, obtaining, and refining airport-industry leadership skills. The research assessed current leadership techniques and strengths of aviation industry profes- sionals and defined additional techniques that reflect the leadership needs of today and the future. The program: • Appeals to defined audiences, including airports of all sizes; • Addresses methods of curriculum delivery, ease of accessibility, financial implications, and technology capabilities and/or limitations; • Has curricula that address appropriateness, scheduling, timeliness, and future focus; and • Contains implementation and sustainability recommendations. The research approach defined the project as having two phases. In Phase I, research and assess- ments were performed that were necessary to develop an airport leadership development program that includes recommendation of a delivery method with presentation media and essential training materials. Phase II leveraged the knowledge gained from Phase I to construct an airport leadership development program that is scalable and sustainable, conduct a pilot short course attended and subsequently evaluated by existing senior airport leaders, and create a final deliverable in the form of leadership program materials and curriculum format presented in a guidebook format with supplemental digital media materials. The tasks associated with each phase of the project were as follows. Phase I Task 1: Inventory and summarize current airport leadership development programs, includ- ing those from airports, aviation educational institutions, and airport trade associations. Task 2: Inventory and summarize notable leadership development programs from other edu- cational institutions and other industries that may be relevant or have practices that are transfer- able to the airport industry. Task 3: Prepare a report that summarizes and assesses the results of Tasks 1 and 2, identifies gaps in existing airport leadership development programs, and provides a detailed plan to con- duct the Task 4 needs assessment to validate and better define these gaps. Task 4: Conduct a needs assessment of existing airport leaders using surveys, focus groups, and in-depth interviews to identify essential topics for airport leadership development; determine what leadership traits and skills are unique to the airport environment; assess and prioritize the most critical airport leadership traits and skills; and identify current and future challenges fac- ing airport management that can be beneficially discussed in an airport leadership development program. Task 5: Compare the results of the Task 3 report with the results of the Task 4 needs assess- ment to validate previously identified gaps, identify any additional gaps in existing programs,

Introduction 11 and substantiate the need for further leadership development in the airport industry. Provide a detailed description and outline of a complete airport leadership development program. The program should be relevant to a wide variety of types and sizes of airport organizations; should be designed to improve proficiency and depth of knowledge on essential topics; and should assist existing and future airport leaders to assess, obtain, and refine the most critical skills identified in Task 4. Task 6: Prepare an interim report that synthesizes the results of Tasks 1 through 5 and create a plan for a pilot event that would test and evaluate the curriculum recommendation of the program. Phase II Task 7: Develop a prototype curriculum for the program, revise the plan for the pilot event, develop program delivery methods, finalize a tuition budget, produce all associated training materials, and prepare suggestions for the long-term implementation of the program. Task 8: Conduct a pilot event of the prototype curriculum and evaluate its effectiveness. Develop an evaluation report on the pilot event, including recommendations and rationale for refinements to the program. Identify likely organizations with the interest and capabilities to adopt and deliver the final program to the industry on a continuing basis. Task 9: Revise and refine the prototype curriculum and final program. Prepare a final report that documents the research effort, explains and justifies recommendations, summarizes the pilot event evaluation, and provides background information. Prepare a stand-alone executive summary of the program for dissemination to the airport industry. Through the accomplishment of these tasks, the Airport Leadership Development Program has been designed to fill the gap left by existing airport leadership resources with fundamental topics and techniques found within other sectors. Furthermore, the program has been designed to be scalable to all airports as their leaders apply skills developed to reach the goals identified in their unique airport strategic plans. The criteria for judging the progress and consequences of implementation of this development program are the performance characteristics that are represented in key performance indicators developed by each airport independently in their strategic plans and organization objectives.

12 This chapter reports on the findings from Tasks 1 and 2 of this research, identifying the exist- ing leadership development programs found within and outside the airport industry. 2.1. Existing Airport Industry Leadership Development Sources The research team conducted a thorough review of the relevant airport industry leadership development literature and programs provided by academic institutions, business and industry, and professional/trade organizations. The team selected these sources based on their general knowledge of existing programs catered to the development of senior levels of management/ leadership within the industry, as well as those recommended by the expert panel overseeing this research. It is important to note that many of these programs interchangeably apply the terms man- agement and leadership. The research team made a special effort to identify what portions of the programs researched were oriented more toward technical management and what portions focused more on skills consistent with our common philosophy on leadership. In general, it was observed that the content of programs found at academic institutions was more focused on the technical aspects of managing an airport. The management skills addressed were basic and were primarily delivered using management theory rather than actual practice. The outcome of these programs was generally a degree of study for participants to gain an entry point for a career in aviation. General findings for business and industry leadership programs within the aviation com- munity were that they include a core program for a group of individuals supported by indi- vidualized programs tailored specifically to each participant in the program. This combination of development programs allows participants to develop skills at their own pace based on their own perception of their personal needs. Most programs use an assessment to determine a start- ing benchmark and have a mentor or coach assigned to the participant. Participants are gener- ally identified as having a high potential by the specific organization. The outcomes for these programs are generally internal to their respective organizations and are focused on developing bench strength for succession planning. General findings in the trade organization leadership development programs within the avia- tion sector were that programs were distinctly separate in course work and approach but similar in outcomes. For example, the American Association of Airport Executives’ (AAAE’s) Accredited Airport Executive (AAE) program is technical in nature and focused on developing a depth of knowledge in the operation and running of an airport. The Airports Council International– C H A P T E R 2 Review of Existing Leadership Development Resources

Review of Existing Leadership Development Resources 13 North America (ACI-NA) programs cover a wider breadth of knowledge and include a greater inventory of management skills for the operation and maintenance of running an airport. The outcomes for both of these programs are certificates of completion and designations for the participants after passing exams. Literature on the development of professional leadership skills is abundant. Any number of books on the topic can be found in bookstores. These books range from self-help guides for developing particular leadership skills to biographical accounts of many of the more publicly recognized leaders of the industrial age. The vast majority of this literature is general in nature, designed to be applicable to the wide range of organizations that require effective leadership. As part of the initial phase of this research, a selection of the available literature of ACRP was reviewed for its specific applicability to the airport industry. In 2010, ACRP published a document synthesizing existing workforce development practices at airports. ACRP Synthesis 18: Aviation Workforce Development Practices provides an analysis of existing programs focused on training and developing individuals for professional airport careers. The synthesis advises managers of airports and other aviation industry organizations on the workforce development needs, opportunities, and resources available to the industry. The basis for the research is that a workforce of trained and skilled professionals is essential to the health and growth of the aviation industry. The programs researched range from entry- level skills training (e.g., clerical) to upper-level management training (e.g., AAE). The sources describe content that is almost all technical in nature rather than related to leadership develop- ment or competencies/skills. The University Aviation Association (UAA) represents more than 200 institutions of higher education that provide degree programs, certificate programs, and/or courses in aviation. Many of these institutions are focused strictly on flight education, with perhaps one or two courses in aviation/airport management. However, a subset of these institutions does have more intensive educational programs focusing on the business of aviation and airports. The academic institutions researched for this project reflect a representative sample of those institutions that have degree and/or certificate programs or curricula that are specifically catered to the business side of the aviation industry. In nearly every case, the aviation program curri- cula are based on a tradition of technical aviation education and training, in areas such as flight education (professional pilot training), air traffic control, and aircraft airframe and power plant maintenance and repair, each developed in accordance with technical criteria prescribed by the FAA. These programs have generally broadened their curricula into other areas of interest to the aviation industry such as aviation safety and human factors; aviation sciences such as physics, meteorology, and engineering; and business principles such as airline management and airport management. Nearly all of the academic institutions researched focus their education to bac- calaureate and master’s degree levels and thus have not traditionally catered to executive-level education. However, some of the curricula within these programs were found to be useful in developing the Airport Leadership Development Program associated with this research. Brief descriptions follow of the institutions’ research, including a general overview of the insti- tutions and degree and certificate programs offered, and specific curricula that may be applicable to airport leadership development. Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, with campuses in Daytona Beach, FL, and Prescott, AZ, is a worldwide university found in more than 130 regional centers around the world (as well having as a strong internet presence) that focuses on educating students looking to pur- sue primarily technical careers within the aviation industry. Degree programs are offered at

14 Airport Leadership Development Program the associate, bachelor, master, and doctoral levels, and several nondegree certificate programs are also offered. Course work is primarily focused on technical and management skills for the professional instead of on leadership. Competencies and skills are specifically tailored to the student’s program interest. In particular, the aviation management degree program focuses on accounting, finance, operations research, international business, legal environment of business, operations management, marketing, organizational behavior, business policy, aviation law, avia- tion human factors, aviation management, airport management, aviation safety, airline market- ing, economics, mathematics, statistics, computer science, and engineering. The prerequisites, tuition costs, and program lengths vary widely. Residing within the worldwide campus, Embry- Riddle has established a Center for Aviation and Aerospace Leadership (CAAL). The emphasis of the center is on “Initiative-Based Development,” which focuses on developing leaders faster based on the principles of servant leadership, immediately implementing successful projects, and building a pipeline of leaders ready to succeed. Participants enroll in either a 6-month program or 3-day workshop. Both options include an assessment of leadership needs, which becomes the foundation for developing an individual development plan with specific goals and objectives. The Ohio State University Center for Aviation Studies, housed within the university’s College of Engineering, offers three degree tracks for aviation professionals at the bachelor degree level: a Bachelor of Science in Aviation Management, a Bachelor of Arts in Aviation Management, and a Bachelor of Science in Business Administration specializing in Aviation Management. All programs are delivered through in-person classroom instruction and require 4 years to complete. Competencies are focused mainly on technical and management skills. However, it should be noted that each student’s course work is unique outside of the required core classes due to options for elective course work. That said, the Fisher College of Business offers numerous electives focused on the topic of leadership. Tuition costs vary from year to year and are dependent on selected course work. The University of North Dakota Department of Aviation, located in Grand Forks, strives to provide an in-depth education and professional flight training, in addition to professional knowledge supported by a well-rounded liberal arts education. Initial research did not indi- cate any leadership development course work included within the bachelor’s or master’s degree programs. Course work is primarily focused on general management competencies and skills. Course work includes accounting, finance, operations research, international business, legal environment of business, operations management, marketing, organizational behavior, busi- ness policy, aviation law, aviation human factors, aviation management, airport management, aviation safety, airline marketing, economics, mathematics, statistics, computer science and engineering, information systems, marketing, human resource (HR) management, and flight. It should be noted that the Bachelor of Aviation Management degree program is heavily focused on flight training, requiring candidates to obtain their FAA commercial license and instrument and multi-engine ratings. The master’s degree program is focused more heavily on statistics and research methodologies. Prerequisites for the master’s degree program require applicants to have obtained a bachelor’s degree at a 2.75 GPA or higher level. Candidates must also obtain a FAA private pilot license. Tuition costs vary from year to year and are dependent on selected course work. The Aviation Institute at the University of Nebraska at Omaha offers two bachelor’s degree options: a Bachelor of Science in Air Transport Administration and a Bachelor of Science in Aviation Flight. Course work includes English composition, writing in aviation, public speak- ing, diversity in aviation, international aviation, computer science, physics, managerial calculus, political science, microeconomics, private pilot theory, aviation safety, airline operations, airport administration, meteorology, aviation law, corporate aviation, airport planning, transportation analysis, general aviation (GA) operations, and airport security. Course work is focused more on the technical management skills than on leadership skills. Learning generally takes place on

