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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

USEFUL RESOURCES TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM (TCRP) AND NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM (NCHRP) a. Security Publications i. ACRP Report 12: An Airport Guide for Regional Emergency Planning for CBRNE Events (2008). Guidance for plans for events involving chemical, biologi- cal or radiological (CBR) agents, or detonation of nuclear or explosive devices ii. HMCRP Report 5: A Guide for Assessing Community Emergency Response Needs and Capabilities for Hazardous Materials Releases (2010) iii. TCRP Report 150: Communication with Vulnerable Populations: A Trans- portation and Emergency Management Toolkit (2011) How to create a communication process to reach vulnerable populations regarding their trans- portation options in emergencies. This toolkit provides a guiding framework and tools for constructing a scalable, adaptable communication process built on a network of agencies from public, private, and nonprofit sectors. iv. TCRP TRB Special Report 294: The Role of Transit in Emergency Evacuation (2008) Explores the roles that transit systems can play in accommodating the evacuation, egress, and ingress of people from and to critical locations in times of emergency. v. TCRP Report 86: Public Transportation Security, Volume 10: Hazard and Security Plan Workshop Instructor Guide for Rural, Small Urban, and Community-Based Public Transportation System Operations (2005).

Page 172 Useful Resources vi. NCHRP Research Results Digest 333/TCRP Research Results Digest 90, A Guide to Planning Resources on Transportation and Hazards (2008). Security-related research and resources, and an introduction to interdisciplinary research and applications undertaken by the hazards research community. vii. NCHRP Report 525/TCRP Report 86, Vol. 9: Guidelines for Transporta- tion Emergency Training Exercises (2005) For use by transportation systems and emergency responders in the planning, design, develop- ment, implementation, and evaluation of drills and exercises. viii. NCHRP Report 525/TCRP Report 86, Vol. 8: Continuity of Operations (COOP) Planning Guidelines for Transportation Agencies (2005). Guid- ance for efficiently resuming transportation agency operations follow- ing a terrorist attack or other natural or man-made disasters. ix. NCHRP Synthesis 392: Transportation’s Role in Emergency Evacuation and Reentry (2009). (Wolshon). A comprehensive and systematic review of current practice for evac- uation and repopulation, considering the use of modes for low-mobility individuals. x. NCHRP Report 525, Vol. 16: A Guide to Emergency Response Planning at State Transportation Agencies (2009). A Guide to recommendations for use by state trans- portation agencies in planning and developing their organizational functions, roles, and responsibilities for emergency response within the all-hazards NIMS context. xi. NCHRP Report 525, Vol. 16: Appendix L--White Paper on Emer- gency Response Functions and Spreadsheet Tool for Emergency Response Functions (2009). Defines, compares, and contrasts the functions as- sociated with (a) day-to-day incident management activities and (b) multi- agency emergency response activities in order to define and target state DOT job functions, research, training, and committee related activities. xii. NCHRP Report 525, Vol. 6: Guide for Emergency Transportation Operations (2005). Guidance for state DOTs to coordinate activities with law enforcement, fire service, and emergency management. xiii. NCHRP Report 525, Vol. 15: Costing Asset Protection: An All-Hazards Guide for Transportation Agencies (CAPTA) is designed as a planning tool for top-down estimation of both capital and operating budget implications of measures intended to reduce risks to locally acceptable levels. The guide is supplemented online with a downloadable Microsoft® PowerPoint slide show and CAPTool, a spreadsheet tool for implementing the CAPTA methodology.

Page 173 Useful Resources b. Other Selected Relevant, Useful TRB Publications i. TCRP Report 106/NCHRP Report 536: From Handshake To Compact: Guidance to Foster Collaborative, Multimodal Decision Making (2005) ii. NCHRP Report 690: A Guidebook for Successful Communica- tion, Cooperation, and Coordination Strategies Between Transporta- tion Agencies and Tribal Communities (2011) VEROGRAM USDOT; FHWA a. Emergency Transportation Operations i. http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/publications.htm#eto- Ex- amples of useful detailed resources include the following: ii. FHWA’s Emergency Transportation Operations Publications Series Pres- ents: The Best of Traffic Incident Management, Traffic Planning for Special Events and Evacuation & Disaster Planning (CD) FHWA-HOP-10-053 iii. “Operational Concept: Assessment of State of the Practice and State of the Art in Evac- uation Transportation Management” includes examples of needed resources (mostly highway) for each stage of evacuation planning, response and recovery. (FHWA 2006). iv. Evacuating Populations With Special Needs—Routes to Effective Evacua- tion Planning Primer Series (HTML, PDF 21MB) FHWA-HOP-09-022 v. Information Sharing Guidebook for Transportation Management Centers, Emergency Operations Centers, and Fusion Centers (HTML, PDF 3MB) FHWA-HOP-09-003 vi. Using Highways For No-Notice Evacuations—Routes to Effective Evacua- tion Planning Primer Series (HTML, PDF 20.9MB) FHWA-HOP-08-003 vii. Routes to Effective Evacuation Planning Primer Series: Using Highways During Evacuation Operations for Events with Ad- vance Notice (HTML, PDF 2.8MB) FHWA-HOP-06-109 b. Planned Special Events–same FHWA website address as above/ publications.htm c. Incident Management–same address as above/publications.htm d. Summary/analysis of evacuations by year/incident/scale/location (domestic only) over the last few years

