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A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation (2013)

Chapter: Step 1 Form a Collaborative Planning Team

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Suggested Citation:"Step 1 Form a Collaborative Planning Team." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 1 Form a Collaborative Planning Team." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 1 Form a Collaborative Planning Team." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 1 Form a Collaborative Planning Team." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 1 Form a Collaborative Planning Team." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 1 Form a Collaborative Planning Team." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 1 Form a Collaborative Planning Team." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 1 Form a Collaborative Planning Team." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 1 Form a Collaborative Planning Team." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 1 Form a Collaborative Planning Team." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 1 Form a Collaborative Planning Team." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 1 Form a Collaborative Planning Team." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 1 Form a Collaborative Planning Team." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 1 Form a Collaborative Planning Team." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 1 Form a Collaborative Planning Team." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 1 Form a Collaborative Planning Team." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Step 1 Form a Collaborative Planning Team." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Step 1 Form a Collaborative Planning Team." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Step 1 Form a Collaborative Planning Team." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

STEP 1 FORM A COLLABORATIVE PLANNING TEAM IT’S NOT THE PLAN, IT’S THE PEOPLE. Collaboration is the foundation of emer- gency planning, and beginning to develop that collaboration is the first step. Collaboration—among public and private sector agencies and across jurisdictions—is a must- have according to interviews for this project, particularly for those with recent evacuation experience. No one has all the resources needed. Evacuation planners must have contacts with private sector businesses and organizations to cover shortfalls in public resources. Planners need to get people to the table ahead of time. “In a real disaster, the plan isn’t worth the paper it’s written on. It’s the relationships and understanding you develop while you are working on the plan that will enable you to deal with the unexpected. And the unexpected is es- sentially what defines a real disaster.” – Houston veteran of Hurricanes Ka- trina and Rita “You don’t want to be meeting your teammate for the first time in the middle of an emergency.” “If someone is not already on my cell-phone prior to an emergency, they probably won’t be of much help in the middle of an emergency.” “We learned that it takes all these organizations to make it work. Every- one pulls together and helps each other and it’s just wonderful.” – North Carolina FIGURE 1-1: Evacuation Planning Meeting FEMA News Photo

Page 8 Step 1 - Form a Collaborative Planning Team TASK 1.1 IDENTIFY LIKELY INTERAGENCY AND INTER-REGIONAL PARTNERS (JURISDICTIONS AND LEVELS OF GOVERNMENT) REQUIRED FOR TRANSPORTATION AND EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT COORDINATION Imagine a huge event in your vicin- ity —for example, hurricane, terrorist attack, major flood, or chemical spill Your jurisdiction or region may play one or more of the following roles in an event: • A source of evacuees • Support for evacuees passing through the jurisdiction (provid- ing equipment, staff, supplies) • A host community for evacuees Thinking about these potential roles, start a list of the different jurisdictions and levels of government that would likely be involved. Your list will certainly cross village, town, and city boundaries, probably county boundaries, prob- ably regional boundaries (if your area includes one or more metropolitan planning organiza- tions, rural planning organizations, or tribal planning organizations), possibly tribal and state boundaries, and perhaps even international boundaries. It will also likely include multiple levels of government across those boundaries: • Local (village or town) • City • County or parish • Tribal • State • Federal Identify existing emergency plans and the stakeholders, committees, and/or organizations managing those plans In most cases, an emergency management leader will work with his/her counterparts to confirm what is already underway, so as not to duplicate effort. Begin to assemble a list of plans and contacts. (See Resource Tool 1.1 for a contact list template.) Good Practice Establish a multidisciplinary, multijurisdictional Evacuation Operations Team (EOT) to be called up to plan, organize, and execute tactical evacuation operations. This team will include police, fire, and emergency medical personnel; highway workers; pub- lic information specialists; public transit representatives; emergency managers; mass care specialists; political decision makers; and others as appropriate. The EOT will col- lect and maintain 24/7-contact information and periodically train and exercise the team. Team members may be from public, private, or volunteer sectors. The EOT becomes the region’s Core Planning Team for evacuation planning, response, and reentry. Adapted from FHWA “Using Highways During Evacuation Operations for Events with Advance No- tice- Evacuation Planning and Preparedness Process from the Transportation Perspective” 

