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GLOSSARY OF TERMS A Access and Functional Needs Populations Populations whose members may have ad- ditional needs before, during, and after an incident in functional areas, including but not limited to: maintaining independence, com- munication, transportation, supervision, and medical care. Individuals in need of additional response assistance may include those who: have disabilities; live in institutionalized set- tings; are elderly or children; are from diverse cultures; have limited English proficiency or are non-English speaking; or are transportation disadvantaged. See also "Vulnerable Popula- tions." (Definition adopted from the National Response Framework [NRF] definition.) Accessible Having the legally required features and/ or qualities that ensure easy entrance, par- ticipation, and usability of places, programs, services, and activities by individuals with a wide variety of disabilities (NIMS definition). After Action Report (AAR) AARs assemble critical data regarding evacua- tion performance in the aftermath of an exercise or event (including evacuations), including the findings and recommendations gathered from debriefing sessions with relevant agencies and staff; a narrative of the events; critical suc- cesses and failures during the exercise or event itself; and lessons learned and agreed-upon methods to address performance gaps. The evaluation and improvement of mission and task performances that take place with AARs are the final steps of the preparedness cycle and crucial to informing risk assessments, managing vulnerabilities, allocating resources, and inform- ing the other elements of the cycle. AARs are also referred to as Corrective Action Reports, especially when referring to actual events. All-Hazards Approach An all-hazards approach is a conceptual and management approach that uses the same set of management arrangements to deal with all types of hazards (e.g., natural, man-made, complex).

Page 154 Glossary of Terms Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Passed in 1990, ADA is civil rights legislation that protects individuals with disabilities. It guarantees equal opportunity for individuals with disabilities in public accommodations, employment, transportation, state and local government services, and telecommunica- tions. An individual is defined by the ADA as someone with a disability if they: (1) have a physical or mental impairment that substan- tially limits a major life activity; (2) have a record of such an impairment; and/or (3) are regarded as having such an impairment. Area Agency on Aging (AAA) AAAs are regional agencies (more than 600 nationwide) responsible for the Older Americans Act programs at the local level. AAAs contract for transportation, nutrition, and other services. Each has an advisory council. AAAs are a national network supported by The National Association of Area Agencies on Aging (N4A). Assistive Device Assistive devices are tools, equipment, or prod- ucts that can help people perform tasks associ- ated with daily living and/or manage specific medical conditions or disabilities. Assistive devices can include hearing aids, computer pro- grams, and simpler devices, such as a “reacher.” C Catastrophic Incident Any natural or man-made incident, including terrorism, that results in extraordinary levels of mass casualties, damage, or disruption severely affecting the population, infrastructure, environment, economy, national morale, and/ or government functions. A catastrophic incident could result in sustained regional or national impacts over a prolonged time period; almost immediately exceeds resources normally available to state, territorial, local, tribal, and private-sector authorities in the affected area; and significantly interrupts governmental operations and emergency services to such an extent that national security could be threatened (All Hazards Consortium, draft definition). Cognitive and Developmental Disabilities Cognitive and developmental disabilities include disorders that may affect a person’s ability to lis- ten, think, speak, read, write, do math, or follow instructions. It includes people with dyslexia, an extreme difficulty in reading, and attention defi- cit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which is an inability to focus on necessary tasks. Many cog- nitive disabilities are based in physiological or biological processes within the individual, such as a genetic disorder or a traumatic brain injury. Other cognitive disabilities may be based in the chemistry or structure of a person’s brain and may require assistance with aspects of daily life.

Page 155 Glossary of Terms Community-based Organization (CBO) CBOs are nonprofit organizations that operate within a local community, are often run on a voluntary basis, and are self funding. CBOs vary in terms of size and organizational structure. Some are formally incorporated with a written constitution and a board of directors, while others are much smaller and more informal. See also Faith-based Organization (FBO) and Nongovernmental Organization (NGO). Community Emergency Management Plan (CEMP) CEMPs provide policies, authorities, concepts of operations, legal constraints, responsibili- ties, and emergency functions to be performed in order to create an integrated approach to the management of emergency programs and activities for all emergency phases (mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery), for all types of emergencies and disasters, and for all levels of government and the private sector. (Definition adapted from: http://www. davislogic.com/CEMP.htm#Definition.) Comprehensive Preparedness Guide 101, Volume 2 (CPG 101) CPG 101 provides general guidelines for developing Emergency Operations Plans (EOPs). It promotes a common understanding of the fundamentals of planning and decision making to help emergency planners examine a hazard and produce integrated, coordinated, and synchronized plans. This guide helps emergency managers in state, territorial, local, and tribal governments in their efforts to develop and maintain a viable all-hazard EOP. (Definition from FEMA document: “Guidance on Planning for Integration of Functional Needs Support Services in General Population Shelters.”) Contraflow Contraflow is a form of reversible traffic operation in which one or more travel lanes of a divided highway are used for the movement of traffic in the opposing direction. Since 1999, contraflow has been used to evacuate regions of the southeastern United States under threat from hurricanes, and is now considered a potential preparedness measure for other mass-scale hazards. Contraflow segments are most common and practical on freeways because they are: the highest capacity roadways, designed to facilitate high speed operation, and do not incorporate at-grade intersections that can interrupt flow or permit unrestricted access into the reversed section. Convener Agencies for Multimodal Evacuation (CAME) A CAME is one or more designated agencies that performs the vital task of leading the forum in which emergency operations plans can be discussed and coordinated with other agencies and jurisdictions in the region. It is important that the CAME be regional and multijuris- dictional in scope, be able to address multiple modes of transportation, and have the ability to coordinate and plan across multiple agencies representing local, regional, and state levels. CAME candidates include state emergency management agencies, state transportation agen- cies, regional transit agencies, MPOs, COGs, Regional Transit Security Working Groups (RTSWGs- established and required through the Transportation Security Administration [TSA]), Urban Area Strategic Initiatives (UASIs), or pow- erful municipal departments in regions willing to work in a regional manner. CAME is a term that was developed in conjunction with this report and is not a universally recognized acronym.

