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Suggested Citation:"Introduction ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Introduction ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Introduction ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Introduction ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Introduction ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

INTRODUCTION Transportation plays a vital role in evacuation mitigation, planning, response, and recovery. However, “the majority of the emergency opera- tions plans for large urbanized areas are only partially sufficient in describing in specific and measurable terms how a major evacuation could be conducted successfully, and few focus on the role of transit…Even among localities with evacuation plans, few have provided for a major disaster that could involve multiple jurisdictions or multiple states in a region and necessitate the evacuation of a large fraction of the population” (Transportation Research Board [TRB] 2008). A major event requiring multijurisdictional, multimodal coordination involving several layers of government (local, regional, state(s), and perhaps federal) as well as private and nonprofit entities may seem unlikely in many jurisdictions. However, the United States experienced more billion-dollar natural disasters in 2011 than in any other year on record according to the National Climatic Data Center. Major storms from Hurricane Irene, which battered the East Coast, and spring tornadoes that brought devas- tation from Wisconsin to Texas, remind us that we don’t know where or when emergencies or FIGURE I–1: Vermont, September 2011. FEMA News Photo FIGURE I–2: Minnesota, April 1997. FEMA News Photo

Page 2 Introduction disasters will strike. During the first 11 months of 2011, 97 major disasters were declared. Floods (Figure 1-1 and Figure 1-2), wildfires (Figure 1-3), hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunamis, chemical plant fires, train derail- ments, and chemical releases from truck accidents demonstrate that few communities are immune from (frequently) unprecedented and large-scale emergencies. Presidential declarations of emergencies have occurred with greater or lesser frequency in every state and in most counties across the United States. Figure 1-4 developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) illustrates both the frequency and the geo- graphic diversity of emergency declarations from January 10, 2000, to January 1, 2010. Many emergencies require evacuation of large numbers of people, including persons needing extra assistance in emergencies (such as nursing home residents or persons without access to personal vehicles or to regular transit). Some events come with some notice, some don’t. A major challenge is to coordinate in advance the full potential of the range of transportation re- sources, including agencies within a jurisdiction; layers of government across multiple jurisdic- tions; and private sector, nonprofit, and commu- nity organizations (see Table 1-1). Deep collabo- ration can help identify the full range of needs for transportation assistance in evacuation, as well as uncover resources that might have been overlooked. Some jurisdictions and geographic areas have a great deal of experience with such planning and coordination; their experiences are the foundation for the guidance presented here. This guide provides step-by-step guidance and associated tools and resources to help any region develop the transportation coordination elements of an evacuation and reentry plan. The guide also lightly addresses transportation planning for large-scale planned special events because some regions have found great value in using special events to test and practice evacuation traffic and operations plans and strategies. There are some important similarities and obvious differences between planning for a large-scale event, ranging from a major concert or NASCAR event to an event FIGURE I–3: California, July 2008. FEMA News Photo

Page 3 Introduction FIGURE I–4: Presidential Disaster Declarations: Frequency by County and Type of Disaster by FEMA Region FEMA TABLE I–1: Range of Coordination Complexity for Evacuation SINGLE JURISDICTION MULTIPLE JURISDICTIONS SINGLE MODE Local emergency planning and response; low Regional emergency planning and response; level of planning and response complexity moderate level of planning and response complexity Example: Localized flooding evacuation using only automobiles Example: Large-scale hurricane contraflow evacuation using only automobiles MULTIPLE MODES Local emergency planning and response Regional emergency planning and response; coordinated across several local agencies that high level of planning and response share the same geography; moderate level of complexity planning and response complexity Example: Large-scale city-assisted hurricane Example: Localized wildfire evacuation using evacuation utilizing automobiles, buses, automobiles, buses, vans, ambulances, etc. trains, ambulances, etc.