Page 174 Useful Resources DHS/FEMA a. Mass Evacuation Incident Annex to the National Response Framework (June 2008) i. Establishes the criteria under which Federal support to mass evacuations is provided. ii. Provides a concept of operations for Federal-level mass evacuation support. iii. Identifies the agencies and organizations involved in a federally supported mass evacuation. iv. Defines the roles and responsibilities of Federal entities in planning, preparing for, and conducting mass evacuations in support of state, tribal, and local authorities. v. Identifies guidelines to improve coordination among Federal, state, tribal, and local authorities when Federal evacuation support is required. b. Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC) i. Inter-state mutual aid ii. Intra-state mutual aid iii. www.fema.gov/pdf/emergency/nrf/EMACoverviewForNRF.pdf c. National Mass Evacuation Tracking System d. Hazards U.S. Multi-Hazard Model (HAZUS-MH) i. Standardized methodology and software program available on-line to es- timate potential losses from earthquakes, floods and hurricane winds e. Technical Assistance (TA) Catalog i. Evacuation planning program that is offered to states and local govern- ments. The three types of TA available are: Information Resources, Models, Templates and Samples, and On-Site Workshops, which includes: 1. An evacuation planning annotated bibliography 2. Public outreach and education resources to support evacuation 3. Evacuation planning needs and capabilities assessment 4. Evacuation plan template (w/ chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive incident templates in the Appendices)

Page 175 Useful Resources 5. Memorandum of Agreement/Memorandum of Un- derstanding template and guidance 6. Workshops to demonstrate how to apply key evacu- ation principles and methodologies. f. National Incident Management System, United States Department of Homeland Security, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC, December 2008, 170pp. [Online] Available: http://www. fema.gov/pdf/emergency/nims/NIMS_core.pdf [2010, August 25]. g. Resource Typing i. The NIMS Incident Resource Inventory System (NIMS-IRIS) tool which FEMA has developed to assist emergency responders with in- ventorying resources. The software allows emergency responders to enter resources based on FEMA typed and user defined types. 1. Users can select specific resources for mutual aid purposes based on mis- sion requirements, the capability of resources, and response time. ii. NIMS has classified over 120 resources for Tier I support. States are al- lowed to type other resources for Tier II (primarily intrastate) support. h. National Planning Scenarios i. Target Capabilities List (TCL) i. Respond Mission: Citizen Evacuation and Shelter in Place Section (p377) 1. Identifies relationship with Emergency Support Functions (ESFs) 2. Defines key activities a. Critical tasks b. Preparedness metrics 3. Capability/Activity process flow j. Reimbursement and Eligible Costs i. State declared emergency (state funds) 1. Which states have this?

Page 176 Useful Resources ii. Federal declaration 1. Presidential disaster declaration 2. Emergency declaration a. Coordinate with state/FEMA ahead of time for an evacuation order b. Emergency protective measures c. Up to $5 million d. Category B Public Assistance only k. Catastrophic Incident Annex–NRF-CIA (2008) i. Protocols to pre-identify and rapidly deploy key essential resources (e.g., medical teams, search and rescue teams, transportable shelters, medical and equipment caches, etc.) when state, tribal, and local response efforts are overwhelmed ii. DHS/FEMA designated primary responsibility in charge of mass evacuations l. Evacuee Support Planning Guide i. July 2009 publication; focused more on recep- tion and evacuees than on evacuation itself ii. Definition of evacuation: Organized, phased, and supervised with- drawal, dispersal, or removal of civilians from dangerous or potentially dangerous areas, and their reception and care in safe areas iii. Evacuee Support Concept of Operations Template (FEMA P-760A) m. Developing and Maintaining Emergency Operations Plans (CPG 101) Version 2–Nov 2010 i. Transportation evacuation plan development guide ii. Description of the planning process n. Guidance on Planning for Integration of Functional Needs Support Services in General Population Shelters Nov 2010 i. Guidance ii. Checklists