Page 156 Glossary of Terms Council of Governments (COG) The COG is a voluntary association of local governments that operates as a planning body. The COG collects and disseminates informa- tion, reviews applications for funding, and provides services for its member governments. Department of Home- land Security (DHS) The Department of Homeland Security’s mission is to lead the unified national effort to secure the country, preserve citizens’ freedoms, and prepare for and respond to all hazards and disasters. DHS leverages resources within federal, state, and local governments and coordinates the transition of multiple agencies and programs into a single, integrated agency focused on protect- ing the American people and their homeland. More than 87,000 different governmental jurisdictions at the federal, state, and local level have homeland security responsibilities. The comprehensive national strategy seeks to develop a complementary system connecting all levels of government without duplicating effort. Disability A disability is a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of a per- son’s major life activities. There are many defini- tions for “disability,” both narrow and broad. For example, a person with a visual impairment correctable by contact lenses could be considered disabled in some circumstances but not in others. D Disaster Planning Cycle See Emergency Planning Cycle. Durable Medical Equipment (DME) Durable medical equipment is medical equipment that a person needs to function on a daily basis, such as oxygen tanks, wheelchairs, orthotics, and prosthetics. Dynamic Message Sign (DMS) A DMS is a traffic control device used in conjunction with traffic management systems to communicate real-time traffic information about roadway or adverse weather conditions and special events. It is also referred to as a variable message sign (VMS), a changeable message sign (CMS), or an electronic message sign. E Emergency An emergency is a sudden, urgent, often unexpected occurrence or occasion requir- ing immediate action or an urgent need for assistance or relief. Also see Incident. Emergency Alert System (EAS)/ Emergency Broadcast System The EAS is designed to provide the President with a means to address the American people in the event of a national emergency. Beginning in 1963, the President permitted state and local emergency information to be transmitted using the system. Since then, local emergency management personnel have used the EAS to relay local emergency messages via broadcast stations, cable, and wireless cable systems.

Page 157 Glossary of Terms In October 2005, the Federal Communica- tions Commission expanded the EAS rules to require EAS participation by digital television broadcasters, digital cable television providers, digital broadcast radio, digital audio radio service, and direct broadcast satellite systems. Emergency Management (EM) The broad class of agencies or people involved in the practice of managing emergencies and other incidents of all kinds. Emergency response is a subset of emergency management. Emergency Manage- ment Agency (EMA) An EMA may also be known as an Office of Emergency Management (OEM), Of- fice of Emergency Services (OES), or by a similar name. It is generally described as a state or local government agency that provides support to the local community in response to an emergency situation. Emergency Management As- sistance Compact (EMAC) A national interstate mutual-aid agreement that enables states to share resources during times of disaster. EMAC has grown to become the nation’s system for providing mutual aid through operational procedures and protocols that have been validated through experience. EMAC is administered by the National Emergency Man- agement Association (NEMA), headquartered in Lexington, Kentucky. EMAC acts as a comple- ment to the federal disaster response system, providing timely and cost-effective relief to states requesting assistance from assisting member states. (Adapted from FEMA-EMAC 2007.) Emergency Medical Services (EMS) EMS are types of emergency services dedicated to providing out-of-hospital acute medical care and/or transport to definitive care for patients with illnesses and injuries, which the patient or the medical practitioner believes constitutes a medical emergency. Emergency Operations Center (EOC) The EOC provides needed centralized manage- ment when a major emergency or disaster strikes. The EOC is an established location/facil- ity in which local and state staff and officials can receive information pertaining to an incident and from which they can provide direction, coordination, and support to emergency opera- tions. This is also where the decision makers and support agencies will report to manage the evacuation. National Incident Management Sys- tem (NIMS) defines the EOC as, “The physical location at which the coordination of informa- tion and resources to support incident manage- ment (on-scene operations) activities normally takes place. An EOC may be a temporary facility or may be located in a more central or perma- nently established facility, perhaps at a higher level of organization within a jurisdiction. EOCs may be organized by major functional disciplines (e.g., fire, law enforcement, medical services), by jurisdiction (e.g., federal, state, regional, tribal, city, county), or by some combination thereof.” Emergency Planning Cycle The emergency planning cycle includes four basic elements bracketing a disaster: mitigation, pre- paredness, [disaster], response, recovery, cycling back to mitigation and preparedness. The circle graphic on next page (See Figure G-1) illustrates this cycle. See also Preparedness Planning Cycle.