Page 9 Step 1 - Form a Collaborative Planning Team   Meet and Greet You may want to convene an initial meeting pri- marily for transportation, transit, and emergency managers to get to know each other (if they don’t already), prior to the full-blown stakeholder workshop recommended in Step 2. The work- shop preparation tasks described in the “Work- shop in a Box” Resource can be simplified for a preliminary, more targeted meeting, but prepara- tion is still critical. Transportation professionals must be knowledgeable of the language of the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and Incident Command Systems (ICS). Resource Tool 1.2 discusses alternative frameworks for “convening agencies for multimodal evacua- tion planning,” who may or may not be the ultimate operations leads or decision-makers. Transportation and transit partners in each par- ticipating jurisdiction will want to review their respective emergency plans (if they have not pre- viously) to understand what is expected of them. Many emergency plans are geared to emergency support functions (ESFs). As these provide a framework and guidance for operations roles (see Step 3), we provide a brief introduction to ESFs Tip Look to planned special events teams for potential partners. A team similar to your EOT with slightly different stakeholders (e.g., mass care would not be involved) would be engaged for large-scale planned events. Your region may already have teams es- tablished for large-scale event plan- ning, on a regular or an ad hoc basis. Tip • Emergency managers usu- ally work well with their neighbors in supporting lo- cal response activities and participating in exercises. • There may already be one or more organizations or commit- tees (official or unofficial) that are coordinating emergency plan- ning across one or more jurisdic- tions, or throughout an entire region. For example, securing Urban Area Security Initiative grants requires coordination, and joint emergency planning exercises require coordination. • All urban regions (greater than 50,000 population) have Metro- politan Planning Organizations (MPOs) and/or Regional Plan- ning Councils (sometimes with different boundaries, sometimes called Councils of Governments). These initially focused mainly on transportation coordination, but now many include other disci- plines and issues that benefit from regional coordination, such as emergency planning. • Some areas have Rural Plan- ning Organizations or Tribal Planning Organizations. • Except in areas that routinely deal with huge events like hur- ricanes, it would be rare to find a committee or organization in place to deal with transportation coordination for very large emer- gency events that cross regional and/or state boundaries. Howev- er, regions that have coordinated large-scale events might have a good core team established.

Page 10 Step 1 - Form a Collaborative Planning Team in Resource Tool 1.3, expanded from the FEMA descriptions to elaborate on potential transporta- tion roles and interaction with each ESF. TASK 1.2 ENGAGE THE WHOLE COMMUNITY IN PLANNING Develop an initial list of potential non-govern- ment partners–private sector, community-based, and faith-based organizations. Figure 1-2, from CPG 101, identifies the basic elements. Resource Tool 1.4 provides suggestions for building such a list. It is anticipated that a few of those who are most interested and motivated will want to be part of the core planning team or EOT. However, it is important to maintain and expand contacts to the full range of private sector and community groups, as they may be able to serve as key communication conduits to their employees, members, or clients.    Tip See FHWA “Simplified Guide to the Incident Command System for Transportation Profession- als” for a succinct yet complete guide geared to Transportation. Tip Refer to TCRP Report 106/NCHRP Report 536: Practitioner’s Hand- book, From Handshake to Compact: Guidance to Foster Collaborative, Multimodal Decision Making. Tip TCRP 150: Communication with Vul- nerable Populations- A Transporta- tion and Emergency Toolkit provides a step by step guide to developing a collaborative communication network that extends across multiple agencies such as public health and agencies on aging, and reaches deep and wide into community-based, faith-based, and nonprofit organizations. Private sector, community-based, faith-based, and nonprofit organizations may also have extensive resources that would assist in a large-scale evacua- tion, but in most cases, such planning and coordination needs to be done in advance to be most effective.

Page 11 Step 1 - Form a Collaborative Planning Team FIGURE 1-2: CPG 101, Version 2: Form- ing a Whole Community Collaborative Partnership 1 Know the Community Hazards Population Capabilities As you progress in producing a community map, there are three major areas where members of various communities can assist your effort. Members of the community know the natural, technological, and man-made hazards that exist in their community. As the geographic community can include many social communities, it is important to engage the members of the community to get a picture of what populations are represented. Planners need to know where these populations are located and what needs they may have. Social communities bring a host of capabilities that can be used to respond to a disaster (e.g., volunteers to run/staff shelters, licensed healthcare professionals), while corporations can provide material support and are a community in and of themselves. 2 Identify the Communities to Engage Working with existing groups is the most efficient way to link into a community as they have established relationships, networks, and communication channels. Existing community-based programs are worth connecting with because trusted relationships have already been established between these offices and the community and further initiatives can capitalize on this goodwill. The community assessment process will identify existing programs and contacts. Being familiar with current events and programs in the community will help identify barriers and opportunities for the engagement. 3 Partner with Community Leaders to Develop an Engagement Program Engagement is about building trusted relationships. Community leaders need to trust that planners will support the work of the community and not dictate solutions for their issues. If communities don’t trust that this will happen, they may choose to disengage. Working with leaders in the community to establish the type and level of engagement is critical. Leaders may be people who have an official position within the community or simply the “doers” in the community that have the ability to create the momentum needed for engagement activities. The best person to establish a partnership with will only be identified after getting to know the community well.