Review of Existing Leadership Development Resources 15 an individual level within a traditional classroom environment. Some courses are also available online. Tuition costs vary from year to year and are dependent on selected course work. In general, it was observed that the content of leadership programs found at these academic institutions was focused more on the technical aspects of managing aviation organizations such as an airport. The management skills addressed are basic and are primarily delivered using man- agement theory rather than actual practice. The outcomes of these programs are generally a degree of study for participants to be an entry point for a career in aviation. Organizations operating directly within the aviation sector, such as airports or government organizations, are numerous. However, very few have any established leadership development programs. A representative sample of those organizations that have demonstrated some level of leadership or organizational effectiveness training is described in the following. The Columbus Regional Airport Authority (CRAA) is a public airport authority based in the Columbus, OH, metropolitan area. CRAA operates a medium-hub commercial service airport (Port Columbus International Airport), a large general aviation airport focusing on cargo activity (Rickenbacker Airport), and a general aviation utility airport (Bolton Field). In 2010 CRAA was in the development stage of a succession planning program. The goal for the program is to assist the organization in identifying high-potential candidates as potential successors. The program was launched in 2011. A cornerstone of the program is individual development plans for candidates identified as high potentials and/or successors. The projected time period for leadership development will be ongoing, with projected progress point time periods of 6 months, 1 to 2 years, and 3 to 5 years. Development programs consist of formal learning programs facilitated by universities/colleges, online learning, conferences, mentorship programs, and certification programs. Currently CRAA has a leadership academy program in place to assist in development of managerial and supervisory positions. The 12-month program is based on a group learning environment. The teams of eight candidates develop in areas of communication, business and financial acumen, communication, project management, con- flict management, and performance management. The program is budgeted for $8,000. Much of the curriculum that makes up this program was found to be applicable in the creation of the Airport Leadership Development Program associated with this project. The San Diego County Regional Airport Authority is an independent agency established in January 2003 to manage the day-to-day operations of the San Diego International Airport and address the region’s long-term air transportation needs. San Diego’s Destination Leadership Program recently moved away from a program structured around developing high-potential candidates as a group to a more flexible program focusing on development tailored specifically to an individual at the middle manager level. The Destination Leadership Program is a 9-month program focused on basic leadership skills and organizational knowledge. The Individual Devel- opment Program (IDP) has no formal structure; instead, it is owned by the department head that also monitors the candidate’s IDP progress. Format options include online learning programs that integrate small group discussions focused on an area of concern to the group or organiza- tion. Offsite executive development programs are offered alongside course work. Other informal options include a mentorship program where candidates seek out a specific individual to assist in their development and pitch the idea to the Director of Organizational Development (OD). While specific competencies vary based upon the candidate, an informal list of competencies includes integrity, technical and professional expertise, analysis, solution development, being results driven, establishing stretch goals, strategy development, powerful and prolific commu- nication, motivating others, relationship building, collaboration and teamwork, and connect- ing internal groups with the outside world. There are no prerequisites or specific costs for the redesigned Destination Leadership Program. Outcomes of the program are skill development, assessment of personal competencies, and opportunity to use new skills on the job.

16 Airport Leadership Development Program The Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (D/FW) is a large-hub commercial service airport serving the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex. The airport is governed by a 12-member air- port board and operated under an organizational structure similar to those found in Fortune 500 companies. D/FW’s approach to talent management focuses on development programs for senior leadership. Senior leadership is defined as assistant vice president, vice president, and executive vice president levels. Training at other levels is provided to a wide range of candidates, and no formal identification of high potentials is in place. The period for training varies from 30-, 90-, and 120-day periods. Course selection and load are dependent on seniority level within the organization. D/FW has identified certain leadership and management topics that are cov- ered, including business ethics, community stewardship, performance management, situational leadership, change implementation, coaching, developing oneself, and mentorship. Key compe- tencies include enhancing personal effectiveness, business acumen, building relationships, diver- sity and inclusion, being customer focused, organizational commitment, integrity, being results driven, and focusing on strategic vision. The Winnipeg Airports Authority (WAA) is a community-based organization governing the Winnipeg James Armstrong Richardson International Airport, the primary commercial service airport serving the city and region surrounding Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. WAA does not specifically focus on high-potential leadership development. However, WAA does encourage leadership development and has a relationship with the International Association of Airport Executives (IAAE) and ACI-NA. Courses focus on airport-related topics such as concessions management, operations, security, and so forth. WAA originally established an online portal with ACI-NA for use at a couple of airports. Today, the WAA portal has been adopted throughout Canada. WAA also offers some leadership programs internally, but those programs are mainly driven by IAAE and ACI-NA online course work. Local universities and colleges also contrib- ute to development, where applicable. Additional training opportunities developed by IAAE are under consideration. WAA’s target audience for leadership development is junior and mid- level managers with aspirations for director-level positions. While there has been some focus on executive-level development from time to time, nothing has been formally established. Presently, WAA has no formal budget for leadership training and no formal prerequisites are used. How- ever, members of management are considered based on taking initiative, communication skills, and performance. The FAA owns and operates a management training center, called the Center for Management and Executive Leadership (CMEL). The FAA CMEL program creates an environment where supervisors, managers, executives, and other designated employees who have an understanding of their leadership responsibilities and skills can be successful. Those responsibilities and skills are defined as managing the agency’s human resources effectively, defining program goals that enhance organizational performance, implementing of the FAA Model Equal Employment Opportunity program, promoting open and honest communication, and fostering teamwork and employee involvement in the decision-making and change management processes. Though the targeted audience is leaders within the agency, non-FAA candidates are allowed to enroll for a fee. (Costs were unavailable.) Courses and workshops are primarily taught in person in Palm Coast, FL. Instruction includes interactive lectures, discussions, exercises, and other group/individual activities. The duration of each varies widely, from less than a week to over 2 months. Only one course is provided online. The depth of topics varies widely from introduction-type classes to very specific advanced course work. The overall scope is generally focused on leadership skills, with some offerings specific to aviation. Completion of multiple courses does not appear to constitute the completion of a larger curriculum.

Review of Existing Leadership Development Resources 17 General findings for business and industry leadership programs within the aviation commu- nity include a core program for a group of individuals supported by individualized programs tailored specifically to each participant in the program. This combination of development pro- grams allows participants to develop skills at their own pace based on their own perceptions of their personal needs. Most programs use an assessment to determine a starting benchmark and have a mentor or a coach assigned to the participant. Participants are generally identified as hav- ing a high potential by the specific organization. The outcomes for these programs are generally internal to their respective organizations and are focused on developing bench strength for suc- cession planning. A number of professional trade organizations exist specifically for the aviation industry in general, and airports in particular. The primary function of these organizations is to provide representation at federal, state, and local government and civic organizations on behalf of, for example, airports. In addition to this core function, these organizations have played major roles in educating professionals in the industry through conferences, publications, and training and educational programs, including those targeted for management-level personnel in the airport industry. The Airport Executive Leadership Program (AELP) offered by ACI is targeted to CEOs, deputy CEOs, and VPs within airport management. The program fosters the development of airport industry leaders, assisting them in developing their leadership and strategic manage- ment skills. It provides participants with advice on strategies to handle leadership responsibili- ties by recognizing their own management style. The AELP is also focused on creating a network of future airport industry leaders with a goal of developing strategic thinking, global/regional and cultural perspective, change management techniques, and leadership philosophies. The format of the program is a combination of face-to-face and web-based sessions with lec- tures, case studies, and role play. The program is sponsored through John Molson School of Busi- ness at Concordia University in Montreal, Canada. The total length of the program is 9 weeks; 3 weeks are spent through online learning followed by 1 week of full-time classroom discussions at Concordia. Then candidates have 1 week to catch up on work, which is followed by 4 more weeks of online learning. The online learning includes online discussion groups, individual and group assignments, readings, and responses. Candidates are required to obtain a recommendation from their chief executive and submit a letter of motivation. The course allows candidates to remain employed full time. Total cost (not including travel) is approximately 6,000 USD. Also notable is the Global ACI-ICAO Airport Management Professional Accreditation Programme (AMPAP), which is a strategic training initiative of ACI and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Graduates of the program earn a designation as an Inter- national Airport Professional (IAP). The program’s primary focus is to train airport managers through a curriculum that covers all functional areas of the airport business, such as opera- tions, security, finance, commercial management, airport development, and strategic manage- ment while promoting adherence to the highest professional standards. This program, which consists of four mandatory and two elective courses, encourages participants to share best managerial practices in an interactive, cross-cultural environment while establishing a global network of contacts with whom they may interact throughout their careers. While covering technical matters, the course materials for each module also cover the topics from a strategic management perspective. Some courses involve 5 days of classroom training with advance preparation using elec- tronically transmitted materials. Other courses are offered online and last 4 weeks (equivalent to 5 days of classroom training). The four AMPAP mandatory courses focus on the AMPAP