Page 158 Glossary of Terms MITIGATION PREPAREDNESS DISASTER RESPONSE RECOVERY FIGURE G–1 “Emergency Planning Cycle” Emergency Responder/ Management Personnel Includes federal, state, territorial, tribal, sub-state regional, and local governments; private-sector organizations; critical infra- structure owners and operators; nongovern- mental organizations (NGOs); and all other organizations and individuals who assume an emergency management role. These represent a broader community than first responders. See also First Responder. (See Section 2 (6), Homeland Security Act of 2002, Pub. L. 107- 296, 116 Stat. 2135 [2002]) (NIMS, 2008) Emergency Response The planned and actual response by multiple agencies to incidents that can include acts of terrorism, wildland and urban fires, floods, hazardous material spills, nuclear accidents, aircraft accidents, earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, tropical storms, war-related disasters, public health and medical emergen- cies. Traffic incidents are assumed to be included. (Adapted from NIMS, 2008.) Emergency Support Function (ESF) The federal government groups most of its resources and capabilities, and those of certain private-sector and NGOs, under ESFs. ESFs align categories of resources and provide strategic objectives for their use. They use standardized resource management concepts such as typing, inventory, and tracking to facili- tate the dispatch, deployment, and recovery of resources before, during, and after an incident. Support agencies are assigned based on the availability of resources in a given functional area. ESFs provide the greatest possible access to federal department and agency resources regardless of which agency has those resources. See Tool 1.3 for more detail and discussion. Emergency Transporta- tion Operations (ETO) A coordinated, performance-oriented, all-hazard approach to support the development of a formal program for the improved management of traffic incidents, natural disasters, security events, and other emergencies on the highway system. Focuses on an enhanced role for state DOTs as participants with the public safety community in an interagency process. (Adapted from NCHRP Report 525, Volume 6, 2005.) Evacuation The organized, phased, and supervised movement of people away from a dangerous or potentially dangerous area due to an emer- gency or other major event. Local governments typically have the primary responsibility for ordering an evacuation if one is necessary.

Page 159 Glossary of Terms Evacuation Operations Team (EOT) EOTs are a multi-disciplinary, multijurisdictional group of specialists called on to plan, organize, and execute tactical evacuation operations and usually become the region’s Core Planning Team for evacuation planning, response, and re-entry. The teams typically include police, fire and emergency medical personnel, highway workers, public information specialists, public transit representatives, emergency manag- ers, mass care specialists, political decision makers, and others as appropriate. The team periodically trains and exercises the team and team members may be from public, private, or volunteer sectors. (Definition adapted from the FHWA report: “Using Highways During Evacuation Operations for Events with Advance Notice- Evacuation Planning and Preparedness Process from the Transportation Perspective.”) F Faith-based Organization (FBO) FBOs are organizations based on religious beliefs or connected with an organized faith community. These organizations typically deliver a variety of human services, such as caring for the infirm and elderly, advocating justice for people who are oppressed, humanitarian aid, and international development efforts. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) FEMA is the federal agency charged with building and supporting the nation’s emergency management system. On March 1, 2003, FEMA became part of DHS. FEMA’s mission is to support American citizens and first responders to ensure that the United States works together to build, sustain, and improve capability to prepare for, protect against, respond to, re- cover from, and mitigate all hazards. FEMA provides funding for mitigation and training, and reimbursements for response and recovery efforts. The Office of Disability Integration and Coordination, with a representative in each FEMA field office, is part of FEMA. First Responder A first responder is the first responding unit to arrive at an incident scene. This term has traditionally been used to describe public safety emergency responders who have duties related to preservation of life and property. As transportation agencies become more actively involved in traffic incident response and take active roles in Incident Command (as partners in Unified Command), they are becoming ac- cepted as first responders for traffic incidents. For example, service patrols may be first on the scene of an incident and many are trained to provide traffic control to stabilize the scene and to provide emergency first aid. Some service patrols are also permitted limited use of emergency lights and sirens to get to an incident. Fixed Route A fixed route refers to where transit service vehicles run on regular, pre-designated, pre- scheduled routes with little or no deviation.