Page 12 Step 1 - Form a Collaborative Planning Team TOOL 1.1: NETWORK CONTACT DATABASE PURPOSE: This tool is a template to organize contacts for building a network. DIRECTIONS: Complete the information for each public, voluntary, and private entity. Distribute to network members. Embed a schedule to regularly update information. Notes can include information about the populations served and approximate number of clients or members. This information can be maintained in a data- base, on Excel sheets, or in Word documents, based on local practice and preferences.  HintPrint out the database periodically and either laminate the pages or store them in water-proof contain- ers (such as sealed plastic bags). If power is out and networks are down or unavailable, many emergencies are wet, and such a precaution can be very helpful. STEP ONE—TOOLS An electronic version of the table below is available on CRP-CD-132. NCHRP 20-59 (32) A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation Tool 1.1, Network Database Full Name Organization Title Email Phone Cell Fax Address City State Zip Facebook Twitter Notes

Page 13 Step 1 - Form a Collaborative Planning Team TOOL 1.2: POTENTIAL FRAMEWORKS FOR INTEGRATING MODES FOR EFFECTIVE EVACUATION: CONVENER AGENCIES FOR MULTIMODAL EVACUATION (CAME) PLANNING PURPOSE: This tool sets forth three steps for developing frameworks for integrating modes and entities for effective evacuation. The focus of these frameworks is on multimodal and multijurisdictional evacuation planning. Comparable decision-making applies to large-scale planned events. DIRECTIONS: If necessary, review the descriptions of roles in Step 1. Steps 2 and 3 can pro- vide the foundation for one or more discussions among the collaborative EOT as to the optimal framework for sustaining the evacuation planning effort. Step 1: Identify entities and their roles and responsibilities with re- spect to multimodal and multijurisdictional evacuation planning Note: Step 1 provides background information on various agencies at different levels of government with a brief summary of their potential roles in evacuation planning and operations. Those who are already familiar with the organizations can go to Step 2. FEDERAL ENTITIES U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS)/FEMA Provides policy, coordination, and support roles. The Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) is funded through FEMA to plan for enhancing regional emergency preparedness efforts related to national security. UASI funding is typically used in providing planning, training, and other support activities for emergency managers and first responders. FEMA’s Office of Disability Integration has a Disability Integration Coordinator for each of FEMA’s X regions. The Office of Disability Integration also plays a leadership role in fostering whole community planning. U.S. Department of Transportation The Federal Highway Administration and the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) provide information on planning for disasters and funding to transportation organizations. The FTA coordinates United We Ride and the Office of Civil Rights. STEP ONE—TOOLS

Page 14 Step 1 - Form a Collaborative Planning Team STATE AGENCIES State Emergency Management State emergency management agencies are vital for multijurisdictional planning, implementation, response, and reentry efforts. They set policy and usually coordinate with transportation agencies and all other functional areas during planning, response, recovery, and reentry. State Police State police are also vital for multijurisdictional planning, implementation, response, and reentry efforts. They have been involved in planning and implementing highway contraflow evacuations and engage in nearly all aspects of multimodal evacuations to ensure civil order during an evacuation, as well as providing first response when necessary. They also play an important and often lead role during the reentry process. State Departments of Transportation (DOT) DOTs primarily focus on building, operating, and maintaining transportation infrastructure, primarily highways. Some DOTs own and operate or contract for provision of transit fleets and services. They are a primary agency to be involved in evacuation planning, response, and reentry. For example, in Louisiana, the DOT contracts with private bus operators that move evacuees out of New Orleans, which is a key part of the New Orleans City Assisted Evacuation Plan. DOTs in other states that are subject to hurricanes (e.g., much of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts), flood- ing (e.g., states bordering on the Mississippi, Missouri, or other major rivers as well as coastal regions), wildfires, (e.g., California, the southwestern United States, and Florida) or states that have been subjected to terrorist threats (e.g., New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, and the Wash- ington, DC region) are actively engaged in evacuation planning either at state levels, MPO levels, or both. Some state DOTs, however, are not actively involved in evacuation planning efforts. State Health State health agencies work closely with hospitals and health care providers, especially with nongovernmental agencies (NGOs) and vulnerable populations. They also coordinate with state police and emergency management agencies as well as transportation providers. In some states they may take the lead for both ESF #6–Mass Care, Emergency Assistance, Housing, and Human Services and ESF #8–Public Health and Medical Services. State health agencies in some states actively coordinate with emergency managers in planning, implementation and reentry efforts, particularly with regards to medical transportation evacuation coordination. Sometimes this is also facilitated and coordinated with the MPOs or with ESF #1, Transportation.