18 Airport Leadership Development Program targeted expertise areas, such as air transport system (classroom/face-to-face); airport planning, development, and environmental management (online); airport commercial and financial man- agement (online); and airport operations, safety, and security (online). The current fee for each mandatory course is 2,900 USD, and is 1,400 USD to 2,000 USD for electives. The existing ICAO or ACI courses accepted as electives for the purposes of AMPAP include Airline Management for Airport Professionals (ACI), Airport Communications and Public Relations (ACI), Airport Environmental Management (ACI), Airport Executive Leadership Programme (ACI), Airport Facilities Management (ACI), Airport Human Resources Man- agement (ACI), Airport User Charges (ACI-ICAO), Aviation Security Professional Manage- ment (ICAO), Developing Customer Service Culture at Airports: Measuring and Benchmark- ing the Results (ACI), Safety Management Systems (ACI), and Strategic Use of Information Technology (ACI). The International Air Transport Association (IATA) training and development institute is the leading provider of global aviation training solutions and professional development pro- grams, supporting and promoting industry standards worldwide. Relevant areas of study include operations and infrastructure, aviation management, and organization and human performance. The target audience is mainly directors and managers responsible for or involved in specific roles. For example, IATA offers a leadership and succession planning course for senior human resource professionals who are responsible for the development of talent and succession plan- ning within their organizations. Presently it is unclear if the leadership and succession planning course work is applicable to leadership or management. Classes are delivered worldwide (mostly outside the United States) in a classroom setting and typically require 3 to 5 days to complete. Upon completion, candidates are awarded a certificate of completion. A diploma track is offered where candidates have 5 years to complete. Course fees are approximately $2,000 each, which doesn’t include travel and lodging. The AAAE’s accreditation program is designed to provide airport professionals with creden- tials that reflect their extensive depth and breadth of technical and operational knowledge and experience in airport management. The program is the AAAE’s highest level accreditation pro- gram, designed for those who have “demonstrated their ability to handle the responsibilities of airport management, regardless of airport size.” The program is targeted to airport management professionals desiring to attain senior level management and executive positions. Perquisites for enrollment are that candidates be at least 21 years of age, have a current membership in AAAE, and have at least 1 consecutive year expe- rience at a public-use airport. Candidates are also required to possess either an accredited bachelor’s degree or 8 years of civil airport management experience. Core competencies of the program are focused on airport management responsibilities in topics that include finance and administration, planning, construction and environmental, air- port operations, security and maintenance, legislative affairs, marketing and communications, and air service development. While there is no specific coverage of leadership, elements of leadership concepts may be found within the modules, such as “understanding all elements of the organization,” “public and media relations,” and “crisis management.” The program consists of multiple phases of independent study and mentoring. To successfully complete the program, candidates must pass a 180-question multiple choice written exam, a writing assignment on a topic of relevance to airport management, and a final interview. The AAAE desires that the independent study program be completed within 5 years of a candidate’s approved program application. The AAAE does offer a 1-week academy to review for

Review of Existing Leadership Development Resources 19 the written exam. This academy cost is approximately $1,800 plus travel and accommodations. This is also accompanied by a 1-day final interview prep. Several mentorship opportunities are also available. The cost of the AAAE program is $250 plus annual membership dues. Accelerated course fees are unknown. Upon becoming accredited, members are required to maintain their membership and accumulate a minimum of 55 hours of continuing education units every 3 years. 2.2. Leadership Development Resources Found Outside the Airport Industry Sector In addition to sources directly associated with leadership development within the airport sec- tor, the research team conducted a thorough review of relevant leadership development literature found in a variety of other sectors. Such programs are also provided by academic institutions, business and industry, and professional/trade organizations. Of the plethora of sources that exist, the team selected those that may be most easily transferred to the airport sector. Furthermore, as with those sources found within the airport industry, the team selected these sources based on their general knowledge of existing programs catered to the development of senior levels of management/leadership within the industry, as well as those recommended by the expert panel overseeing this research. General findings for the academic leadership development programs outside the aviation industry show a vast range of participants. The program content is not industry specific but rather a combination of theory and practice, and has a level of immersion expected with the time commitment associated with the programs. The outcomes for the academic programs are master’s level degrees, leadership degrees, or continuing education credit. General findings for the business and industry programs outside the aviation community are similar to the business and industry programs within the aviation community. These programs target an existing leader within an organization and focus on personal development resulting in advancement. The programs are designed within the organizations with specifics for the organi- zation’s cultural norms. The leadership skills identified are tailored to the industry or organiza- tional needs. The outcomes for the business and industry programs are retention and succession planning of existing leaders as well as mentorship of emerging leaders. In general, the trade organizations’ leadership programs outside of aviation focus on a breadth of knowledge for management and leadership skills that are broad and applicable to a wide range of industries. The content of these programs focuses on practical leadership skills for executive- level leaders. These programs tend to be less expensive than the academic programs but also use a blend of theory and practice. The outcomes of the trade organization programs are certificates of completion and designations of continuing education. The Ohio State University Fisher College of Business focuses on providing a learning foun- dation in both theory and practice. The target audience for the Executive Master’s in Business Administration (EMBA) program is directors, senior managers, mangers, engineers, or super- visors with approximately 14 years of professional experience. The EMBA program includes a diverse group of candidates based on skill sets and industries. Candidates form a cohort and work together for the 18-month period. Delivery is online in addition to formal classroom work on campus 3 days a month. The cost for the EMBA is $77,000, not including travel or on-campus accommodations. Complementary to the EMBA program, Fisher also offers open enrollment programs, custom programs, online courses, and a Master’s in Business Operation Excellence (MBOE). The format

20 Airport Leadership Development Program is generally classroom-based, supported by online course work with programs lasting anywhere from 1 day to 18 months. Prerequisites vary depending on the program, as do program costs, which vary. Key leadership topics and competencies include coaching/mentoring, negotiation/conflict management, power, influence and leadership effectiveness, and talent management. Addition- ally, management course work and programs include finance/accounting, general management industry partnership, international, marketing/sales, not-for-profits, operations/IT, and supply chain management. Leadership development programs are generally custom designed to a company or organiza- tion with very specific goals in mind. Such programs vary in length and cost. All programs entail an assessment of an individual’s leadership skills, which is used as a foundation for the course and group work. The University of Pennsylvania Wharton School of Business leadership programs, which include an undergraduate leadership program, a graduate leadership program, and the Wharton Center for Leadership and Change Management, seek to develop global leaders who exemplify leadership at its best, where the vision is strategic, the voice persuasive, the results tangible, and the impact global. The program strives to develop world citizens—global leaders with an understanding of how they and their organizations can make a positive difference for investors, customers, employees, and communities regardless of national setting but with a deep apprecia- tion for the distinctive cultures at play. The program includes instruction on development skills and competencies such as building relationships that work; creating and leading high-performing teams; critical thinking; real- world, real-time decisions; bargaining for advantage; guiding the future of boards; governing the corporation; high-potential leaders; accelerating impact; leading and managing people; leading organizational change; strategic persuasion; the art and science of selling ideas; the leadership journey; and creating and developing leadership. The program also includes an executive nego- tiation workshop. Wharton offers 33 open-enrolment executive education programs in addition to custom- designed programs and an EMBA degree program. Programs vary from 1 day to 18 months for the EMBA. Program costs vary accordingly, with the EMBA program totaling $172,000. Wharton operates a main campus in Philadelphia along with auxiliary campuses in San Francisco, Asia, India, Europe, and the Middle East. Harvard University offers an internationally recognized name providing open enrollment programs, custom programs, online (action learning), and EMBA degree programs for the board leader, C-level executive, senior leader, and mid-level leader. Students are immersed in leadership training that will challenge their assumptions, disrupt their ordinary ways of doing business, and introduce them to new and unexpected ways of thinking. By participating, they will prepare for the next steps in their careers and lives by demonstrating leadership in their classes and among their peers. Most importantly, they will return to their organizations with fresh ideas, new busi- ness skills, and a greater capacity for addressing the challenges their companies will face. Programs are tailored by topic and leadership levels. Key competencies are comprehensive leadership, owner-managed organizations, business strategy, corporate governance, entrepre- neurial leadership, financial management, health care and science, innovation, leadership and change, marketing, negotiation and managerial decision making, personal development, social enterprise, and technology and operations management. Harvard operates a main campus in Boston along with satellite campuses in California, Brazil, China, England, France, India, and Spain. Online action-learning programs are intended to be

Review of Existing Leadership Development Resources 21 used in conjunction with select open enrollment and custom programs. Featuring faculty pre- sentations, video case studies, practical frameworks, and hands-on exercises, these CD-ROM- based programs enhance the curricula of the programs in which they are being used. There are no formal education prerequisites for candidates other than proficiency in written and spoken English. Some programs require sponsoring statements completed by a chief executive within the candidate’s organization. The University of Southern California has developed a Transportation Education Develop- ment Pilot Program: Leadership in Transportation. This course is targeted for transportation professionals in order to develop leadership skills for them to assume higher-level positions within the transportation industry. This course is at a graduate level. Key topics include: • What is leadership? • How do you learn leadership? • Leading in uncertainty and individual dynamics. • Leading in uncertainty: learning and risk in organizations. • Decision making in uncertainty. • Designing networks. • Conflict with multiple stakeholders and negotiation. • Leading change. • Applied leadership practice. This 14-week course is presented primarily online, with asynchronous dialogue through mes- sages and blog posts. The majority of the course is completed through independent readings and responses to the readings. There are two face-to-face meetings—one to kick off the course and one as the culminating activity. The culminating session includes applied class exercises to put new knowledge and skills into practice. Southwest Airlines, headquartered in Dallas, TX, is among the largest U.S. commercial air carriers, and in fact is the leading provider of domestic commercial air service in the United States. The airline is known for its low-fare, high-frequency service, excellent customer service, and highly respected employee relations. The company is routinely ranked as one of the best large companies in terms of employee satisfaction. Southwest Airlines’ University for People is a state-of-the-art training facility within their corporate headquarters. Led by Southwest Airlines facilitators and senior leaders as guest profes- sors, the University for People offers employees training and development for every stage of their careers. Programs and topics are targeted to specific job levels within the organization. Leadership classes, for example, are available to all associates. Supervisor and manager topics include power speak, public speaking, successful performance appraisals, written communications, Microsoft Office, and Myers-Briggs personality assessment. Manager and director offerings include stra- tegic leadership, research and presentations on corporate issues, and a team-building retreat. Options for individuals at the director or above level include cross-departmental collaboration, communicating proactively, leveraging best practices, maximizing resources, and identifying learning opportunities for the growth and development of Southwest Airlines employees. Programs are sequential but are not prerequisites to each other. Participants need to apply and interview for selection in each course of study except the basic class. The duration of each program differs. Costs and certification information were unavailable. Ohio Health is a family of not-for-profit, faith-based hospitals and health care organizations serving patients in central Ohio. The organization has adopted the mission of improving the health of those it serves; has a code of core values that include compassion, excellence, steward- ship, and integrity; and has a commitment to deliver quality, convenient, timely health care to all members of the community, regardless of ability to pay.