Page 177 Useful Resources o. The “Whole Community” Initiative i. Uses planning assumptions for catastrophic disasters that are based on the worst-case scenarios. These scenarios are designed to challenge preparedness at all levels of government and force innovative, non- traditional solutions as part of the response strategy to such events. ii. Identifies the highest priority tasks necessary to save and sustain lives and stabilize a community or region during the crucial first 72 hours after a catastrophe. STATE AND MUNICIPAL PLANS AND GUIDANCE Regions vary in size, complexity, hazards, and needs for coordination. The following are examples of plans and templates that may help a region discern the level of detail needed for its particular situation, and potentially simplify the end product. The simpler templates referenced here (e.g., Alaska and British Columbia) may be more useful to a smaller region than the detailed outlines provided in the Guide in Step 5. Likewise, some regions’ emergency managers may prefer the annex format (e.g., San Diego or Washington, D.C. MWCOG) to the stand-alone evacuation coordination plan. These six examples were identified through the research; their inclusion here is not intended as an endorsement, but as a demonstration of the variety of plans tailored to unique circumstances, as well as to the broad common frameworks. Major components and organization are similar among all the plans; and the process to develop and maintain the plans remains as described in the steps of the Guide. There is no single “right” answer- the process of developing relationships while gathering information and making collaborative decisions is the key to a successful plan. a. Florida Evacuates.com i. Use of 511 for evacuation information ii. Apps for smart phones and tablets 1. Uses GPS to determine location of nearest shelter 2. Turn-by-turn directions b. New Jersey Regional Mass Evacuation Planning Studies i. Overview of differentiating factors in evacuation decisions ii. Expected evacuation behaviors based on different characteristics 1. Minority, age, pets, past evacuation, perception of risk, etc. iii. UASI versus non-UASI regional differences and capabilities

Page 178 Useful Resources c. King County, Washington, templates i. Evacuation template outline (single jurisdiction) ii. Evacuation resources iii. Evacuation overview iv. Evacuation checklist King County Template Overview and King County Template Resources. These are compan- ion guides to the King County Evacuation Template Outline and Evacuation Planning Check- lists that are cited in Step 5 as the primary source for the Generic Outline and Checklists. The Overview (45 pages) describes major planning and coordination required to prepare for evacuation. Resources (31 pages) describes the types of resources that will likely be required- from local ordinances through physical materials. They are available at the same website cited for the Outline and Checklists, access verified April 29, 2012 at: http://www.kingcounty. gov/safety/prepare/EmergencyManagementProfessionals/Plans/EvacuationTemplate.aspx d. Alaska Templates for Borough Evacuation Planning The State of Alaska prepared a template for evacuation for the use of each of its communities or boroughs. It is in Word format and available to customize to local needs. It provides a good, straightforward template especially applicable to smaller regions with less complex coordination requirements. The central document is 23 pages plus appendices extending it to 39 pages. The 7 major sections include I. Introduction, II. Concept of Operations, III. Roles and Responsibilities, IV. Direction and Control, V. Increased Readiness Levels, VI. Administration and Support, and VII. References. The 10 Appendices include 1) Emergency Contact Information, 2) General Evacuation Checklist, 3) Evacuation Order Report, 4) Evacuation Routes, Potential Evacuation Areas, Shelter Information, Special Facility Inven- tory, Special Needs Population Procedures, Traffic and Perimeter Control Procedures, and Pre-Evacuation Contact Database. (Search for “Alaska Evacuation Planning Template”) e. Atlanta, Georgia, Checklists The Atlanta Regional Evacuation Coordination Plan begins with useful First Hour Checklists: guides for chief elected officials, county/ city managers, emergency manag- ers and other decision makers in the Metro Atlanta area. The region is divided into 12 zones, each with anticipated evacuation routes mapped out. It is anticipated that most incidents will require evacuation between and among zones, rather than evacuating