Page 15 Step 1 - Form a Collaborative Planning Team REGIONAL AGENCIES Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) and Councils of Governments (COGs) MPOs and COGs provide coordination amongst local government and transportation agencies, and technical assistance and data management services to assist in planning and policy making. The structure of MPOs, with representation from local government and transportation agencies, could provide a unique opportunity for multimodal evacuation planning across regions; however, MPOs mainly focus on transportation infrastructure, not emergency management. MPOs usually have extensive transportation modeling capabilities including demographics that can be very useful in developing and testing evacuation scenarios. Some MPOs provide staff that focus on emergency preparedness, but many MPOs are not actively engaged with emergency managers. Rural Planning Organizations Rural areas may get planning support from state organizations or from rural planning organizations. Many of the fundamental issues and available resources are different from urbanized areas, but the need for coordination, access, and outreach, often in remote or isolated areas, is important. Rural communities often have higher than average senior citizen populations and persons in poverty, often with very limited access to transit or social service transportation resources that could assist in evacuation. Tribal Planning Organizations Many tribal areas are isolated and rural, with high poverty and limited access to transit or social service transportation resources. Many are also located in areas where natural disasters such as wildfires and/or flooding pose recurrent threats. Transit Agencies Transit agencies play an important part in multijurisdictional and multimodal evacuation planning, response, and reentry efforts. Some transit agencies, especially in weather-event prone areas and those that have experienced large-scale security events, actively plan for evacuations in coordination with local and state agencies. Urban Area Security Initiatives See previous description under DHS.

Page 16 Step 1 - Form a Collaborative Planning Team LOCAL AGENCIES Emergency Management and Response These agencies are critical for evacuation planning, response, and reentry. They are often the lead agency responsible for all aspects of emergency preparedness, response and management. They often work closely with neighboring local governments and state and regional agencies. However, their jurisdiction is limited to the boundaries of their municipality. When disasters cross political boundar- ies, they must work in close coordination with their neighbors as well as state and other entities. Office of Special and Functional Needs/Office of Disabilities These agencies provide policy and planning guidance on working with functional needs populations. They often coordinate with emergency management and response agencies as well as transportation agencies; however, their role in emergency preparedness planning is often limited in most cities and counties. Planning, Public Works, and Transportation City planning, public works, and transportation agencies typically focus on land use and infrastructure issues and often do not become deeply involved with evacuation planning or response efforts. They are often important for providing data and resources, such as vehicles, personnel, and equipment, to support emergency managers and transit agencies during the planning and response processes. They are critical in assessing damage after disasters to inform the reentry process. Utility companies (e.g., power companies) usually have lists of high-priority facilities for power restoration, including homes with an individual dependent on power (e.g., an oxygen concentrator with only a short-term backup generator). Such priority lists can help emergency managers locate high-risk individuals. Health and Human Services These agencies often work directly with vulnerable population groups and NGOs that serve the same communities. They also often coordinate with paratransit and other transportation providers for individuals with mobility impairments or other functional needs. With respect to evacuation planning, they often coordinate with emergency managers and transportation planners to inform the planning, response, and reentry stages.