22 Airport Leadership Development Program Ohio Health has separate leadership development for emerging and existing leaders. The pro- grams are not prerequisites to each other; however, the existing leaders are used as mentors for the emerging leaders. The philosophy for the program is to develop and retain leaders for suc- cession and promotion. The program is based on the “Leadership Circle,” which is a 360-degree view of leadership, including physical, emotional, mental, and spiritual competencies. The two tracks for the program include creative competencies and reactive tendencies. The year-long program sessions include courses on the topics of personal awareness, com- munication, influence, and celebrations. Participants meet once a month for half a day for either program. The participants also work independently on individual goals through the programs. Costs and certification information were unavailable. The United States military has a multitude of training and educational programs covering all ranks within all branches of the organization. Education at the general/flag officer level is inher- ently joint and unified in nature. The focus of the military leadership program is on the highest levels of strategy and integrating the elements of national power to achieve national security objectives. In particular, the CAPSTONE course reinforces new general/flag officer comprehen- sion of joint matters and national security strategy needed for the remainder of an officer’s career. Key topics include local area studies, field studies, overseas field studies, and joint operations. Leadership Columbus is a community-based leadership development program targeted for emerging community leaders. The result is a class of professionals who comprise a network of enthusiastic leaders ready to hone their skills and talents and connect them to causes they are passionate about and focus on the significant challenges to the Central Ohio region. Key topics include economy, diversity, the justice system, public education, and human and social service issues. The 10-month program is a combination of a retreat and monthly classes with outcomes in both team dynamics and personal growth. Through their work on project teams, participants are afforded the opportunity to explore group dynamics, leadership styles, consensus building, and project management skills necessary for professional careers as well as community service. Tuition is $4,400. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA’s) Leadership Model is the foundation for the NASA Leadership Development Framework. The framework is a set of guide- lines, requirements, and recommendations for the development of the skills and knowledge required for the four types of leadership roles in NASA. Each of the four types of leadership involves individual assessments and development plans. It is a progressive program developed and administered internally. The programs are focused on the goal of training leaders to successfully motivate their employees, manage change, and develop as the future leaders of the organization. Individual development plans are created based on the ratings from an assessment, and then participants craft their own development path using courses from the framework. Participants experience various instructional activities, including feedback from peers and subordinates, small group activities, lectures, and videotaped discussions. The classes are face to face and typically last 1 week to 10 days. Tracks include the Business Education Program, Leading Through Influence, Leadership Alignment for Managers, Practical HR Solutions for Supervisors, and Leading Through Effective Communication. Program costs were unavailable. The American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) is dedicated to workplace learning and performance professionals. The organization provides resources for learning and performance professionals, educators, and students. Most notable among ASTD’s offerings is a

Review of Existing Leadership Development Resources 23 course on developing leadership development programs. Participation in the course requires 2 days, and it is offered at multiple locations throughout the United States at a cost of $1,495. The course promises to communicate the critical components needed for a successful leader- ship program, including leadership competencies and how they relate to the organization, the use of assessment models, how to evaluate off-the-shelf programs, best practices in needs assess- ments, best practices for identifying high-potential participants, and demonstrating the business impact of leadership development programs (LDPs). The Center for Creative Leadership (CCL) is a nonprofit educational institution focused exclusively on creative leadership—the capacity to achieve more than imagined by thinking and acting beyond boundaries. Through an advanced understanding, practice, and development of leadership, individuals are able to benefit society worldwide. CCL claims 470,000 leaders have graduated from their program. Of participants, 75% can be classified as middle-, upper middle-, or executive-level professionals. The private sector accounts for 63% of participants, followed by 22% public sector, 12% not-for-profit, and 3% education. CCL offers core programs and specialized skill development programs that can be completed in approximately 3 to 5 days. The core programs focus on leadership fundamentals, maximizing leadership potential, the leadership development program, leading for organizational impact, and leadership at the peak of the organization. Specialized skill development programs focus on developing the strategic leader, leading teams for impact, coaching for greater effectiveness, innovative leadership, coaching for HR professionals, leadership development for HR profes- sionals, the women’s leadership program, and assessment certification workshop. Programs are offered through a network of CCL centers around the world in both customized and open- enrollment formats. The 2009–2010 annual report indicated that custom programs account for 75% of partici- pants, followed by 17% open enrollment and 8% network associates. Additionally, CCL offers assessment instruments, leadership coaching, publications, and online resources. There are no formal outcomes for individuals who successfully complete a program. However, there is a com- pelling list of customer testimonials from individuals and organizations. There are no formal prerequisites, but some courses do have recommended professional experience. Core programs generally run less than $10,000 each, while custom programs vary. The Society of Human Resource Managers (SHRM) proactively provides information on organizational leadership, organizational education, and academic research to human resource professionals, media, governments, nongovernmental organizations, businesses, and academic institutions. Access is exclusive to SHRM members. During the year, SHRM hosts international, national, and regional conferences. SHRM publishes resources online and in hard copy. Although SHRM does not provide a formal leadership development program, they do publish research on leadership topics such as leading the organization, leading the self, leading others, managing change, solving problems and making decisions, managing politics and influencing others, taking risks and innovating, setting vision and strategy, managing work, enhancing busi- ness skills and knowledge, understanding and navigating the organization, demonstrating ethics and integrity, displaying drive and purpose, exhibiting leadership stature, increasing the capacity to learn, increasing self-awareness, developing adaptability, communicating effectively, develop- ing others, valuing diversity and difference, building and maintaining relationships, managing effective teams and work groups, being open minded and flexible in thought and tactics, main- taining cultural interest and sensitivity, having the ability to deal with complexity, resilience, resourcefulness, honesty and integrity, having a stable personal life, and value-added technical and business skills.

24 Airport Leadership Development Program SHRM identifies 10 business trends affecting leadership: 1. The problems that organizations are facing are becoming more complicated. 2. Organizations are looking to drive innovation to stay competitive. 3. With technological advances and globalization, virtual leadership will become a business challenge, with skill development necessary. 4. Collaboration across boundaries is a growing business imperative. 5. The difficulty for executives to stay on task through the many interruptions of the day is a growing problem. 6. Being an authentic leader (ensuring that one’s values are aligned with leadership behaviors) is a challenge many executives will face in the future. 7. The retiring baby boomers will cause a leadership talent shortage. 8. Developing succession plans to fill the leadership void will be a top trend. 9. Emulating a healthy lifestyle will be important to leaders. 10. Collaboration and a participative leadership style will be the most important issue for future business success. The American Society of Association Executives’ (ASAE’s) Center for Association Leadership. ASAE is an organization that represents 22,000 executives from over 11,000 organizations across the United States and 50 other countries. The focus of ASAE is on being the premier source of learning, knowledge, and future-oriented research for associations and nonprofit communities. Members are primarily association management executives, consultants, and communication, finance, government, international, legal, marketing, professional development, and technology professionals. Key competencies and topics are specific to the industry of the individual. Com- petency specifics were unavailable, so it is unknown if ASAE is focused more on management or leadership. Throughout the year, many symposiums and expositions are sponsored by ASAE. ASAE mem- bers have the option of completing course work either online or in a classroom. Through the completion of certain courses, an individual can obtain a designation of Certified Association Executive (CAE). There are no prerequisites to join ASAE or participate in any of the course offerings. Fees vary, and discounted program fees are available to current ASAE members. 2.3. Summary and Analysis of Existing Leadership Development Resources Based on the research conducted, leadership programs exist and are targeted to existing manag- ers with high potential for advancement to executive levels. The intended outcomes for these pro- grams include retention and promotion of strong leaders, thereby increasing the bench strength of an organization, which is critical to succession planning processes. These findings are true of master’s level academic programs, business and industry development, and aviation-related training programs. Internal programs targeted to emerging leaders, supervisors, and managers are more focused on management of the technical aspects of the work performed in the organization. A synthesis of the sources researched did reveal some consistent findings. In particular, nearly all of the programs revealed that the key elements of leadership training include the following five primary competencies: 1. Strategic management: The process of strategic planning, the execution of strategic plans, and the concept of change management, including leading changes in an organization’s stra- tegic direction. 2. Business acumen: The process of day-to-day leadership, including leading operations, finances, and operational decision making.

Review of Existing Leadership Development Resources 25 3. Relationship building: The art of creating and influencing relationships among organiza- tional staff, vendors, clients, and constituents. 4. Communication: The skills associated with formal and informal communications, leading formal presentations, informal discussions, negotiations, public media skills, and conflict resolution. 5. Self-management: The understanding of ethics, personal awareness, career growth, and life- long learning. These five core competencies created the foundation for the next phases of this research and the basis for the project’s ultimate leadership development curriculum. Although these competencies were found to be common threads throughout nearly all leader- ship programs, many of the other characteristics of these programs varied somewhat significantly. For example, the trends in the format and curricula of development programs varied in length and included both independent and group activities accomplished through the duration of the programs. Most of the programs, though, included independent reading, hands-on activities, scenarios, and simulation activities. The target audiences for both aviation and non-aviation academic programs are students with limited or no managerial experience. The primary difference in programs is the courses related to the degrees. The aviation programs include courses specifically customized to the technical aspects of operating an airport and include some theoretical leadership concepts and manage- ment skills. The academic programs outside aviation have broader application to any type of industry or practice. Both types of programs have an expectation of immersion by the students and have a high level of time commitment expected to complete the programs. Both types of programs also include basic emerging skills and are primarily delivered using leadership theory rather than actual practice. The outcomes of these academic programs are a college degree that is an entry point for a career in aviation or a related field. Degrees include Ph.D., master, bachelor, associates, leadership degrees, and continuing education credit. The business and industry formal leadership development programs within and outside the aviation community tend to divide leaders into two categories. The programs identify emerging leaders separate from existing leaders and have two tracks of programs for each leadership level. The emerging leadership development programs use basic leadership concepts with a blend of theory and practice. These programs are similar in that participants meet formally, learn new concepts, and then separate to apply the concepts. Participants meet, leave, and come back together multiple times throughout the duration of the program. These types of programs are the same regardless of being within or external to aviation. The tracks for emerging leaders are targeted to theory, basics, general skills, tactical skills, and operational-focused concepts. The research indicated that emerging leaders self-identify within organizations with no minimum qualifications or criteria for acceptance. The goals of the emerging leadership development pro- grams are retention and engagement of the employee. Within an organization, existing leaders are assessed and selected for acceptance into pro- grams the same way whether they are within or external to aviation. Criteria are established for selection that are different for each organization but are set based on organizational standards. Typically participants must be high performers, have been with the organization for a set period of time, and have potential for development. The existing leaders are developed using more customized approaches determined by the culture of the organization where they are employed, the results of their personal leadership assessment, assignment of a mentor, and skills needed for promotion into positions. The goals of the existing leadership development programs are

26 Airport Leadership Development Program targeted at succession planning, promotion, and developing mentors for emerging leaders within the organization. These programs are more customized for the needs and abilities of the individual participants, and they are established within the context of the organizational needs for promotion or succession. The programs are designed within the organizations with specifics for the organization’s cultural norms. The leadership skills identified are tailored to the environment’s needs. Participants in these programs take an assessment to begin the devel- opment planning and agree on a plan with a coach or mentor. In some of the organizations, standard courses are available for these existing leaders to participate together as a team or cohort as well. The differences in leadership development programs for aviation and non-aviation commu- nities are the greatest within national training organizations. The trade organization leadership programs within the aviation community have programs distinctly separate in course work and approach but similar in outcomes. The AAAE program is technical in nature and focused on developing a depth of knowledge in the operation and running of an airport. The ACI programs have more breadth of knowledge and include a greater inventory of soft skills for the operation and maintenance of an airport. Trade organizations outside the aviation com- munity focus on a wide breadth of knowledge for management and leadership skills that are applicable to a wide range of industries. These programs focus on practical leadership skills for executive-level leaders. The programs tend to be less expensive than the academic programs but also use a blend of theory and practice. Nearly all of these programs provide some sort of professional certification to recognize program completions. These were also programs providing continuing education credits for participants. Based on the research, business and industry leadership development programs are the most applicable to meet the needs of the aviation leader. These programs divide leaders into two categories (emerging leaders and existing leaders) and develop and implement training programs catered to each. The current assessment of leadership development programs presented the research team with an opportunity to determine if there is a gap in emerging leadership development programs or existing leadership development programs or both within the aviation environment. As such, a needs assessment was conducted to validate the research performed to determine the gap in development programs and training needs. Furthermore, the research team leveraged the infor- mation gathered in the literature review toward creating a leadership development program for the airport sector that will fill the gaps of the current offerings within the industry.