Page 179 Useful Resources the entire area. The first 6 pages include the cover and the first hour checklists. The plan consists of 58 pages. With appendices, the entire document is 115 pages. The plan is designated For Official Use Only. A copy may be located on-line but because of its designation, we recommend that anyone wishing to review the report contact the Atlanta Regional Commission or Georgia Emergency Management Agency. e. British Columbia, Canada, Guidelines BC Evacuation Operational Guidelines. This 55 page document provides suc- cinct (17 pages) guidance on key principles of evacuation, supplemented by checklists, templates on messages and other topics, and similar useful informa- tion for a basic evacuation plan. Accessed most recently April 29, 2012 at http:// www.pep.bc.ca/management/Evacuation_Operational_Guidelines.pdf f. San Diego, California, Evacuation Annex Unified San Diego County Emergency Services Organization Operational Area Emergency Plan Annex Q: Evacuation. The Evacuation Annex (93 pages) provides a good example of the annex form of evacuation plan. It addresses operations includ- ing security and has been tested and improved through various wildfire and other emergencies. It was developed as a regional guide, to also serve as a template for local jurisdiction evacuation annexes. The evacuation annex begins on page 578 of the full plan. Link access verified April 29, 2012. http://www.sdcounty.ca.gov/oes/ emergency_management/protected/docs/2010_Complete_Plan_w_Annexes.pdf g. Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments (MWCOG), Washington, DC. Regional Emergency Evacuation Transportation Coordination Annex Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments Regional Emergency Coordination Plan—Annex 6 is the Regional Emergency Evacuation Transportation Coordination Annex. MWCOG is a complex region; COG is an independent, nonprofit association comprised of elected officials from 22 local governments (counties and cities, including the District of Columbia), members of the Maryland and Virginia state legislatures, and members of the U.S. Congress. The base plan and RESF sections (26 pages) include the regional communications coordination protocols, and is available to the public at: http:// www.mwcog.org/uploads/pub-documents/pF5eVl820120224112049.pdf Link access verified April 29, 2012. The annexes are being revised and are not currently avail- able to the public, but will be posted at this site when they are ready for release.

Page 180 Useful Resources GUIDANCE RELATED TO POPULATIONS WITH ACCESS AND FUNCTIONAL NEEDS (IN ADDITION TO TCRP, FHWA, AND FEMA GUIDANCE) a. Guidance on Planning and Responding to the Needs of People with Ac- cess and Functional Needs, Office for Access and Functional Needs, California Emergency Management Agency, June 30, 2009. b. Effective Emergency Management: Making Improvements for Communities and People with Disabilities, National Council on Disability, August 12, 2009. c. Emergency Management Research and People with Disabilities—A Resource Guide, U.S. Department of Education (NIDRR), Washing- ton, DC 2008–summarizes many different research efforts, with par- ticular interest in alert mechanisms for different populations. d. Transportation Equity in Emergencies: A Review of the Practices of State Departments of Transportation, Metropolitan Planning Organizations, and Transit Agencies in 20 Metropolitan Areas, FTA, May 2007. e. Emergency Preparedness and Response for Vulner- able Populations, COMTO, July 2007. f. Report to Congress on Catastrophic Hurricane Evacuation Plan Evaluation, U.S. Department of Transportation in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, June 1, 2006.

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TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 740: A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation focuses on the transportation aspects of evacuation, particularly large-scale, multijurisdictional evacuation.

The guidance, strategies, and tools in NCHRP Report 740 are based on an all-hazards approach that has applicability to a wide range of “notice” and “no-notice” emergency events. The report follows the basic planning steps of the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s Comprehensive Preparedness Guide (CPG) 101. Each chapter parallels one of the six main CPG steps. Each chapter is further subdivided into smaller, discrete tasks, with cross-references to tools--such as templates or checklists--that are shown at the end of each chapter and are on a CD-ROM included with the print version of the report.

The CD-ROM is also available for download from TRB’s website as an ISO image. Links to the ISO image and instructions for burning a CD-ROM from an ISO image are provided below.

The contractor’s final report, which documents the development of the report, was published as NCHRP Web-Only Document 196. A PowerPoint presentation describing the entire project that resulted in NCHRP Report 740 is available for download.

Help on Burning an .ISO CD-ROM Image

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CD-ROM Disclaimer - This software is offered as is, without warranty or promise of support of any kind either expressed or implied. Under no circumstance will the National Academy of Sciences or the Transportation Research Board (collectively "TRB") be liable for any loss or damage caused by the installation or operation of this product. TRB makes no representation or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, in fact or in law, including without limitation, the warranty of merchantability or the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, and shall not in any case be liable for any consequential or special damages.

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