Page 17 Step 1 - Form a Collaborative Planning Team Step 2: Identifying one or more CAME planning The second step in developing frameworks for integrating modes and entities for effective evacuation is to identify one or more agencies to serve as the Convener Agencies for Multimodal Evacuation (CAME). In emergency management, lead agencies direct evacuations, response, and reentry based on protocol. An important aspect of a CAME is the regional, multijurisdictional scope and the ability to coordinate and plan across multiple agencies representing local, regional, and state levels. No one agency is currently able to coordinate emergency planning, response, and reentry efforts across multiple modes of transportation at the regional scale. At the federal level, all disasters start at the local level then escalate up, i.e., through requests for state and federal assistance. However, in recent years our nation has seen a breakdown in this approach when disasters impact large regions, and communication across agencies and jurisdictions is often uncoordinated and not subject to prior planning. A key research lesson is that regions that have not experienced major regional mass evacuations, such as those along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts (usually for hurricanes) and those in western states (usually for wildfires), often are unprepared the first time a disaster strikes. While it is important to learn from past experience, regions throughout the nation should not wait until a disaster strikes before actively planning for such an event. Moreover, regions that have experienced mass evacuations are most likely to coordinate multimodal evacuation planning efforts at the regional scale. To date, these efforts have been ad hoc without federal guidance. Step 1 of Tool 1.2 identifies a number of agencies and their roles and responsibilities with respect to evacuation planning, response, and reentry. When identifying one or more agencies to serve as the CAME, the primary focus must be multijurisdictional and multimodal planning. Candidates include state emergency management agencies, state transportation agencies, regional transit agencies, MPOs, COGs, Regional Transit Security Working Groups (RTSWGs- established and required through the Transportation Security Administration - TSA), UASIs, or powerful municipal departments in regions willing to work in a regional manner. Possible roles and responsibilities of the CAME include: • Getting all of the stakeholders to the table. • Collaboratively defining roles and re- sponsibilities for each partner agency. • Identifying and securing funding for regional, multimodal evacuation planning and exercise efforts.  HintThere is an important distinction to draw between a “lead agency,” an agency directing/coordinating a response or protective activity, often an emergency management agency; and a “convener agency,” one which performs the vital task of leading the forum in which opera- tions plans could be discussed and coordinated with other agencies and jurisdictions in the region. The conve ner agency could be an emergency management agency; a transporta- tion agency; and/or a local, regional, or state agency or organization. -

Page 18 Step 1 - Form a Collaborative Planning Team Step 3: Possible Frameworks for CAME Structure This step defines possible frameworks for a CAME structure based on two alternative framework dimensions. FRAMEWORK DIMENSION 1: LOCAL, REGIONAL, OR STATE LEAD Local governments are most connected to people’s needs but might be problematic to serve as the CAME because they do not have experience with issues in areas they do not serve. State agencies have a multijurisdictional focus, but they often do not want to interfere with local issues. Moreover, some states have multiple urbanized regions. Conclusion Regionally focused agencies may be the most logical to serve as the CAME. FRAMEWORK DIMENSION 2: EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT OR TRANSPORTATION LEAD An issue facing multimodal evacuation planning is that emergency management agencies do not always understand transportation planning; conversely transit and transportation operations and management agencies do not always understand emergency management. To best integrate the two disciplines, they must work closely together. Conclusion Transportation and emergency management agencies may work in joint fashion to serve as the CAME. Possible CAME structures include: • UASI or RTSWG as CAME • MPO as CAME • Transit agency as CAME • UASI/RTSWG/Emergency Manager (EM)/MPO as CAME • UASI/RTSWG/EM/Transit agency as CAME • Transit agency/MPO as CAME • UASI/RTSWG/EM/Transit agency/MPO as CAME

Page 19 Step 1 - Form a Collaborative Planning Team All other agencies listed in Step 1 of Tool 1.2, and possibly others, should be considered within the framework as members of the CAME Committee - the Emergency Operations Team, Core Planning Team, or whatever name is chosen for the full planning group. Strong consideration should be given as to inclusion of NGOs, community-based organizations (CBOs) and faith-based organizations (FBOs) that represent populations with access and functional needs within the framework. POLICY OPTION It may be appropriate to establish a national policy to ensure that all regions are planning for integrating modes and entities at the regional scale. A national policy could allow for a flexible framework that regions can tailor to best allow local, regional, and state agencies to identify a CAME that will be most effective in convening collaborative, inclusive emergency planning.