27 Following the review of existing leadership development sources, the team conducted a needs assessment, the purpose of which was to develop and implement a process for obtaining infor- mation on leadership development needs from current airport executives. The intent of the needs assessment was to focus on identifying the leadership skills needed to address the chang- ing needs of an airport organization as well as the preferred methods of delivery of a leadership development program. Specifically, the needs assessment addressed the following questions: • What leadership development techniques are missing from current airport leadership devel- opment programs that exist in academic education or other businesses for business and industry leaders? • What leadership skills are in the greatest demand? • What are the preferred and feasible delivery methods? In addition, the needs assessment specifically targeted the perceived needs for future airport leadership development programs to address the five primary competencies (strategic manage- ment, business acumen, relationship building, communication, and self-management) found as a result of the review of existing leadership development resources. 3.1. Needs Assessment Methodology: Focus Groups The needs assessment was executed by conducting multiple focus group sessions with key aviation leaders to understand the current mindset of airport staff regarding the leadership skills needed to address the changing needs of an organization. Also conducted was a focus group ses- sion with key aviation HR directors to identify the redundancies in and gaps between academic education and airport leadership development programs. Participants in the focus groups included full-time airport directors and senior management, stratified by the following characteristics: • National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems (NPIAS) airport classification (large hub, medium hub, small hub, non-hub, reliever, and general aviation). • Geographic location, as reflected by the nine FAA regions. • Governing structure, such as municipal, county, state, quasi-state, airport authority, and port authority. Six focus group sessions and three one-on-one telephone sessions were conducted as part of the needs assessment. Two sessions were targeted for large-hub airport representatives, three sessions were targeted for medium- and small-hub airport representatives, and one session was C H A P T E R 3 Needs Assessment and Focus Groups Analysis

28 Airport Leadership Development Program targeted for non-hub, reliever, and general aviation airport representatives. In total, 28 partici- pants representing 17 airports participated in the focus group sessions. Figures 1 and 2 provide an illustration of the participating airports by NPIAS category and FAA region. A list of airports that participated in the focus groups is provided in Section C. These sessions were held using webinar technology, which allowed for open communication among participants and confidential polling. Furthermore, the webinar technology allowed ses- sion moderators to share information via the Internet in real time. The PowerPoint slides used for these sessions are found in Section 2 of Part 2 and on the accompanying CD-ROM. A live focus group was also conducted at the ACI-HR Economics & Human Capital Con- ference in Phoenix in May 2011, where the results from the web-based sessions were revealed and validated by the HR community. Human resources departments typically own leadership development within the organization and therefore were engaged in the focus group to validate or contradict the results obtained by the aviation leaders. During the focus group, the HR repre- sentatives provided information on what current efforts are underway to address gaps identified and to share potential curriculum topics for identification of redundancies or gaps. Individual interviews were also conducted with participants interested in sharing perspectives but unable Figure 1. Focus group airports by NPIAS category. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Large Hub Medium Hub Small Hub Non-Hub General Aviation Northwest Mountain Alaska New England Southern Eastern Central Western-Pacific Southwest Great Lakes 0 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 2. Focus group airports by FAA region.

Needs Assessment and Focus Groups Analysis 29 to attend a focus group. The interviews followed the same structure as the focus group sessions, and their contributions were included in the results tabulated. A focus-group-like discussion was also held at the AAAE annual meeting in Atlanta in May 2011, during the session “Adapting Today’s Job Candidates to Fit Tomorrow’s Demands.” Partici- pants in this focus group included approximately 30 airport professionals ranging from executive to middle management, from airports representing all NPIAS classifications. Also in attendance were a number of airport management students from several universities. 3.2. Focus Group Process and Findings At the beginning of each focus group session, the term “leadership” was defined and dis- cussed. This established a context and boundaries for the discussion to follow. Because lead- ership can be defined broadly and in many different ways, a definition was necessary to ensure that conversation remained targeted to the boundaries the research team had identified. The leadership definition used was “the process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task.” In the sessions it was further clarified that the term common task referred to the running of an airport. This definition did not include the management of work such as daily task management and proj- ect management. After agreement of the definition of leadership, the five primary competencies (strategic man- agement, business acumen, relationship building, communication, and self-management) were revealed. After a brief explanation of each of the competencies, the participants were polled to rank the competencies according to the following questions. 1. Of these competencies, which is most important in your role? 2. In which of these competencies were you least prepared? 3. In which of these competencies were you most prepared? 4. Of these competencies, which do you feel requires the most formal training? Figure 3 shows the results of the polling across all focus group participants, illustrating the comparison of how airport management viewed the addressed competencies with respect to the questions posed regarding level of preparedness, importance, and need for additional formal training. Relationship Building Strategic Management Self Management Business Acumen Communication Focus Group Needs Assessment Results 0 5 10 15 20 Most in Need of Formal Training Most Important Least Prepared Most Prepared Figure 3. Results of focus group polling, comparing views of addressed competencies.

30 Airport Leadership Development Program These findings clearly reveal that strategic management and relationship building are the two competencies where formal training is most needed. While business acumen was also identified as an important competency, focus group participants agreed that they have access to a large number of options when it comes to furthering their technical knowledge in this area. These results clearly outline key gaps between the current leadership development available and needed for aviation leaders. Communication is the one outlier resulting from the polling process, scoring very low in per- ceived importance and need for additional formal training. However, the qualitative discussion that followed the initial polling process helped to clarify that participants felt that communica- tion is important, but more as it is embedded throughout the other four competencies. As such, it was determined that communication would still need to be addressed in a developed leader- ship development curriculum; however, it could be incorporated into the other competencies and would not need to be addressed as an exclusive topic. The results of the polling trended consistently across all six focus groups regardless of the size of the airports the aviation leaders represented. After the ranking of the competencies, the focus groups moved into more qualitative discus- sions, focusing on each of the competencies individually. The purpose of these discussions was primarily to identify, for each competency, specific needs that are unique to aviation leaders. Qualitative responses were received from the participants. The greatest value from the focus groups came during this open-ended dialogue. The dialogue captured key leadership concepts that aviation leaders were struggling to address but for which they did not have appropriate or accessible educational resources identified. Specifically, the participants identified the following concepts as needing additional formal training resources: • Understanding cultural protocols. • Public and community relations. • Dynamics of supervisory boards (i.e., city councils, county commissions, authority boards). • The ability to communicate critical information in a timely manner and with sensitivity. • Leadership during extraordinary periods (such as disasters and other emergencies). • Risk-based leadership decision making. • Managerial courage (having the courage to have difficult conversations). • Personal awareness (self-identifying one’s personal strengths and weaknesses). • Managing the work/life balance. In addition to the items in this list, it was revealed that an additional need was to have access to a personal network of colleagues in similar roles, particularly for higher-level managers, where confidential conversations are encouraged. Interestingly, this need was explicitly expressed despite the existence of professional organizations such as the AAAE and ACI-NA, where many such leaders are actively engaged. It was reported by the participants that these concepts typically have been learned on the job or through trial by fire. Furthermore, there exist no formal resources by which to become edu- cated with any consistency or guidance to address these concepts. It was during these sessions that terminology was better clarified and ideas were detailed for specific topics that were desired to address with training. These responses again showed trends that were similar across all of the groups and not dependent on airport size or governance structure. The HR focus group was conducted after results from the virtual focus groups were compiled. Therefore, the HR group was able to review these results and provide additional validation. After presentation and discussion, the HR group agreed with the results of the polling.

Needs Assessment and Focus Groups Analysis 31 As part of the focus group, participants were asked about appropriate methods for which to deliver an airport leadership development course. Many of the focus group participants felt that a blended learning model that integrates formal, classroom-based training methods with on-the-job activities to apply the new knowledge and skills would best facilitate the transfer of leadership training. It is these on-the-job activities that many of the focus group participants identified as where the real learning takes place and their skills are stretched. Representatives from non-hub and general aviation airports expressed concerns about having access to flexible delivery methods where those without travel budgets could still be afforded the opportunity to receive the education. Specifically, webinars or opportunities held in conjunction with industry conferences/events were the most preferred. Overall, learning environments away from the office, as opposed to on-site training, seemed to be preferred. 3.3. Summary An analysis of the initial research and subsequent focus groups identified the leadership development needs of executive-level airport professionals. Some of these needs are being addressed with existing programs as outlined in the findings from the review of existing pro- grams and literature. However, gaps were clearly found to exist between what is offered and what is needed for the airport industry. In summary, while many of the current aviation industry leadership training resources focus primarily on the technical aspects of industry, which do meet the business acumen competen- cies, there is clearly a gap in leadership training in the areas of strategic management, relation- ship building, and leadership-level communication skills. There are a number of sources outside of the airport industry that include leadership training in these areas, but few if any have been directly applied to the aviation industry in general, and virtually none have been directly applied to the specificities of airport leadership.