Page 160 Glossary of Terms Fusion Center Centers that integrate various streams of infor- mation and intelligence, including that flowing from the federal government, state, territorial, tribal, and local, governments, as well as the private sector, providing a more accurate picture of risks to people, economic infrastructure, and communities that can be developed and trans- lated into protective (e.g., preventative or respon- sive) actions. The ultimate goal of fusion is to prevent man-made (terrorist) attacks and to re- spond to natural disasters and man-made threats quickly and efficiently should they occur. Note that Fusion Centers are referred to differently in the various states. FHWA has also prepared a guidebook for Fusion Center/Transportation Management Center/EOC linkages/integration. I Incident Command System (ICS) ICS is a standardized, on-scene, all-hazards incident management approach used by all levels of government, many nongovernmental organizations, and the private sector. ICS is the combination of facilities, equipment, personnel, procedures, and communications operating within a common organizational structure, designed to aid in the management of resources during incidents. ICS is the command and control protocol at a highway incident scene. It is the operational component or core of NIMS. Incident In emergency management vocabulary, this is an event that has the potential to result in unintended harm or damage. Incidents are natural or man- made occurrences or events and can include major disasters, emergencies, terrorist attacks, terrorist threats, civil unrest, wildland and urban fires, floods, hazardous materials spills, nuclear accidents, aircraft accidents, earthquakes, hur- ricanes, tornadoes, tropical storms, tsunamis, war-related disasters, public health and medical emergencies, and other occurrences requiring an emergency response including traffic incidents (NIMS 2008). Also see Catastrophic Incident. Interagency Coordination The synchronization and integration of activities, responsibilities, and command and control struc- tures of different government agencies to ensure that the resources of an organization are used most efficiently in pursuit of the specified objec- tives. In addition to interagency coordination, it is also essential to have coordination and good com- munication among jurisdictions, service providers, other area plans, and stakeholders. (Definition adopted from: www.businessdictionary.com)

Page 161 Glossary of Terms L Latchkey Children Children (usually 5 to 12 years old) who must spend part of the day unsupervised at home while their parents are at work. U.S. Census estimates in 2000 indicated about 14% of children or about 10 million children were unsupervised on average for an hour a day, but the time and frequency vary widely, including varying with the age of the child. Limited English Proficiency (LEP) Individuals who do not speak English as their primary language and who have a limited ability to read, speak, write, or understand English can be limited English proficient, or “LEP.” These individuals may be entitled to language assistance with respect to a particular type or service, benefit, or encounter. M Major Disaster Any natural catastrophe (including any hur- ricane, tornado, storm, high water, wind-driven water, tidal wave, tsunami, earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide, mudslide, snowstorm, or drought) or, regardless of cause, any fire, flood, or explosion in any part of the United States, which in the determination of the President causes damage of sufficient severity and magnitude to warrant major disaster assistance under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act to supplement the efforts and available resources of states, local governments, and disaster relief organizations in alleviating the damage, loss, hardship, or suffering caused thereby (Stafford Act). Many guides actually treat catastrophic events as a more severe event than a major disaster. Mandatory Evacuation The term implies that individuals do not have a choice of whether or not to evacuate because the government will not be able to protect them and provide relief if they remain. It generally conveys a higher level of urgency. (Adapted from U.S. House of Representa- tives document: "A Failure of Initiative.")

Page 162 Glossary of Terms Medical Needs Shelters (MNS) All shelters must be accessible to people with access and functional needs. A MNS is a loca- tion that offers greater medical assistance than basic first aid, but not to the level of acute care. This type of shelter may be reserved for a reloca- tion of a nursing home in the event of a disaster. It will be assumed that the staff of the facility will accompany the patients and be the primary caregivers of medical care to them. Supplies and equipment will also be the responsibility of the evacuated facility. Due to the nature of the MNS, limiting occupants to just those of the evacuated facility should be given consideration. Memorandum of Understanding (MOU)/Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) A document that outlines the intentions of two or more different agencies or jurisdic- tions to work together on a continuing and lasting basis, toward maximum cooperation and mutual assistance in the areas of disaster response and emergency preparedness. The documents typically confirm a mutual aid agreement for reciprocal emergency aid in case of emergencies too extensive to be dealt with effectively unassisted. MOUs and MOAs are also developed between a local agency and outside organizations or private companies in order to ensure that the necessary resources are available in the event of an emergency. Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) An MPO is an agency designated by law with the lead responsibility for developing transportation plans and programs within an urbanized area. MPOs are established by agreement of the Governor(s) and units of local government representing at least 75% of the population in the urbanized area. An MPO can also be a Council of Governments. See also“Council of Governments (COG). N National Incident Management System (NIMS) NIMS is a system used in the United States, and established by DHS, to coordinate emergency preparedness and incident management among various federal, state, tribal, territorial, and local agencies. NIMS provides the template for the management of incidents. Also see Incident Command System (ICS) and the FHWA report titled “Simpli- fied Guide to the Incident Command System (ICS) for Transportation Professionals.” National Planning Scenarios The National Preparedness Guidelines, devel- oped by DHS, contain 15 scenarios that form the basis for coordinated federal planning, training, exercises, and grant investments. The 15 all-haz- ards planning scenarios (the National Planning Scenarios or Scenarios) were developed for use in national, federal, state, and local homeland