Page 20 Step 1 - Form a Collaborative Planning Team TOOL 1.3: INTRODUCTION TO ESF AND TRANSPORTATION ROLES AND INTERACTIONS WITH EACH ESF PURPOSE: 1. Introduce transportation and transit personnel that may not be familiar with emer- gency management concepts to emergency support functions. 2. Summarize transporta- tion interactions with other functions in evacuation planning, response, and reentry that emergency managers as well as transportation managers should be aware of. DIRECTIONS: Review the functional descriptions. Compare these with the descriptions and classifications used by different emergency management agencies in your region and your state(s). Confirm state, regional, and local government transportation agency roles and interactions to coordinate for the different functional requirements. FEMA defines ESF annexes to the National Response Framework (NRF) as documents that provide the structure for coordinating federal interagency support for a federal response to an incident. They are mechanisms for grouping functions most frequently used to provide federal support to states and federal-to-federal support, both for declared disasters and emergencies. They are codified in the NRF and represent the guiding principles that enable all response partners to prepare for and provide a unified national response to disasters and emergencies–from the smallest incident to the largest catastrophe. As part of the NRF, ESFs are primary mechanisms at the operational level used to organize and provide assistance. ESFs are only activated at the federal level (as per the Stafford Act), when the Governor of a State “proclaims” that the disaster at hand has exceeded the state’s resources. The Governor may ask the President to make a Declaration of a Disaster. When the President issues the Declaration, they specify which programs are activated for which counties of the state. The state has a cost share–usually of 25%. If a state identified a shortage, for example, of paratransit services, they could request (in this case it would be through ESF #8, led by Department of Health and Human services—the DHHS) additional paratransit resources. DHHS could contract for those resources, and provide them to the state, for which FEMA, via the Stafford Act would reimburse DHHS for 75% of the cost, and the state would reimburse 25% of the cost. STEP ONE—TOOLS

Page 21 Step 1 - Form a Collaborative Planning Team Local and regional agencies may include ESFs as part of disaster planning, and it may be most expedient to use the same format as the NRF. Some local and regional agencies combine ESFs or use different nomenclature. Nevertheless, the functions are clearly delineated and well known. Transportation can interact with every other function while planning for, responding to, or recovering from an event requiring wide-scale evacuation. The first and second columns in Table 1.1 are from the NRF. The far right column summarizes transportation’s likely role and interaction with each of the other functions in an evacuation. ESFs will be referred to throughout this guide (by name, not number) to identify likely partners in the various facets of evacuation planning, response, and recovery. From the NRF, the ESFs are as follows. Those marked in bold are identified by FEMA as critical in evacuation, according to the Target Capabilities List (TCL) for evacuation (pages 377-394 of the TCL). However, many other functions play important, if not lead roles, in evacuation, as noted in column 3. Table 1-1 is an excerpt from the table: TABLE 1-1: Roles and Responsibilities of the ESFs TOOL 1.3, INTRODUCTION TO ESF AND TRANSPORTATION ROLES AND INTERACTIONS WITH EACH ESF ESF Scope Transportation Interactions Focused on Evacuation ESF #1 – Transportation • Aviation/airspace management and control • Transportation safety • Restoration/recovery of transportation infrastructure • Movement restrictions • Damage and impact assessment Planning: Transportation modelers can inform EM on what is likely to happen on roadways if “everyone” goes (instead of selective sheltering- in-place if appropriate) (See Step 2 for examples.) Operations: Coordinate and manage roadways- monitor roadway status, incident response, fuel, and services- for self-evacuees, for vehicles transporting evacuees needing as- sistance, and in-bound response vehicles. (See Step 3 and Tool 3.4 for strategies.) • Provide and/or coordinate transporta- tion resources (all modes) for those needing evacuation assistance. ESF #2 – Communications • Coordination with telecommunications and information technology industries • Restoration and repair of telecom- munications infrastructure • Protection, restoration, and sustainment of national cyber and information technology resources • Oversight of communications within the Federal incident manage- ment and response structures Transportation Management Centers provide essential communications and information on infrastructure status, incidents, roadway capacity, and potential detours. See Step 4, Section 2 for more detail. • Some locations have joint traffic manage- ment/emergency management centers

