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N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP REPORT 740 A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation Deborah Matherly The Louis Berger group, inc. Washington, DC Jane Mobley Associates Leawood, KS Brian Wolshon Louisiana sTaTe universiTy Shreveport, LA John Renne New Orleans, LA Roberta Thomas aTkins norTh america Tallahassee, FL Elisa Nichols kensingTon consuLTing, LLc Kensington, MD Subscriber Categories Public Transportation • Security and Emergencies TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2013 www.TRB.org Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration

NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective approach to the solution of many problems facing highway administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of Transportation. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Board’s recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those who are in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America NCHRP REPORT 740 Project 20-59(32) ISSN 0077-5614 ISBN 978-0-309-25901-9 Library of Congress Control Number 2013935177 © 2013 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 740 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Stephan A. Parker, Senior Program Officer Megha Khadka, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Maria Sabin Crawford, Assistant Editor NCHRP PROJECT 20-59(32) PANEL Field of Special Projects Mark A. Krentz, Topeka, KS (Chair) Charles R. Carr, Mississippi DOT, Jackson, MS Shirley A. DeLibero, DeLibero Transportation Strategies, Milton, MA Richard Devylder, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC Diana L. Gomez, California DOT, Los Angeles, CA Glenn E. Hedman, University of Illinois - Chicago, Chicago, IL Evangelos I. Kaisar, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL Dennis B. Ribeiro, Houston Department of Public Safety, Houston, TX Laurel J. Radow, FHWA Liaison William Brownlow, AASHTO Liaison David Hahn, APTA Liaison Nicholas Peake, FEMA Liaison Vincent P. Pearce, US DOT Liaison Kelly Shawn, Community Transportation Association of America Liaison Richard Pain, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under NCHRP Project 20-59(32) by the Louis Berger Group, Inc. (LBG), Washington, D.C. Deborah Matherly, AICP, Principal Planner at LBG, was the Principal Investigator. The other authors of this re- port are Teresa Carter, Allyson Kuriger, and Laura Rydland, LBG; Jane Mobley, Kelly Reinhardt, Julie MacLach- lan, and Rea Wilson of Jane Mobley Associates (JMA), Leawood, KS; Neeli Langdon (formerly with JMA, now with LBG); Dr. Brian Wolshon of Louisiana State University, Shreveport, LA; Dr. John Renne of the TOD Group, New Orleans, LA; Roberta Thomas of Atkins North America (formerly PBS&J); and Elisa Nichols of Kensing- ton Consulting, LLC, Kensington, MD. The work was done under the general supervision of Deborah Matherly. We thank all those who generously gave of their time and knowledge to participate in our interviews. We thank the Mid America Regional Council staff and the volunteers from emergency management, transportation, and non-profit sectors who provided valuable feedback and direction at our workshop in Kansas City, Missouri. We also thank the project panel and the Senior Program Officer who provided excellent direction and comments to improve the work.

F O R E W O R D By Stephan A. Parker Staff Officer Transportation Research Board NCHRP Report 740: A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation focuses on the transportation aspects of evacuation, particularly large-scale, multijuris- dictional evacuation. It will be useful for transportation managers, planners, and opera- tors in communicating and coordinating with emergency managers in emergency evacua- tion planning, operations, and reentry; and, complementarily, assist emergency managers in communicating and coordinating with transportation managers, planners, and opera- tors as well as strategic community-based organizations. The guidance, strategies, and tools in this Guide are based on an all-hazards approach that has applicability to a wide range of “notice” and “no-notice” emergency events including accidents and incidents, acts of nature, hazardous materials releases, techno- logical emergencies, criminal activities, and terrorism. This Guide follows the basic plan- ning steps of the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s Comprehensive Preparedness Guide (CPG) 101. Each chapter parallels one of the six main CPG steps. Each chapter is further subdivided into smaller, discrete tasks, with cross-references to tools, such as templates or checklists, that are shown at the end of each chapter and are on the bound- in CD-ROM. The Louis Berger Group led a team that prepared NCHRP Report 740 under NCHRP Project 20-59(32). They were tasked to develop a guide on transportation’s role in all- hazards emergency evacuations. Research, interviews, and a field test identified the need for a guide that emergency managers and transportation managers would both find use- ful. Transportation managers and operators across all modes have significant resources, including infrastructure, vehicles, operational strategies, and information to support emergency managers and other partners in carrying out an evacuation. Emergency man- agers frequently interact with one or more representatives from transportation, often in the incident response, operations, emergency management, or security areas, but they may not be aware of the broad array of transportation resources available, particularly in regions that have had little experience with wide-scale evacuations. Likewise, trans- portation planners outside the operations, emergency management, and security areas may have had little exposure to emergency management planning cycles, protocols, and organizational frameworks such as the National Incident Management System (NIMS), Emergency Support Functions (ESFs), and the Incident Command System (ICS). This Guide provides a process to bring the resources and expertise of transportation and emergency management together, beginning with Step 1—Form a Collaborative Plan- ning Team.