Page 163 Glossary of Terms security preparedness activities. The Scenarios are planning tools and are representative of the range of potential terrorist attacks and natural disasters and the related impacts that face our nation. The objective was to develop a minimum number of credible scenarios in order to establish the range of response requirements to facilitate preparedness planning. See also Scenarios. (Definition adapted from: “National Planning Scenarios: Executive Summaries” and “Fitting the Pieces Together: Improving Transportation Security Planning in the Delaware Valley.”) National Preparedness Guidelines These guidelines define what it means for the nation to be prepared by providing a vision for preparedness, establishing national pri- orities, and identifying target capabilities. The guidelines adopt a Capabilities-Based Planning process supported by three planning tools: the National Planning Scenarios, Target Capabili- ties List (TCL), and Universal Task List (UTL). The Guidelines serve as a framework to guide operational readiness planning, priority-setting, and program implementation at all levels of government. (Definition from DHS document titled: "Target Capabilities List: A Companion to the National Preparedness Guidelines.") National Response Framework (NRF) NRF is part of the National Strategy for Home- land Security that presents the guiding principles enabling all levels of domestic response partners to prepare for and provide a unified national response to disasters and emergencies. NRF provides the structure and mechanisms for national-level policy for incident management. The NRF can be accessed on the DHS website. Nongovernmental Organization (NGO) NGOs are nonprofit entities formed as an as- sociation that are based on the interests of their members, individuals, or institutions, and that are not created by government but may work co- operatively with government. Such organizations serve a public purpose, not a private benefit. P Paratransit Paratransit is the family of transportation services that serves the mobility impaired or transportation disadvantaged. Examples of paratransit include taxis, carpools, vanpools, minibuses, jitneys, demand responsive bus services, and specialized bus services. People with Medical Conditions Many people throughout the United States may have one or more existing medical conditions, some more severe than others. People with medical conditions are individuals who have one or more medical diagnoses that may or may not interfere with activities of daily living. They may need assistance during an emergency evacuation. If a person with a medical condition becomes debilitated, limited, or otherwise impaired, that person may be protected under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). See Tool 3.2.