Page 22 Step 1 - Form a Collaborative Planning Team TOOL 1.3, INTRODUCTION TO ESF AND TRANSPORTATION ROLES AND INTERACTIONS WITH EACH ESF ESF Scope Transportation Interactions Focused on Evacuation ESF #3 – Public Works • Infrastructure protection Transportation agencies are sometimes part and Engineering and emergency repair of Public Works and Engineering; coordinate on roadway, bridge status, detours needed • Infrastructure restoration for evacuation, and repairs needed/prioritized • Engineering services and for reentry. For resource typing (see Step 4), construction management most transportation resources will be clas- sified under the public works category.• Emergency contracting support for life-saving and • Life-sustaining services ESF #4 – Firefighting • Coordination of federal fire- Routinely coordinate on highway incidents; fighting activities rapid incident response and clearance critical on major roadway facilities in an evacuation.• Support to wildland, rural, and ur- ban firefighting operations ESF #5 – Emergency • Coordination of incident manage- Coordination between emergency manage- Management ment and response efforts ment and transportation critical in all phases of planning and response to understand • Issuance of mission assignments mutual roles, capabilities, constraints • Resource and human capital • Incident action planning • Financial management ESF #6 – Mass Care, Emer- • Mass care Self-evacuees need roadway capacity, gency Assistance, Hous- services such as fuel to get to shelter. Assisted • Emergency assistance ing, and Human Services evacuees need transit or other transportation • Disaster housing support to get to shelter, including their mobility devices, service animals, and other • Human services support–coordination critical. See Step 4 tools for templates for resource databases. ESF #7 – Logistics Manage- • Comprehensive, national inci- Advance agreements, Memoranda of Un- ment and Resource Support dent logistics planning, manage- derstanding (MOUs) among transportation ment, and sustainment capability providers (public and private) and other agencies/entities facilitates planning and • Resource support (facility space, response. See Step 5 for MOU templates. office equipment and supplies, contracting services, etc.) ESF #8 – Public Health • Public health Congregate care facilities (e.g., hospitals, nurs- and Medical Services ing homes) that require evacuation will require • Medical multiple types and levels of evacuation transpor- • Mental health services tation, from ambulances to buses. See Step 2, Tools 2.3 and 2.4 for inventories of individuals • Mass fatality management in facilities and of people out in the commu- nity receiving services. See Step 3, Tool 3.1 for a framework for discussion between medical transportation and general public transportation. See Step 4 for inventory resource tools. Caution: many facilities in a single region may have over- lapping transportation agreements with special- ized providers such as ambulances that may be overwhelmed in a widespread emergency. Multi- regional/multi-state agreements may be needed. ESF #9 – Search and Rescue • Life-saving assistance Transportation and public works may need to clear roads; provide other support as • Search and rescue operations needed to support rescue operations. ESF #10 – Oil and Hazard- • Oil and hazardous materials (chemical, Such incidents may require evacuation and ous Materials Response biological, radiological, etc.) response frequently occur on or near transportation facilities; planning and coordination required.• Environmental short- and long-term cleanup

Page 23 Step 1 - Form a Collaborative Planning Team TOOL 1.3, INTRODUCTION TO ESF AND TRANSPORTATION ROLES AND INTERACTIONS WITH EACH ESF ESF Scope Transportation Interactions Focused on Evacuation ESF #11 – Agriculture • Nutrition assistance Livestock may need to be relocated in an and Natural Resources evacuation-transportation coordination needed. • Animal and plant disease See Step 2, Tool 2.5. Pets and service animals and pest response may need transport on public vehicles in an • Food safety and security evacuation–advance planning, crates for pets, rules, and procedures are critical. Transportation • Natural and cultural resources and historic coordination with mass care is needed to identify properties protection and restoration which shelters can or cannot accommodate pets. • Safety and well-being of household pets ESF #12 – Energy • Energy infrastructure assess- Downed power lines are often along ment, repair, and restoration roadways–access and coordination needed to restore power. For extended power • Energy industry utilities coordination outages, some evacuations may be required. • Energy forecast Subways, rail usually have stand-alone power but may need restoration assistance. ESF #13 – Public • Facility and resource security Law enforcement is often essential for traffic Safety and Security control at critical intersections or potential • Security planning and technical bottlenecks in evacuations, and to support resource assistance contraflow operations. Also needed for traffic • Public safety and security support incident response. Planning essential to establish priorities, expectations, and constraints. • Support to access, traffic, ESF #13 will also be responsible for control, and crowd control shelter, and possible relocation of inmates in detention and correctional facilities. ESF #14 – Long-Term • Social and economic community Transportation should be included Community Recovery impact assessment as a community-planning partner for recovery from a major event requiring • Long-term community recovery evacuation and potential mitigation.assistance to States, local governments, and the private sector ESF #15 – External Affairs • Emergency public information and Informing the public about the need for evacu- protective action guidance ation or sheltering-in-place and where to go is the EM responsibility via ESF #15. ESF #1 should • Media and community relations coordinate with ESF #15 on recommending • Congressional and international affairs where to go and how to get there if needed. • Tribal and insular affairs