This project created four products that are available on the TRB website at http:// www.trb.org/publications/Blurbs/168631.aspx: (1) the printed Guide, described herein, including a bound-in CD-ROM containing the Guide’s tools and appendices; (2) the contractor’s final report, which documents the development of the Guide, published as NCHRP Web-Only Document 196; (3) an accessible PDF version of the Guide; and (4) a PowerPoint presentation describing the entire project.

CONTENTS INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................... 1 Guide Organization ....................................................................................................................... 5 STEP 1 — FORM A COLLABORATIVE PLANNING TEAM ........................................ 7 Task 1.1 — Identify Likely Interagency and Inter-regional Partners (Jurisdictions and Levels of Government) Required for Transportation and Emergency Management Coordination ............ 8 Task 1.2 — Engage the Whole Community in Planning ............................................................... 10 Tool 1.1 — Network Contact Database ........................................................................................ 12 Tool 1.2 — Potential Frameworks for Integrating Modes for Effective Evacuation: Convener Agencies for Multimodal Evacuation Planning............................................................................. 13 Tool 1.3 — Introduction to ESF and Transportation Roles and Interactions with Each ESF ...... 20 Tool 1.4 — Potential Community Partners ................................................................................. 24 STEP 2 — UNDERSTAND THE SITUATION ............................................................. 27 Task 2.1 — Gather Information on Potential Risks/Hazards ....................................................... 27 Task 2.2 — Gather Contacts and Data on People and Animals ................................................ 30 Task 2.3 — Plan and Convene a Regional Workshop, Building on the Information and Contacts Developed in Tasks 2.1 and 2.2 ................................................................................................... 31

Page iv Tool 2.1 — Preliminary Risk Assessment ..................................................................................... 32 Tool 2.2 — EE–Estimated Number of Evacuees ......................................................................... 34 Tool 2.3 — IF–Institutional Facilities ............................................................................................ 36 Tool 2.4 — AE–Assisted Evacuees (Non-Institutional) ................................................................ 38 Tool 2.4 — AE part 1: Potential Network Partner Information Sheet ......................................... 39 Tool 2.4 — AE part 2: Assisted Evacuees ................................................................................... 40 Tool 2.5 — LA–Livestock and Other Animals............................................................................... 41 Tool 2.6 — Evacuation Needs Discussion Guide ....................................................................... 43 STEP 3 — DETERMINE GOALS AND OBJECTIVES ............................................... 45 Task 3.1 — First Determine Operational Priorities ...................................................................... 45 Task 3.2 — Establish Goals and Objectives ................................................................................ 54 Tool 3.1 — Evacuation Operational Priorities and Goals and Objectives Discussion Guide–“Thought Starters” .......................................................................................................... 56 Tool 3.2 — Transportation Coordination Spectrum of Considerations for Access and Functional Needs Populations ............................................................................................................................... 57 Tool 3.3 — Primary Entities and Transportation Modes Involved in Evacuation .......................... 59 Tool 3.4 — Transportation Operations Coordination Checklists ................................................. 61 Tool 3.5 — Traffic Control Devices Supporting Evacuation ............................................................ 62 STEP 4 — DEVELOP THE PLAN ............................................................................. 69 Task 4.1 — Develop and Analyze Courses of Action .................................................................. 75 Task 4.2 — Identify Resources ..................................................................................................... 80 Task 4.3 — Identify Information and Intelligence Needs ............................................................ 83