Page 4 Introduction on the scale of the Olympics, and planning for a no-notice event like an explosion or earthquake or a notice event like a hurricane. The similarities lie in the benefits of advance planning (establishing relationships and roles, setting goals and objectives, identifying operations tactics and strategies, evaluating resource needs), and in some of the strategies and resources that may be used to manage or control traffic and congestion (advance public education, variable message signs, rerouting traffic, varying traffic signal timing, deploying transit vehicles or shuttles, and more). The major differences are in the lack of notice for most disasters, who is in charge, and the major objective for evacuations–saving many lives in the face of an emergency versus avoid- ing major congestion and inconvenience from poor planning for an event. Throughout the guide, the focus is on evacuation, with special event planning noted where it has important crossover lessons for evacuation planning. The guide does not address the full range of emergency management coordination, com- munications, mass care (e.g., shelters), or other emergency support functions for evacuation other than where they intersect with trans- portation, except in the Step 5 Outline and Checklists. For example, it does not cover shelter management, but notes that shelter selection should consider certain transportation aspects. The guide does provide references to FEMA materials and other guidance that can help a region develop a comprehensive evacuation plan. Tools and resources such as the “Workshop in a Box” can help any group plan an effective workshop to support evacuation planning. The Multijurisdiction, Multimodal Evacuation Plan Outline Template and Checklist Tools in Step 5 include all aspects of evacuation planning. For workshops and other planning events, disciplines other than transportation may want to review Step 5 to see additional items for which they need to be planning. Although it is anticipated that even experienced jurisdictions will find pearls of wisdom and useful tools in this guide, some guide users may want to skim some of the basics that are directed to localities and states that have had few if any occasions to require large-scale evacuations. This guide focuses on the transportation aspects of evacuation, particularly large-scale, multi- jurisdictional evacuation. It is intended to assist transportation managers, planners, and opera- tors in communicating with and coordinating with emergency managers in emergency evacua- tion planning, operations, and reentry; it is also intended to assist emergency managers in com- municating with and coordinating with trans- portation managers, planners, and operators as well as strategic community-based organizations. The guide builds on research and resources from the Department of Homeland Security (DHS); FEMA (which is part of DHS); the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) “Routes to Effective Evacuation Planning” primer series and other emergency transportation operations documents; FHWA planning for special events resources; previous Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) and National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) studies; and research conducted for the development of this guide that focused on regions with extensive evacuation experience.

Page 5 Introduction GUIDE ORGANIZATION The following illustration from the “FEMA Comprehensive Preparedness Guide 101 Version 2” (CPG 101 2010) depicts the ideal steps in the emergency planning process. As each plan needs to be adaptable, each jurisdiction may not need to complete each step but should attempt to complete as many as possible to avoid gaps in their plans. This guide follows the basic planning steps of the CPG 101. Each chapter parallels one of the six main CPG steps as shown in Figure 1-5. Each chapter is further subdivided into smaller, discrete tasks, with cross-references to tools, such as templates or checklists, that are found at the end of each chapter. Plan Prep. Review and Approval Plan Development Determine Goals and Objectives Understand the Situation Form a Collaborative Planning Team Identify Core Planning Teams Engage Whole Community in Planning Identify Threats and Hazard Determine Operational Priorities Develop and Analyze Course of Action Write the Plan Exercise the Plan Engage Whole Community in Planning Meeting Meeting Identify Resources Review the Plan Approve and Disseminate the Plan Review, Revise, and Maintain the Plan Set Goals and Objectives Identify Info. and Intelligence Needs Plan Implementation and Maintenance STEP 1 STEP 6STEP 5STEP 4STEP 3STEP 2 Meeting Meeting FIGURE I–5: CPG 101 Planning Steps

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TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 740: A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation focuses on the transportation aspects of evacuation, particularly large-scale, multijurisdictional evacuation.

The guidance, strategies, and tools in NCHRP Report 740 are based on an all-hazards approach that has applicability to a wide range of “notice” and “no-notice” emergency events. The report follows the basic planning steps of the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s Comprehensive Preparedness Guide (CPG) 101. Each chapter parallels one of the six main CPG steps. Each chapter is further subdivided into smaller, discrete tasks, with cross-references to tools--such as templates or checklists--that are shown at the end of each chapter and are on a CD-ROM included with the print version of the report.

The CD-ROM is also available for download from TRB’s website as an ISO image. Links to the ISO image and instructions for burning a CD-ROM from an ISO image are provided below.

The contractor’s final report, which documents the development of the report, was published as NCHRP Web-Only Document 196. A PowerPoint presentation describing the entire project that resulted in NCHRP Report 740 is available for download.

Help on Burning an .ISO CD-ROM Image

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CD-ROM Disclaimer - This software is offered as is, without warranty or promise of support of any kind either expressed or implied. Under no circumstance will the National Academy of Sciences or the Transportation Research Board (collectively "TRB") be liable for any loss or damage caused by the installation or operation of this product. TRB makes no representation or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, in fact or in law, including without limitation, the warranty of merchantability or the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, and shall not in any case be liable for any consequential or special damages.

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