Page 164 Glossary of Terms Comprehensive Preparedness Guide 101 • Describing what the government body and the senior official will have to do prior to, during, and after an incident to either prevent or minimize the incident’s impact. Senior officials play a critical role in determining when and which plans should be developed or revised. Additionally, they customarily have the authority to approve the final product in coordination with key stakeholders. By participating throughout the planning process, senior officials will better understand how to implement the plan during an incident. Time, uncertainty, risk, and experience influence planning. These factors define the starting point where planners apply appropriate concepts and methods to create solutions to particular problems. Planning is, therefore, often considered to be both an art and a science in that successful planners are able to draw from both operational experience and an understanding of emergency management principles, but also are intuitive, creative, and have the ability to anticipate the unexpected. While the science and fundamental principles of planning can be learned through training and experience, the art of planning requires an understanding of the dynamic relationships among stakeholders, of special political considerations, and of the complexity imposed by the situation. Because this activity involves judgment and the balancing of competing demands, plans should not be overly detailed—to be followed by the letter—or so general that they provide insufficient direction. Mastering the balance of art and science is the most challenging aspect of becoming a successful planner. Effective plans tell those with operational responsibilities what to do and why to do it, and they instruct those outside the jurisdiction in how to provide support and what to expect. Plans must clearly communicate to operational personnel and support providers what their roles and responsibilities are and how those complement the activities of others. There should be no ambiguity regarding who is responsible for major tasks. This enables personnel to operate as a productive team more effectively, reducing duplication of effort and enhancing the benefits of collaboration. Planning is fundamentally a process to manage risk. Risk management is a process by which context is defined, risks are identified and assessed, and courses of action for managing those risks are analyzed, decided upon, and implemented, monitored, and evaluated. As part of the process, planning is a tool that allows for systematic risk management to reduce or eliminate risks in the future. Planning is one of the key components of the preparedness cycle. The preparedness cycle (Figure 1.1) illustrates the way that plans are continuously evaluated and improved through a cycle of planning, organizing, training, equipping, exercising, evaluating, and taking corrective action. Strategic, Operational, and Tactical Planning There are three tiers of planning: strategic planning, operational planning, and tactical (incident scene) planning. Strategic planning sets the context and expectations for operational planning, while operational planning provides the framework for tactical planning. All three tiers of planning occur at all levels of government. Figure 1.1: The Preparedness Cycle People with Mobility Disabilities Mobility disabilities are the physical challenges that can range from difficulty moving to the need to use assistive devices such as canes, walkers, wheelchairs, or scooters. A person with mobility disabilities may have a condi- tion that requires him/her to remain in bed or need similar conveyances, and may require additional as istance in n evacuati n. Th t assistance could range from a low-floor bus to accommodate a person with a walker, to a lift-equipped bus, paratransit, or other vehicle, to a ambu ance or s milar specialized ve icle. People with No Access to a Vehicle People with no access to a vehicle are individuals and families that do not have a car and gener lly rely on public transportation on a dail basis. Individuals and families may not have a car for several reasons, including economic factors, geographic location (i.e., people who live in urban environm nts may not own a vehicle), health conditions (e.g., those with physical disabilities, some of the very elderly), environ- mental conscientiousness, nd lack f a license. Preparedness Planning Cycle The Preparedness Planning Cycle is a subset of the Emergency Planning Cycle. Prepared- ne s is chiev and maintai ed through a continuous cycle of planning, organizing, training, equipping, exercising, evaluating, and taking corrective action. See Figure G-2. Ongoing pr paredness efforts among all those involved in emergency manage- ment and incident response activities ensure coordination during times of crisis. Moreover, preparedness facilitates efficient and effective emergency management and incident response activities. The cycle i volves several phases, as illustrated in the graphic to the right. Presidential Disaster Declaration There are several types of responses governments can take in emergency situations. Local and state governments may declare a state of emergency within their jurisdiction, but only the federal government may declare a Presidential disaster declaration or a federal state of emergency. When local and state governments become overwhelmed by an emergency, th Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 5121-5206, estab- lishes a process for a state governor to request as istance from the fede al government and obtain a Presidential disaster declaration. The process defines the type and scope of assistance available from the federal government and sets he c nditions for obtaining that assistance. FEMA, now part of DHS, is the federal agency then tasked with coordinating the response. (Definition adapted from FEMA document titled: “A Guide to the Disaster Declaration Process and Federal Disaster Assistance.”) Strategic plans describe how a jurisdiction wants to meet its emergency management or homeland security responsibilities over the long-term. These plans are driven by policy from senior officials and establish planning priorities. 1-4 FIGURE G–2 “Preparedness Planning Cycle”

Page 165 Glossary of Terms Private Sector The private sector is the part of the economy that is both run for private profit and is not controlled by the state. Public Assisted Evacuation Plan (PAEP) A PAEP is a plan for how to implement an effective government assisted evacuation of the general public. Typically a PAEP uses a timeline to set forth key phases and milestones for evacuation response that should be planned for ahead of time. See Tool 4.1.2. R Re-entry The phase of the evacuation process that involve the ingress of evacuees once conditions are safe and infrastructure (roads, utilities, and housing) and support services (such as law enforcement, stores, schools, and clinics) are up and running. This phase involves coordination between local, county, and state agencies in order to ensure a safe and orderly return of evacuees. Regional Emergency Assistance Compact (REAC) A regional mutual aid compact in which multiple states and/or regional governing agen- cies create an agreement to assist each other in emergency situations. A REAC is essentially a regional Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC). Also see Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC). s Regional Transit Security Working Group (RTSWG) RTSWGs support region-wide planning to address National Preparedness Goals, including improvements to specific response capabilities and communications, and to identify and fill gaps in regional transit security planning. These groups develop a Regional Transit Security Strategy (RTSS) in coordination with local and regional transit agencies and the local or state EMA. These working groups are established and required through the TSA and required of any municipality receiving Transit Security Grant Program funds, which are administered by DHS. Registry In emergency services vocabulary, a registry is a voluntary listing of disabled or vulnerable special needs populations. Registries are considered an essential part of preparedness in some com- munities and regions, but are often controversial for many reasons. Community communication and outreach, networks, multiple means of communication, and well-prepared communities may replace the perceived need for registries. Resource Typing Resource typing is categorizing, by capability, the resources requested, deployed, and used in incidents. Measurable standards identifying resource capabilities and performance levels serve as the basis for categories. Resource users at all levels use these standards to identify and inven- tory resources and apply for reimbursement. Resource kinds may be divided into subcat- egories to define more precisely the capabilities needed to meet specific requirements (FEMA).