Page 24 Step 1 - Form a Collaborative Planning Team TOOL 1.4: POTENTIAL COMMUNITY PARTNERS PURPOSE: Tool 1.4 provides examples of local, county, regional, state, and national entities–community- based, and faith-based organizations, public agencies, and private companies–that may help in planning and responding to an evacuation. The tool is compiled from literature review and interview findings and is not comprehensive. The lists are in alphabetical order. DIRECTIONS: Use the lists in Table 1-2 to identify potential partners who may have vehicles, equipment, out- reach, personnel, information, and other resources needed to plan and execute an evacuation. STEP ONE—TOOLS

Page 25 Step 1 - Form a Collaborative Planning Team TABLE 1-2: Potential Community Partners TOOL 1.4, POTENTIAL COMMUNITY PARTNERS Potential Partners–Community- Based, Faith-Based Organizations Potential Partners–Private Sector Potential Partners–Public • Agencies that work with indi- • Adult and child day care facilities • Animal services viduals who have disabilities, limited English skills, or who • After school programs • Citizens advisory committees are poor, children, home- • Air service (commer- • Colleges and universities bound, or carless with no cial and private) • Commuter rail/light rail easy access to public transit • Amtrak, railroads • Detention centers (e.g., jail, • Agencies serving people who • Animal shelters juvenile, half-way house, prison, are blind or have low vision • Coach company and other work-release programs) • Agencies serving people who private contractors with • Emergency management • are deaf and hard of hearing After school programs and passenger vehicles (e.g., shuttles, limousines) • Ferry service volunteer programs (e.g., Big • Construction contractors • Fire Brothers/Big Sisters, YMCA) • Dial-a-Ride • Forestry service • American Red Cross • Dialysis centers • Fusion Center • Area Agency on Aging • Equipment vendors • GIS department • • Centers for refugees and immigrants Churches, synagogues, temples, mosques • • • Farmers associations Fuel suppliers Food vendors, caterers • • • Head Start programs Highway patrol Medical assistance • • Citizen Emergency Re- sponse Teams (CERT) Community and neigh- borhood leaders • • • Hospitals and health care facilities Hotels and motels Marine: ferries, private boats • • • Mental health departments, agencies, programs MPOs or COGs National Guard • • • Direct human service providers Faith-based ministries Food banks, homeless shelters • • Non-emergency am- bulance service Nursing homes and other long-term care facilities • • Office of Emergency Medical Services Paratransit provider • Independent living centers • Pre-schools • Public health agen- cies–state and local • Meals on Wheels or similar senior nutrition center programs • • Schools (private) Shuttle services (includ- • Public information/com- munity relations office • Medical Reserve Corps ing airport and rental car) • Public safety • • Nongovernmental or- ganizations (NGOs) Paratransit service (for • • Taxi industry Trade groups (e.g., Building Own- ers Management Association) • • Rural transportation agency School districts • MPOs, CBOs, or FBOs) Salvation Army • Utilities (gas, electric, water, sanitation) • State department of trans- portation (DOT) • United Way • State wildlife/park service • United We Ride • Subway • Veterans’ organization • Transit agency • Volunteer Organizations Ac- tive in Disaster (VOAD) • • • Transportation coor- dinating council Tribal agencies University transportation centers

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TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 740: A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation focuses on the transportation aspects of evacuation, particularly large-scale, multijurisdictional evacuation.

The guidance, strategies, and tools in NCHRP Report 740 are based on an all-hazards approach that has applicability to a wide range of “notice” and “no-notice” emergency events. The report follows the basic planning steps of the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s Comprehensive Preparedness Guide (CPG) 101. Each chapter parallels one of the six main CPG steps. Each chapter is further subdivided into smaller, discrete tasks, with cross-references to tools--such as templates or checklists--that are shown at the end of each chapter and are on a CD-ROM included with the print version of the report.

The CD-ROM is also available for download from TRB’s website as an ISO image. Links to the ISO image and instructions for burning a CD-ROM from an ISO image are provided below.

The contractor’s final report, which documents the development of the report, was published as NCHRP Web-Only Document 196. A PowerPoint presentation describing the entire project that resulted in NCHRP Report 740 is available for download.

Help on Burning an .ISO CD-ROM Image

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CD-ROM Disclaimer - This software is offered as is, without warranty or promise of support of any kind either expressed or implied. Under no circumstance will the National Academy of Sciences or the Transportation Research Board (collectively "TRB") be liable for any loss or damage caused by the installation or operation of this product. TRB makes no representation or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, in fact or in law, including without limitation, the warranty of merchantability or the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, and shall not in any case be liable for any consequential or special damages.

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