S e c t i o n B Curriculum Development and Assessment

35 The results of the first phase of research were applied toward creating an outline for the to-be- developed leadership development curriculum. The curriculum outline addresses the areas identified that are currently exclusive to the aviation industry and for which there is no formal leadership development training program available. This curriculum focuses on the primary topics of global and local strategic management and relationship building as they apply to the aviation environment. This chapter describes the creation of the curriculum outline and devel- opment of materials in the form of presentation media, activity sheets, and assessment tools. 4.1. Curriculum Content Development Based on the findings of the first phase of research, a proposed curriculum for a leadership development course was outlined. The outline is based on the identification of aviation lead- ership’s specific development needs, particularly those that are unique to the aviation/airport management industry and that are not specifically addressed through existing programs within or outside of the industry. Furthermore, the curriculum outline was developed with the under- standing that some or all of the topics should be provided in various delivery formats to reflect the need expressed by airport leadership for a program that is flexible so that it can accommodate the variety of staffing, logistics, learning, and financial challenges with typical textbook courses or on-site multiday course programs. Finally, the curriculum outline is designed with the inten- tion of building a curriculum that is scalable and robust and thus applicable to airports of all sizes and staffing levels. First, a set of curriculum objectives was established based on the understanding of leader- ship development needs identified through the initial phase of research. These objectives were determined to be: • Develop strategic planning skills. • Gain techniques for critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making. • Improve cross-functional capacity. • Apply effective coaching and mentoring skills. • Leverage business and community relationships. • Enhance positive organizational change. To address these objectives, the curriculum was developed under three overarching topic areas, organized within the curriculum as modules. The three modules were given the titles Leadership Concepts, Leadership Fundamentals, and Leadership Execution. Each of these topic modules covers fundamental concepts as well as applications to the airport environment. These modules are further described herein. C H A P T E R 4 Curriculum Development

36 Airport Leadership Development Program The Leadership Concepts module has been designed to introduce the concept of leadership (as opposed to management). In addition, this module has been designed to provide guid- ance for personal refection and a greater awareness of ego and current leadership skills. The goal of this module is to allow the user to create a personal development road map that may be used through the entire curriculum or merely on its own for individual ongoing leadership development. This module has been designed with the flexibility to be applied on a recurrent basis, which may aid in the tracking of leadership development growth for the recurrent user. Specific objectives of the Leadership Concepts module are to: • Increase awareness of self and environment, • Identify key attributes of self-managed leaders, • Identify different leadership styles, • Map skills associated to leadership styles, • Draft leadership brand statement, and • Develop personal development road map. Under this module the following specific subjects were outlined for development: • Developing a leadership brand. • Understanding leadership styles. • Creating your leadership journey. • Leadership passages. • Leadership versus followership. This module includes individual and group activities, suggested topics for brainstorming and discussion, and a self-assessment to identify one’s natural leadership tendencies. The Leadership Fundamentals module has been designed to engage the user in the funda- mental characteristics of effective tactical leadership in the airport environment. As opposed to the first module, which focuses on the understanding of one’s self, this module focuses on an organization and the skills needed to effectively lead such a group on a day-to-day basis. Specific objectives of the Leadership Fundamentals module are: • Determine differences in nonverbal, electronic, and verbal communications; • Identify the four styles of communication by leaders; • Increase awareness of personal style and identify styles in others; • Determine actions for resolving conflict; • Identify behaviors associated with unresolved conflict; • Assess personal critical thinking capability; • Identify actions associated with critical thinking; • Classify decision-making types and approaches; and • Include risk-based decision principles in decision-making criteria. The topics in this module that address these objectives are: • Communication styles, • Conflict resolution, • Critical thinking, • Decision making, • Building a business case, and • Negotiation. Within this module are small-group scenario-based activities where participants may work on airport-focused examples of situations that require leadership to address. These activities were

Curriculum Development 37 based directly on actual examples found at existing public-use airports in the United States. These activities as well as the other module activities and materials have been designed for various delivery methods, including self-paced learning, and have the potential for web-based or other synchronous or asynchronous learning methods. This Leadership Execution module applies the fundamentals described in the first two modules to strategic-level leadership in the airport environment. This module focuses on the big picture of leadership, through strategic thinking, goal setting, team building, and organizational cultural development. Specific objectives in the Leadership Execution module include: • Determine strategic planning process. • Identify the purpose and state of the business. • Conduct strength, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis. • Identify the five levels of process maturity. • Define the culture you want. Translate leadership legacy to culture. • Determine ways to develop the culture in the organization. • Identify ways to assess culture. • Apply the coaching matrix to current resources. • Determine and interpret the types of organizational feedback. • Comprehend team-building principles. • Understand how meetings, performance management, and motivating employees affect culture. • Determine difference between strategic planning and strategy execution. • Understand the fundamentals of change management. The topics in this module that address these objectives are: • Strategic planning, • Developing culture, • Relationship building, • Strategy execution, and • Change management. This module has been designed to be used in sequence with Modules I and II, but may also be applied as a standalone module for those who have some level of leadership experience. In addition to the three modules that comprise the core curriculum, additional materials have been provided that may be used to complement the existing materials or that may be used independently of a formal curriculum. The primary supplemental material provided is a multi- faceted evaluation and assessment tool known as a 360-degree leadership feedback survey. The 360-degree leadership feedback survey is designed to help individuals collect performance feedback from themselves and those who work around them, including supervisors, internal peers, external peers, and those who report directly to them. Together these responses will pro- vide both quantitative and qualitative feedback specific to the individual leadership strengths while identifying opportunities for leadership development. The feedback responses included in the individual’s report are only directed to that individual and do not compare them to others for whom feedback data has been collected. This is purpose- ful in the construction of this feedback collection process. This process collects data pertaining only to the individual for the individual, so the results allow the individuals to see how they view themselves compared to how others in their circle of influence view them. The questions included in the survey are directly correlated to the content of the core cur- riculum. When the individual receives the feedback results, he or she will be able to identify key areas of the training program to target development.

38 Airport Leadership Development Program The questions for the 360-degree feedback survey are included in this program package and were developed specifically to match the content of the course. 4.2. Curriculum Delivery Format Development At the onset of this project, it was made clear to the team that any leadership development program created must have flexibility in delivery. Most notably, the ACRP Project 06-02 panel specifically requested that any curriculum developed be interactive in nature, rather than simply be reading material. It was understood by all participants in this project that leadership skills cannot be learned by simply reading text or answering multiple-choice questions. Ultimately, such skills are developed when the leader is fully immersed in the role of a leader within orga- nizations of increasing complexities. In addition, best practices are most often best learned with the aid of mentors and other colleagues with leadership experience. As such, this curriculum is best applied through interactive group environments, with the aid of an experienced leadership training facilitator or successful airport executive. However, signifi- cant effort was made to develop this curriculum so that it can be delivered in multiple formats. The delivery formats considered for delivery of this curriculum were: • Take-home readings and homework activities; • In-person large-group lectures supplemented by media materials such as MS PowerPoint; • Small-group lectures/discussions; • Small-team project activities such as case studies and role playing scenarios; • One-on-one (mentor/mentee) activities, to be conducted on- or off-site from the work envi- ronment; and • Online delivery of certain materials through prerecorded webinars or PowerPoint slide shows, supplemented with short assignments. While not all topics are conducive to all delivery formats, it was the goal of this portion of the research to determine the best format(s) for each topic and to create curriculum materials to address the topics in the selected delivery methods. An initial version of the airport leadership development course curriculum was created based on the previous content outline and format strategy. The curriculum developed consisted of: • A set of PowerPoint slides covering each topic to be included in the curriculum. • A set of facilitator notes to explain the content of each PowerPoint slide and to motivate dis- cussion around the topic being presented. • A set of individual- and group-based participant activities designed to reinforce the concepts presented in the curriculum and to provide a tool for applying fundamental concepts to cur- riculum participants’ particular environments at their positions at airports. • A series of supplemental resources, ranging from reading materials to multimedia sources, that complement the core training materials. • Assessment and evaluation tools, both to assess a participant’s current leadership strengths and weaknesses and to help bring what has been offered through this curriculum to applica- tion in the working airport environment. These materials may be found in detail in Section 2 through Section 4 of this report.

39 The curriculum developed as part of this research was implemented, tested, and reviewed through a pilot short course. The course was held over 3 days in November 2011 on the campus of the Ohio State University. At this event, 11 airport professionals in various upper manage- ment and executive leadership positions participated in plenary lectures, small-group activities and discussions, and individual exercises from the developed curriculum, covering the topics described in this research. The course was facilitated by members of the research team. 5.1. Short Course Delivery The agenda for the pilot course may be found in Section C. As noted in the agenda, in addi- tion to the sessions designed to cover the curriculum materials, additional activities were pro- grammed into the 3-day event. In particular, a welcome reception was held, which served as an ice breaker and networking opportunity. As part of the reception, a keynote speaker from the Ohio State University Fisher College of Business presented his perspective on leadership. This presentation was well received and was considered by the participants to be a good warm-up to an intense multiday program of leadership development training. Prior to the 3-day course, participants were asked to complete the 360-degree leadership feed- back survey. As described in Chapter 4 of this report, a 360-degree leadership feedback survey is a tool for evaluating one’s professional performance through self-assessment, assessment by super- visors, and assessment by a manager’s directly reporting staff. The findings from the 360-degree assessment were individually discussed during the evening reception. The pilot course itself was delivered in a large hotel-style professional meeting room, with par- ticipants seated three to four to a table. Facilitators presented the materials through multimedia presentations projected onto a screen, facilitated discussions by using flip charts for noting down important points, and formed small groups for breakout activities in adjacent breakout rooms. Breaks were scheduled throughout the course, and box lunches were served to facilitate working lunches when applicable. 5.2. Short Course and Curriculum Feedback Upon completion of the 3-day course, written and oral feedback was solicited from the participants. An evaluation survey was completed by each participant that was designed to rate the quality of the curriculum with respect to meeting the needs of airport leadership develop- ment, the relevance of the topics presented, the quality of the content, the transferability of the material to various airport environments, and the potential for improvement in leadership C H A P T E R 5 Pilot Program Delivery and Assessment

40 Airport Leadership Development Program ability as a result of participating in the course. The evaluation instrument used and an analysis of the data collected from completed evaluations may be found in Section C of this report. In summary, the course participants said they found the curriculum effective in meeting the needs of the airport industry. The program objectives were thought to be clearly stated. The cur- riculum materials were noted to be clear and well organized, and it was generally agreed that the program materials were focused to the role of an airport executive and could be developed for easy facilitation in most airport environments. It was noted by both the program facilitators and the participants that the delivery of the cur- riculum through this short course format exposed areas for further curriculum refinement, both in terms of content and delivery format. Specifically, the format of a multiday session, attended by participants in a variety of profes- sional positions from a variety of airports, facilitated by experienced leadership training pro- fessionals, was clearly a positive method for delivering the curriculum. Such an environment allowed for the free exchange of ideas and provided the ability for participants to openly relate fundamental leadership topics to their particular environments. As a result, participants not only received education in the fundamentals of leadership but also were able to share particu- lar challenges, success stories, and best practices found at multiple airport environments. The skills of the facilitators in keeping on topic during discussions and time managing the program were evident, and it was stressed that such skills would be necessary to successfully deliver this curriculum in such a group setting. As with any group-learning environment, participants were particularly sensitive to extended periods without breaks and having discussions stray from the core topic at hand. A detailed analysis of the participants’ feedback may be found in Section C of this report.