Page 166 Glossary of Terms Risk Management/Risk Assessment Risk management is the identification and assessment of the threats and hazards that could impact a jurisdiction. The risk assessment is the process of collecting and identifying information about possible threats and hazards and then assigning values to each for the purpose of determining those that have the highest priorities so that plans for action can be developed for ad- dressing them. The jurisdiction can then catalog everything from specific asset vulnerabilities to staffing levels for emergency personnel. Scenarios Scenarios, outlines, or models of an expected or supposed sequence of events, are an im- portant element in emergency planning. They allow emergency managers, transportation managers, and other key players to think through and practice all the stages of an actual disaster, including coordination, actions, and resource needs. The process, the relationships developed, and the decisions on frameworks and strategies for control and operations that are explored in scenarios will generally lead to better outcomes in actual disaster situa- tions. See National Planning Scenarios. Service Animal A service animal is defined under ADA as “a guide dog, signal dog, or other animal individu- ally trained to provide assistance to an individual with a disability.” Service animals assist people with disabilities in various activities, such as sight (dog guides) and hearing (hearing dogs). S Often, a service animal enables a person with a disability to live independently. Trained and certi- fied service animals must be allowed to accompany an individual in a taxi, public transport vehicle, or other mode of transportation to a public shelter or any other location; a service animal is not a pet. Shadow Evacuation An evacuation in which people who are not in danger (and who have not been advised to evacu- ate), choose to evacuate and cause an unnecessary burden on the area's transportation infrastructure. A shadow evacuation can subsequently overburden area infrastructure to the point that truly at risk individuals cannot evacuate as directed. Shelters A temporary facility that provides housing and basic services until persons can return home or obtain temporary or permanent housing elsewhere. (Definition from FEMA document: “Guidance on Planning for Integration of Functional Needs Support Services in General Population Shelters.”) Sheltering-in-Place In some situations, the most effective approach to protecting populations is to strongly encour- age or force people to stay where they are while taking steps to increase safety (e.g., closing outside vents and sealing doors), such as during chemical spills or air-born related disasters. In other cases, sheltering-in-place is part of an evacuation strategy, where individuals who are not in imminent danger are advised to stay where they are to allow truly at risk individuals to evacuate as well as to prevent a shadow evacu- ation. (Part of definition adapted from: “Fitting the Pieces Together: Improving Transportation Security Planning in the Delaware Valley.”)

Page 167 Glossary of Terms Sign Language Interpreter A sign language interpreter is a person who has been trained to use a system of conventional symbols or gestures made with the hands and body to help people who are deaf or hard of hearing, or have speech impairments communicate. There are dif- ferent types of sign language interpreters: Tactile, Oral, Signed English, and others, as well as American Sign Language (ASL). Special Event While special events can by some definitions include emergencies, this report generally uses the term to mean a planned (or unplanned) gath- ering of a large amount of people. A planned special event is usually described as those activities that have a known location, scheduled time(s) of occurrence, and similar associated operating characteristics. Special events typically involve increased traffic congestion and require the direct attention of transportation agencies. (Planned special events can include sporting events, concerts, festivals, conventions, parades, fireworks displays, races, sporting games, rallies, seasonal festivals, milestone celebrations, etc.) Special Needs Populations No singular definition of the term “special needs” exists, although the term is widely used within the disaster services and emergency man- agement fields. The National Response Frame- work employs the preferred term “populations with access and functional needs,” while CPG 101 emphasizes “whole community planning.” See Access and Functional Needs Populations. Target Capabilities List (TCL) The National Preparedness Guidelines, a statement of the core preparedness goal for the United States, defines 37 specific capabilities that communities, the private sector, and all levels of government should collectively possess in order to respond effectively to disasters. The TCL serves as a reference document as well as a planning, assessment, and training tool. (Portions of definition from: “Fitting the Pieces Together: Improving Transportation Security Planning in the Delaware Valley.”) Traffic Management Center or Trans- portation Management Center (TMC) The TMC or Traffic Operations Center (TOC) is the hub of a transportation management system where information about the transportation network is collected and combined with other operational and control data to manage the transportation network and produce traveler information. It is the focal point for commu- nicating transportation-related information to the media and the motoring public. It is a place where agencies can coordinate their responses to transportation situations and conditions. The TMC links various elements of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), such as variable message signs, closed-circuit video equipment, and roadside count stations. These ITS elements enable decision makers to identify and react to an incident in a timely manner based on real-time data. Many EOCs coordinate with TMCs (and fusion centers, if available) to bring together the best possible situational awareness. T