Page v Tool 4.0 — Evacuation Operations, Resource and Information Needs Evaluation Sheet–“Thought Starters” ................................................................................................................................................. 86 Tool 4.1.1 — Real Time Evacuation Planning Model ......................................................................... 89 Tool 4.1.2 — Public Assisted Evacuation Plan (PAEP) Timeline for Notice Events ....................... 91 Tool 4.2.1 — Examples of Resources .................................................................................................. 92 Tool 4.2.2 — Overview of FEMA Resource Typing for Transportation Resources ....................... 95 Tool 4.2.3 — TR–Transportation Related Resource Database Templates ..................................... 98 Tool 4.2.4 — TA–Transportation Assistance .....................................................................................101 Tool 4.2.4.1 — IF: Intermodal Facilities or Other Designated Reception/Collector Locations ..102 Tool 4.2.4.2 — Mass Transportation Modes Database ..............................................................104 Tool 4.2.4.3 — Vehicle Fleet Information Form ..........................................................................105 Tool 4.2.4.4 — Manager/Supervisor/Dispatcher/Driver Database............................................106 Tool 4.2.5 — PS–Public Shelters Transportation Reference ...................................................... 107 Tool 4.2.6 — Resource Inventory Checklist ................................................................................109 Tool 4.3 — Checklist for Inter-Agency Communications and Information Sharing Between Transportation Agencies, Emergency Management, and Others .................................................110 STEP 5 — PREPARE, REVIEW, AND APPROVE PLAN ...........................................113 Task 5.1 — Write the Plan ........................................................................................................... 113 Task 5.2 — Review the Plan ........................................................................................................ 114 Task 5.3 — Approve and Maintain the Plan ............................................................................... 114 Task 5.4 — Disseminate the Plan ................................................................................................ 115 Tool 5.1 — Multijurisdiction Multimodal Evacuation Coordination Template Outline ............. 116

Page vi Tool 5.2 — Multijurisdiction Multimodal Evacuation Planning Checklists ................................ 117 Tool 5.3 — Sample MOU with Transit Agency as Convener ...................................................... 118 Tool 5.4 — Sample Agreement with a Metropolitan Planning Organization as Convener ....... 122 STEP 6 — IMPLEMENT AND MAINTAIN PLAN .....................................................127 Task 6.1 — After Action Reporting ............................................................................................. 127 Task 6.2 — Updating the Plan .................................................................................................... 127 Task 6.3 — Training, Testing, and Exercising ............................................................................. 128 Tool 6.1 — After Action Reporting – Real Events – FEMA Guidance ........................................ 130 Tool 6.2 — After Action/Corrective Action Report Survey Template ....................................... 131 Tool 6.3 — Overview Description of Drills, Simulations, and Exercises .................................... 132 Tool 6.4 — Participant Feedback Form ..................................................................................... 134 Tool 6.5 — Facilitator Report Form ..................................................................................................135 Tool 6.6 — Summary of the Full After Action Report Template ................................................ 136 RESOURCE: EVACUATION WORKSHOP PLANNING 101 “WORKSHOP IN A BOX”137 GLOSSARY OF TERMS ..........................................................................................153 USEFUL RESOURCES ............................................................................................171 DIRECT REFERENCES ...........................................................................................181