41 The Airport Leadership Development Program curriculum designed as part of this project includes printed materials, multimedia files, and tools and activities that may be applied in a vari- ety of formats. All of the materials are provided in the Airport Leadership Development Program curriculum, which is Part 2 of this report. This document contains the following components: Program Facilitator Guide (Section 1): A complete description of the Airport Leadership Development Program curriculum is described in the Program Facilitator Guide. This guide integrates all the Airport Leadership Development Program materials into a single source. In addition, the guide includes sample communications for participants, reference materials, and supplemental background information that may be helpful in preparing to deliver the program in a live group setting facilitated by a trained and/or experienced leadership training professional or airport executive. It is recommended that this guide be read in its entirety prior to delivering or applying it to different formats. It is also suggested the facilitator present a dry run as practice prior to delivery to a live audience for the first time. Leadership Development Program PowerPoint Presentation Deck (Section 2): The program presentation deck contains a full series of slides (also provided on the CD-ROM that accompanies this document) designed for use with Microsoft PowerPoint. These slides are intended to be used to supplement the delivery of the course. Slides should be presented as the facilitator reviews and discusses the content of the slides. The presentation deck is not intended to be directly used as individual reading material for the participants. Participants may, however, review the slides in association with the script provided for each slide within the Program Facilitator Guide. Program Participant Workbook (Section 3): Within the Program Facilitator Guide are a number of activities and reference materials that are designed to be directly applied by program participants, either through independent study or facilitated discussion. These materials are compiled in this Program Participant Workbook. This participant workbook is designed to be given to program participants for their use as they proceed through the program. 360-Degree Feedback Facilitator Guide and Materials (Section 4): The 360-degree feedback survey, survey question bank, and report template are optional components to the course materials. The pilot participants for the program found great value in having the results of the 360-degree feedback as they began the course. The 360-degree feedback concept is relatively new to the avia- tion industry and must be implemented thoughtfully in order for it to be effective. The 360-Degree Feedback Facilitator Guide explains how to administer the survey, capture results, and deliver the reports to participants. The question bank includes the survey questions that correlate directly to the course content. The template is an optional tool to capture and display the results from the surveys completed. References and Suggested Readings: The curriculum is supplemented with a list of refer- ences/bibliography for further study. C H A P T E R 6 Program Curriculum Materials and Presentation Strategies

42 The initial phases of the research revealed that there has clearly been a need for a program that develops the skills needed to effectively lead airport organizations. Existing airport man- agement training programs focus on the technical aspects of airport management. There are a significant number of sources outside the airport industry that do an effective job of leader- ship development training. This research applied the fundamentals of leadership development programs that exist outside of the airport industry toward meeting the needs of the future airport leaders. This research received interest from airports of every NPIAS category and participation from nearly every FAA region. The outcome of the research is a viable curriculum that may be applied in multiple formats, from facilitated group sessions to individual study. Throughout the research, it was clear that the development of the curriculum would be most applicable if kept to the core topics associated with leadership concepts, fundamentals, and execution, and also if kept to the materials applicable to all airport organizations. This meant limiting details of situations unique to specific airports. It is hoped that this baseline curriculum will be further applied at individual airports, and in doing so will begin to create a library of more specific airport leadership develop- ment cases, examples, activities, and discussion points. Due to budget limitations, the focus of this research work was on establishing at least a baseline leadership development program curriculum that can be applied in various delivery formats. As a standard, the curriculum developed was formatted to be delivered in a group setting and facili- tated by an experienced leadership development training professional or otherwise-experienced airport industry executive. This format was chosen as a result of the findings from the focus groups and to facilitate the beta testing of the curriculum. Future research could include the development and testing of alternative delivery formats. For example, the formation of an interactive web-based program, delivered either in a synchronous or asynchronous format, would be a welcome enhancement to the developed curriculum. The development of a follow-up assessment, which would evaluate the success of leaders who will have progressed through the curriculum, would be an appropriate activity to assess the effec- tiveness of this curriculum. Further development of a series of airport case studies and best practices developed as a result of airports applying this base program would also be a welcome enhancement to this curriculum. This research focused on the development of airport leadership programs for airports in the United States. As such, relatively little emphasis was placed on international issues associated with leading airport organizations. Such issues may include consideration of international cultures and international bilateral and multilateral agreements. C H A P T E R 7 Conclusions and Suggestions for Further Research

Conclusions and Suggestions for Further Research 43 It is hoped that this research contributes to the enhancement of airports in the area of develop- ing executive leadership. Furthermore, the team responsible for creating this program is looking forward to seeing it further developed, customized, and delivered throughout the industry. Finally, it is hoped that those to benefit from participating in this developed curriculum will become part of a community of leaders that will work together toward improving the safety and efficiency of the nation’s commercial service and general aviation airports.

45 Roster of Participating Airports and Focus Group Presentation Slides Roster of Participating Airports As part of this research, a series of focus groups was conducted. What follows is a summary of the calendar of focus group events and an aggregated list of participating airports sorted by NPIAS category. Focus Group Dates: 1. March 23, 2011 – Large-Hub Session Focus, Webinar 2. March 28, 2011 – Large- and Medium-Hub Session Focus, Webinar 3. March 31, 2011 – Small, Non-Hub, and GA Session Focus, Webinar 4. April 6, 2011 – Medium-Hub Session Focus, Webinar 5. April 11, 2011 – Large-Hub Session Focus, Webinar 6. April 15, 2011 – Small, Non-Hub, and GA Session Focus, Webinar Participating Airports*: Large Hubs • Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport • Los Angeles World Airports • Minneapolis/St. Paul Airport Commission • Port of Oakland International Airport • Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, Department of Aviation • Philadelphia International Airport • San Diego Country Regional Airport Authority Medium Hubs • Austin–Bergstrom International Airport • Columbus, Ohio, Regional Airport Authority • Memphis/Shelby County International Airport • Reno/Tahoe International Airport S e c t i o n c Supplemental Material *Authorities operating multiple airports are listed under the largest airport within the authority’s system.

46 Airport Leadership Development Program • Sacramento International Airport • Tucson International Airport • Port of Portland, Oregon International Airport Small, Non-Hub, and General Aviation Airports • Asheville, North Carolina, Regional Airport • Fort Wayne, Indiana, Regional Airport • Rockford, Illinois • Fayetteville, Arkansas • Manchester, New Hampshire • Hanover County, North Carolina • Sedalia, Missouri The presentation slides are shown in the following.

Supplemental Material 47

48 Airport Leadership Development Program 1. Aviation and non-Aviation 2. Identify by airport size training and development needs 3. Identify the gap

Supplemental Material 49 Focus is on leadership and not management of work. You lead people and you manage work.

50 Airport Leadership Development Program Based on our research, leadership is said to require the following competencies. Thoughts on the definition? What other key words would you include in your definition of leadership?

Supplemental Material 51 Follow-up question, WHY? Based on our research, leadership is said to require the following competencies. Show results.

52 Airport Leadership Development Program 1. How did you gain experience – formal education, OJT, natural talent, professional organization? 2. Where did you gain experience? College 3. What delivery method works best for you? Classroom, online, OJT Based on our research, leadership is said to require the following competencies. WHY?

Supplemental Material 53 What type of training program do you believe would be most successful in building this competency in others? 1. How did you gain experience – formal education, OJT, natural talent, professional organization? 2. Where did you gain experience? College 3. What delivery method works best for you? Classroom, online, OJT Focus is on leadership and not management of work. You lead people and you manage work.

54 Airport Leadership Development Program What type of training program do you believe would be most successful in building this competency in others? What type of training program do you believe would be most successful in building this competency in others? 1. How did you gain experience – formal education, OJT, natural talent, professional organization? 2. Where did you gain experience? College 3. What delivery method works best for you? Classroom, online, OJT 1. How did you gain experience – formal education, OJT, natural talent, professional organization? 2. Where did you gain experience? College 3. What delivery method works best for you? Classroom, online, OJT

Supplemental Material 55 What type of training program do you believe would be most successful in building this competency in others? 1. How did you gain experience – formal education, OJT, natural talent, professional organization? 2. Where did you gain experience? College 3. What delivery method works best for you? Classroom, online, OJT What type of training program do you believe would be most successful in building this competency in others?

56 Airport Leadership Development Program

Supplemental Material 57

58 Airport Leadership Development Program Pilot Course Agenda, Roster, and Feedback Agenda for Pilot Course The following text is the introductory letter given to participants of the pilot course. The letter describes the agenda and format for the program, delivered November 6–9, 2011, at the Ohio State University. Our team is excited to have you join us for the ACRP Leadership Development Pilot Program! As the date gets closer, I would like to share some additional details about our upcoming course. This memo includes the conference schedule, participant expectations, attire, pre-read assignments, and information about the facilitation team. Course Schedule: Date Time Topic Sunday, November 6 5:00 – 8:00 p.m. Reception Network and Team Building Key Note Speaker Tony Rucci 360-Degree Feedback Monday, November 7 8:30 – 5:00 p.m. Self-Management Leadership Fundamentals Strategic Planning Tuesday, November 8 8:30 – 5:00 p.m. Developing Culture Relationship Building Wednesday, November 9 8:30 – 5:00 p.m. Strategy Execution Assessment Centers Evaluate Pilot Program Breakfast and Lunch Breakfast will be served each morning from 8:00 – 8:30 a.m. in the conference room area. Lunch will be served each afternoon between 11:30 – 12:30 pm Breaks Breaks will be provided throughout the day. During this time, please take this opportunity to network, address e-mails, or use the restroom. Course Expectations: This is a pilot course associated with an ACRP research project. We expect that you will participate as a learner but also bring your knowledge about leadership development needs for your airport and aviation leaders in the industry. We are expecting that you will provide feedback as to the appropriate- ness of the topics we cover, the content of the materials, the delivery style, the included activities, and the 360-degree feedback process. We will be looking to evaluate and adjust the course as a result of this pilot in order to present the most timely, appropriate content for any size airport in order to develop existing leaders to be promotable. Course Attire: The attire for the 4 days is business casual. Temperatures within the conference rooms may vary, please dress comfortably and in layers.

Supplemental Material 59 Course Preparation: In preparation for this course, please conduct the 360-Degree Feedback Evaluation provided with this announcement. Facilitation Team: Seth Young, Project Manager The Ohio State University Mindy Price, Lead Facilitator Direct Effect Solutions, Inc. Chris Kitchen, Facilitator Columbus Regional Airport Authority Linda Frankl, Facilitator ADK Executive Search We are looking forward to meeting each of you on November 6, 2011. If you should need to get in contact with me prior to the event, please contact 614-214-6227 or mindy.price@directeffectsolutions.com. Thank you for participating in this exciting opportunity! Sincerely, Mindy Price Chief PACE Setter Direct Effect Solutions, Inc. Pilot Program Roster of Attendees The following airport professionals attended the pilot program, November 6–9, 2011, in Columbus, Ohio. Representative Tucson Airport Authority Tucson, AZ Representative Nashville International Airport Nashville, TN Representative Columbus Regional Airport Authority Columbus, OH Representative Indianapolis Airport Authority Indianapolis, IN Representative Kenton County Airport Board (Cincinnati/Covington International Airport) Hebron, KY Representative Columbus Regional Airport Authority Columbus, OH Representative Indianapolis Airport Authority Indianapolis, IN Representative Cleveland Airport System Cleveland, OH Representative Kansas City Aviation Department Kansas City, MO Representative Sacramento County Airport System Sacramento, CA Representative Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport Atlanta, GA Pilot Program Participant Feedback The following survey evaluation tool was completed by each participant for their feedback on the pilot course: Thank you for attending the Airport Leadership Course. To determine if the program met your expectations, please take this short survey. Your feedback will help to continually improve the quality of our development programs.