Page 168 Glossary of Terms Transportation Demand Management (TDM) Transportation Demand Management (TDM) is any action or set of actions designed to influence the intensity, timing, and distribu- tion of transportation demand, in order to reduce traffic congestion or enhance mobility. TDM is also sometimes referred to as traf- fic demand management or travel demand management. (Part of this definition was adopted from the FHWA document: “The Transportation Planning Process: Key Issues.”) Transportation Disadvantaged Transportation disadvantaged populations include individuals who do not have access to personal transportation for reasons of health, disability, level of income, or other reasons. Florida statutes define it as, “Persons who because of physical or mental disability, income status, or age are unable to transport themselves or to purchase transportation and are, therefore, dependent upon others to obtain access to health care, employment, education, shopping, social activities, or other life-sustaining activities, or children who are handicapped or high-risk or at-risk.” Also see Access and Functional Needs Populations. U Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) FEMA grant program to plan for and enhance regional emergency preparedness capabilities related to national security in the highest risk urban areas. UASI funding is typically used in providing planning, training, and other support activities for emergency managers and first responders to prevent, protect against, respond to, and recover from acts of terrorism. Unified Command An application of ICS used when there is more than one agency involved with an incident in a single jurisdiction or when incidents cross political jurisdictions. Agencies work together through the designated members of the Unified Command (UC), often the senior person from agencies and/or disciplines participating in the UC, to establish a common set of objectives and strategies and a single Incident Action Plan (IAP) (NIMS 2008). Variable Message Signs (VMS) See Dynamic Message Signs (DMS). Videophone (VP) A VP is a telephone with a video screen that is capable of bi-directional video and audio transmissions for communication between people in real time. VPs are particularly useful to the deaf and speech-impaired who can use them with ASL to facilitate communication. V

Page 169 Glossary of Terms Voluntary Evacuation Voluntary evacuation is a type of evacuation where people choose to move from a perceived area of danger to an area of safety either on their own or under the direction of government. People are not required to evacuate under such circumstances, so no penalty is issued for failing to follow a voluntary evacuation. (Definition adapted from: http://definitions.uslegal.com.) Voluntary Organizations Active in Disaster (VOAD) National Voluntary Organizations Active in Disaster (VOAD) is a nonprofit member- ship organization founded in 1970 in response to Hurricane Camille in the Gulf Coast. Members of National VOAD include national nonprofit organizations, whose missions include programs either in disaster preparedness, response, and/or recovery. Vulnerable Populations Vulnerable populations include those who are made especially vulnerable by their financial circumstances, place of residence, health, age, personal characteristics, functional or developmental status, ability to communicate effectively, and presence of chronic illness or disability. Examples include the elderly, people with disabilities, and young children. See Access and Functional Needs Populations. W Whole Community Planning Planning that engages the whole community by using a process that represents the actual population in the community and involves community leaders, the private sector, and all community stakeholders. Figure G-3 illustrates key elements and stakeholders in the whole com- munity spectrum. FEMA's CPG 101 emphasizes that this type of whole community planning yields the most realistic and complete plans. FIGURE G-3: Image from CitizenCorps website:http://citizen- corps.gov/getstarted/toolkit/principles.shtm. Note: Given the similarity in the topic areas and the interest to keep definitions uniform, the major- ity of the definitions in this glossary were reproduced from the TCRP Report 150: Communication with Vulnerable Populations: A Transportation and Emer- gency Management Toolkit and additional defini- tions were adopted from the NCHRP Report 525: Surface Transportation Security, Volume 16, A Guide to Emergency Response Planning at State Trans- portation Agencies. Several other documents were used as sources for the definitions in this glossary including the FEMA document titled, “Guidance on Planning for Integration of Functional Needs Sup- port Services in General Population Shelters” (2006); the Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission document titled, “Fitting the Pieces Together: Improv- ing Transportation Security Planning in the Delaware Valley" (2010); FEMA’s “National Incident Manage- ment System” (2008); and the individual references also noted with various other terms in this Glossary.

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TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 740: A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation focuses on the transportation aspects of evacuation, particularly large-scale, multijurisdictional evacuation.

The guidance, strategies, and tools in NCHRP Report 740 are based on an all-hazards approach that has applicability to a wide range of “notice” and “no-notice” emergency events. The report follows the basic planning steps of the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s Comprehensive Preparedness Guide (CPG) 101. Each chapter parallels one of the six main CPG steps. Each chapter is further subdivided into smaller, discrete tasks, with cross-references to tools--such as templates or checklists--that are shown at the end of each chapter and are on a CD-ROM included with the print version of the report.

The CD-ROM is also available for download from TRB’s website as an ISO image. Links to the ISO image and instructions for burning a CD-ROM from an ISO image are provided below.

The contractor’s final report, which documents the development of the report, was published as NCHRP Web-Only Document 196. A PowerPoint presentation describing the entire project that resulted in NCHRP Report 740 is available for download.

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CD-ROM Disclaimer - This software is offered as is, without warranty or promise of support of any kind either expressed or implied. Under no circumstance will the National Academy of Sciences or the Transportation Research Board (collectively "TRB") be liable for any loss or damage caused by the installation or operation of this product. TRB makes no representation or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, in fact or in law, including without limitation, the warranty of merchantability or the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, and shall not in any case be liable for any consequential or special damages.

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