Page vii ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ALDOT ................................................................................................. Alabama Department of Transportation AVMA ............................................................................................... American Veterinary Medical Association CAME ......................................................................................Convener Agencies for Multimodal Evacuation CAP ................................................................................................................................ Corrective Action Program CAPTA ...........................Costing Asset Protection: An All-Hazards Guide for Transportation Agencies CERT ............................................................................................................ Citizen Emergency Response Teams CBO .................................................................................................................... Community-Based organizations COG ......................................................................................................................................Councils of Government CPG ............................................................................................................. Comprehensive Preparedness Guide DHS .................................................................................................................Department of Homeland Security DHHS ............................................................................................. Department of Health and Human Services DOT .........................................................................................................................Department of Transportation EM .............................................................................................................................................. Emergency Manager EMAC .........................................................................................Emergency Management Assistance Compact EOC ...........................................................................................................................Emergency Operations Center EOT ............................................................................................................................ Evacuation Operations Team ESF .......................................................................................................................... Emergency Support Functions ETO ...................................................................................................................Evacuation Transport Operations EWP ......................................................................................................................Evacuation Workshop Planning FEMA ................................................................................................. Federal Emergency Management Agency FHWA ............................................................................................................... Federal Highway Administration FTA .......................................................................................................................Federal Transit Administration HAZUS-MH ...................................................................................................... Hazards U.S. Multi-Hazard model HSEEP ........................................................................ Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program ICS ................................................................................................................................. Incident Command System IRIS ............................................................................................................. Incident Resource Inventory System JIS ..................................................................................................................................... Joint Information System LEPC ...................................................................................................... Local Emergency Planning Committees LLIS ......................................................................................................... Lessons Learned Information Sharing MOA ............................................................................................................................Memorandum of Agreement

Page viii MOU .................................................................................................................... Memorandum of Understanding MPO .......................................................................................................... Metropolitan Planning Organizations MUTCD ............................................................................................Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices NCHRP ............................................................................. National Cooperative Highway Research Program NGO .............................................................................................................................. Non-Governmental Agency NHC ............................................................................................................................... National Hurricane Center NIC .............................................................................................................................. National Integration Center NIMS ...................................................................................................... National Incident Management System NRF ........................................................................................................................National Response Framework PAEP .................................................................................................................... Public Assisted Evacuation Plan PALM .........................................................................................................Private Assets Logistics Management PETS .......................................................................................Pets Evacuation and Transportation Standards REAC .....................................................................................................Region Emergency Assistance Compact RPO .....................................................................................................................Regional Planning Organization RTEPM ................................................................................................... Real Time Evacuation Planning Model RTSWG ............................................................................................ Regional Transit Security Working Group SLOSH ..................................................................................Sea, Lake and Overland Surges from Hurricanes SOG ........................................................................................................................Standard Operating Guidelines TCL ....................................................................................................................................... Target Capabilities List TCRP ...................................................................................................... Transit Cooperative Research Program TMC ..............................................................................................................................Traffic Management Center TOC ..................................................................................................................................Traffic Operations Center TRB ...................................................................................................................... Transportation Research Board TSA ......................................................................................................Transportation Security Administration TXDOT ...................................................................................................... Texas Department of Transportation UASI ....................................................................................................................... Urban Area Security Initiative VOAD ............................................................................................ Volunteer Organizations Active in Disaster

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TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 740: A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation focuses on the transportation aspects of evacuation, particularly large-scale, multijurisdictional evacuation.

The guidance, strategies, and tools in NCHRP Report 740 are based on an all-hazards approach that has applicability to a wide range of “notice” and “no-notice” emergency events. The report follows the basic planning steps of the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s Comprehensive Preparedness Guide (CPG) 101. Each chapter parallels one of the six main CPG steps. Each chapter is further subdivided into smaller, discrete tasks, with cross-references to tools--such as templates or checklists--that are shown at the end of each chapter and are on a CD-ROM included with the print version of the report.

The CD-ROM is also available for download from TRB’s website as an ISO image. Links to the ISO image and instructions for burning a CD-ROM from an ISO image are provided below.

The contractor’s final report, which documents the development of the report, was published as NCHRP Web-Only Document 196. A PowerPoint presentation describing the entire project that resulted in NCHRP Report 740 is available for download.

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