60 Airport Leadership Development Program Session Presenter Date 1. Please rate the following as it relates to your experience in the pilot program. Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree The program objectives were clearly stated. £ £ £ £ The session materials were clear and well organized. £ £ £ £ I gained ideas/concepts that I’ll use in my role. £ £ £ £ The session will help me perform my job more effectively. £ £ £ £ The reference materials provided were clear and easy to use. £ £ £ £ 2. Please rate the following as it relates to the pilot program. Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree Program materials were tailored to the role of an airport executive. £ £ £ £ The program was developed to be easily facilitated in my environment. £ £ £ £ The case studies within the program helped me understand how to apply concepts. £ £ £ £ 3. What additional elements would you like to see implemented into the program (for example, case scenarios, videos, interactive activities)? 4. List the topics that addressed the current needs of airport leaders today.

Supplemental Material 61 5. List the topics that did not address the current needs of airport leaders today. 6. List any topics that were not included in the curriculum but are needed to address the needs of airport leaders today. 7. What techniques for delivering the content were effective (readings, multimedia, discussion groups, etc.)? 8. What techniques for delivering the content were not effective? 9. How effective would this training program be within your organization? 10. What would be the most effective delivery of this program? (face-to-face, online, leaders from the same airport, leaders from different airports, etc.)

62 Airport Leadership Development Program 11. Discuss your perspective of the use and the delivery of the 360-degree feedback survey tool. Will this tool be effective in your organization? 12. Please provide any other comments you feel will help make this program better. Thank you for your feedback. Summarized Results of Completed Surveys Using a scale of: 4 = Strongly Agree 3 = Agree 2 = Disagree 1 = Strongly Disagree 1a. The program objectives were clearly stated. Strongly Strong 0 0 0 Disagree Disagree Agree ly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 5 6 6 7 Number of Respondents Average score: 3.45

Supplemental Material 63 1b. The session materials were clear and well organized. Strongly Strong 0 0 Disagree Disagree Agree ly Agree 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 Number of Respondents Average score: 3.30 1c. I gained ideas/concepts that I’ll use in my role. Strongly Strong 0 0 0 Disagree Disagree Agree ly Agree 1 2 4 6 8 10 10 12 Number of Respondents Average score: 3.91

64 Airport Leadership Development Program 1d. The session will help me perform my job more effectively. Strongly Strong 0 0 0 Disagree Disagree Agree ly Agree 1 2 4 6 8 10 10 12 Number of Respondents Average score: 3.91 1e. The reference materials provided were clear and easy to use. Strongly Strong 0 0 Disagree Disagree Agree ly Agree 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 6 7 Number of Respondents Average score: 3.45

Supplemental Material 65 2a. Program materials were tailored to the role of an airport executive. Strongly Strong 0 0 Disagree Disagree Agree ly Agree 1 1 2 2 3 4 5 6 6 7 Number of Respondents Average score: 2.89 2b. The program was developed to be easily facilitated in my environment. Strongly Strong 0 0 Disagree Disagree Agree ly Agree 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8 9 Number of Respondents Average score: 3.00

66 Airport Leadership Development Program 2c. The case studies within the program helped me understand how to apply concepts. Strongly Strong 0 0 0 Disagree Disagree Agree ly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 5 6 6 7 Number of Respondents Average score: 3.45 3. What additional elements would you like to see implemented into the program (For example, case scenarios, videos, interactive activities)? • Retain keynote speech. • Two or three speakers would be great. • Leading your manager. • Leading through political environment. • Translating more within the levels of mgmt. • Binder needs to match presentation. • More coaching. • Discussion of 360-degree tool in open format so everyone is open to this but not forced. • Incorporate IDP beyond program. • Follow up in e-mails 1–6 months out. • Have 1-year follow-up to share successes and/or challenges encountered. • Define differences between managing and leading. • Pre-reading of suggested books. • Pre-read strategic planning required, especially how-to components. • Provide actual training material (slides) as part of course material. • Include aviation case studies and review results using techniques in course and create alternate ending. • Case scenarios for key training points. • More advanced reading materials familiarizing with concepts and used for discussions (versus reading in class). • Harvard Business Review (HBR) case studies could be an effective tool. • Group activities would be a good way to stimulate conversation and ideas. • More time on conflict resolution. • Tailored more to airport environment. • For senior leaders, establishing trust and discussion/networking is more valuable than activities.

Supplemental Material 67 4. List the topics that addressed the current needs of airport leaders today. • Conflict mgmt. more in depth, maybe case study. • More succession planning. • Self-mgmt./awareness and change. • Communication styles. • Meeting mgmt. • Concept/implications of capacity and overload relative to short-term performance. • Communication with all levels of employees. • Establish goals and objectives. • Establish relationships with people in their organizations. • Identifying leaders. • Managing expectations. • Tools to create change. • Include how to change culture in binder (only verbal). • Leadership journey. • Power and influence linked to communication style and adapting to individual situations. • Change mgmt. • Relationship building. 5. List the topics that did not address the current needs of airport leaders today. • Coaching: use template, what not to do when coaching, power sample questions. • Communicating in/functioning in political environments, what skills to use, what tools are effective. • Strategic planning for executive and development levels. How to use with teams to motivate daily tasks. Relate tasks to strategy and set appropriate goals. • Too much time on technology in the beginning. • Don’t include meetings and time mgmt. piece. This is truly mgmt. and not leadership. • Don’t include strategic planning as there are many other sources for this. 6. List any topics that were not included in the curriculum but are needed to address the needs of airport leaders today. • How to best write in . . . • Touched on culture—very important topic, more time on building and creating organi- zational culture using leadership journey model and the influence, communication, and change mgmt. pieces. • Mediation overview/skills to use as a leadership tool as part of p. 22 (conflict resolution). • P. 21: cover in more detail so can fill out sheet. • How do you help opposites get along when they may naturally not (relator and driver model). • Role playing scenarios for counseling/consult mgmt. • Operating or leading in government environment. • Tips/tricks or strategies for different airport governance structures. • Needs mid-level staff. • Coaching/mentoring your replacement. • More discussion on 360 tool. • Greater recognition that city/county airports have less flexibility to quickly and easily imple- ment certain practices that are commonly embraced in the private sector and at authority airports. • Followership, self-awareness, organizational awareness. • Leading a team through hiring – internal/external.

68 Airport Leadership Development Program 7. What techniques for delivering the content were effective (readings, multimedia, discus- sion groups, etc.)? • Draw information from quiet individuals. • Group discussions good. • Enjoyed keynote speech. • Like having multiple facilitators. • Enjoyed videos, models, and readings to ignite discussions. • Media clips good to provoke discussions. • Open discussion. • Like variety – very helpful. • Loved discussions. • Appreciated feedback from all levels. • Could have pulled more from less-dominant participants. 8. What techniques for delivering the content were not effective? • Some discussions went way too long. • Content delivered on unreliable audiovisual systems dilute message. • Focus on systems that work since the problems slow the momentum. • PowerPoint sometimes least effective because covered superficially, but good reference tool. • Didn’t find webinar enjoyable, hard to stay focused. • Limit sessions to 50–70 minutes, including breaks; 2 hours too long, lose attention. • Book doesn’t match PowerPoint. • Timing of breaks, not much time to make calls or answer e-mails. • Webinar, and lunch wasn’t the best made for a long day. 9. How effective would this training program be within your organization? • If trainer went through a few times and felt confident then yes. • Would be effective for a select group of leaders. • Huge value in interacting with other airport leaders. • Most effective with representatives from multiple organizations. • Very effective. • We do this now, new tools and guides provided might be useful, change mgmt., form 360 feedback • Adopted then participated in executive team and then rolled out to others. • If facilitated by external person, would be effective. • Mix of leadership levels in training together and encourage open dialog. • Customization by our OD person to incorporate references to our culture and experi- ences, I think it would be effective. • Cater material to our particular airport. • Spaced out would be better, more interaction with group members. 10. What would be the most effective delivery of this program (face to face, online, leaders from the same airport, leaders from different airports, etc.)? • Face to face. • Appreciated leaders from other airports and their feedback. • Great network opportunities. • Leaders from different airports in small groups, uniformed personnel (UP), chiefs, and so forth.

Supplemental Material 69 • CEOs-only group. • Web-ex style. • Leaders from different airports better than same sharing info. • Multiple disciplines. • Size of airports represented. • Middle mgmt. from same airport. • Homework online. 11. Discuss your perspective of the use and the delivery of the 360-degree feedback survey tool. Will this tool be effective in your organization? • Loved it. • Think this is valuable, may take a few times to be fully effective because of culture maturity. • Those who take it need to remember to make professional not personal critiques. • 360 a good feedback tool at many levels. • Eye-opening on several levels. • Prep work should be done to be more effective. • Great tool. • Highly recommend keeping this. • External assessment shared. • Up to individual to use. • Less effective for mid-level managers. • Different format depending on level in organization. • Comments vague – not sure how to process or use. 12. Please provide any other comments you feel will help make this program better. • Loved keeping book list. • Presenters knowledgeable and well versed. • Appreciated commentary and coaching greatly. • Bravo on research, presentation, and preparedness. • Lots of material for 3 days – recommend breaking it up more into smaller modules in blocks of 2 hours at a time. • Shorter and more frequent breaks. • Train the trainer did fine, but there is much value in using trainers external to the orga- nization to deliver. • Two facilitators to add variety to discussion. • Several formats with varying depths and delivery methods (online, intensive in-person course, modules).

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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 75: Airport Leadership Development Program is designed to assist existing and future airport leaders to assess, obtain, and refine airport-industry leadership skills.

The program includes forms for a full 360-degree individual assessment of core leadership traits.

A complete facilitator guide with Microsoft PowerPoint presentations and participant workbooks and materials are also included on the CD-ROM that accompanies the print version of the report.

The CD-ROM is also available for download from TRB’s website as an ISO image. Links to the ISO image and instructions for burning a CD-ROM from an ISO image are provided below.

Help on Burning an .ISO CD-ROM Image

Download the .ISO CD-ROM Image

(Warning: This is a large file and may take some time to download using a high-speed connection.)

CD-ROM Disclaimer - This software is offered as is, without warranty or promise of support of any kind either expressed or implied. Under no circumstance will the National Academy of Sciences or the Transportation Research Board (collectively "TRB") be liable for any loss or damage caused by the installation or operation of this product. TRB makes no representation or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, in fact or in law, including without limitation, the warranty of merchantability or the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, and shall not in any case be liable for any consequential or special damages.

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