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A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation (2013)

Chapter: Step 2 Understand the Situation

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Suggested Citation:"Step 2 Understand the Situation ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 2 Understand the Situation ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 2 Understand the Situation ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 2 Understand the Situation ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 2 Understand the Situation ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 2 Understand the Situation ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 2 Understand the Situation ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 2 Understand the Situation ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 2 Understand the Situation ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 2 Understand the Situation ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 2 Understand the Situation ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 2 Understand the Situation ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 2 Understand the Situation ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 2 Understand the Situation ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 2 Understand the Situation ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 2 Understand the Situation ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 2 Understand the Situation ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 2 Understand the Situation ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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STEP 2 UNDERSTAND THE SITUATION  TASK 2.1 GATHER INFORMATION ON POTENTIAL RISKS/HAZARDS THAT MAY REQUIRE EVACUATION Local and state emergency managers have extensive emergency plans with hazard and risk assessments. What threats and hazards are addressed in existing plans? What are the historical threats or hazards that have resulted in evacuations? Are there other foreseeable threats or hazards that might require large-scale evacuation? Risk management is the identification and assessment of the threats and hazards that could impact a jurisdiction. The risk assessment is the process of collecting and identifying information about possible threats and hazards and then assigning values to each for the purpose of determining those that have the highest priorities so that plans for action can be developed for addressing them. The jurisdiction can then catalog everything from specific asset vulnerabilities to staffing levels for emergency personnel. Tip “Managing Travel for Planned Spe- cial Events Handbook,” FHWA (2003) and an Executive Summary geared to decision makers released in 2007 are available at the Transportation Operations website, http://www. ops.fhwa.dot.gov/program_areas.

Page 28 Step 2 - Understand the Situation Planners should begin by conducting research and analysis on the most likely threats or hazards that could affect a jurisdiction. The initial step in the research should be to gather information about potential risks, population demographics, household pet and service animal populations, and any geographic characteristics that could impact emergency operations. Threat assessments should include the identification of any potential targets. Hazard identification should include natural, human-made, and technological hazards. Any incidents that may have already occurred in the jurisdiction should be identified. Tool 2.1 provides a simple framework for reviewing and assessing potential risks and hazards. Sources for expertise on hazard or threat potential include jurisdictional agencies, particularly state and local emergency manage- ment agencies; academic, industrial, and public interest group researchers; private consultants specializing in hazard or threat analysis; and professional associations concerned with the hazards or threats on a planner’s list. Risk assessment is the basis for the transportation evacuation plan development. Planning teams must decide what likely threats or hazards should be planned for and what resources may be needed if the events were to occur (although planning is ultimately for all hazards). Dur- ing this part of the process, inventories are created and evaluated. Loss estimates are also provided on assets deemed critical during the response and recovery phases of an incident. Local public works (or civil engineering) departments and utilities are sources for information on potential damage to and restoration time for the critical infrastructures Good Practice For special event planning, understand- ing the situation involves identifying the size and characteristics of the proposed event. “Managing Travel for Planned Special Events Handbook” and the Executive Summary identify five major categories of events, each with spe- cific characteristics and challenges: 1. Discrete/recurring event at a permanent venue, 2. Continuous event, 3. Street use event, 4. Regional/multi-venue event, and 5. Rural event Managing transportation access and egress of large groups of people, often unfamiliar with the area, on transporta- tion infrastructure that is not equipped to readily handle such volumes, (a major special event planning chal- lenge) can be a reasonable surrogate for an evacuation, with the advantages of advance notice, time to plan, and reasonable control over resources.   TipFEMA’s Hazards U.S. Multi-Hazard model (HAZUS-MH) is a nationally used and standardized methodology and software program that estimates potential losses from earthquakes, floods, and hurricane winds. Com- munities that already have a FEMA- approved multi-hazard mitigation plan may use them as reference documents in the hazard analysis.

Page 29 Step 2 - Understand the Situation that may be threatened by hazards. For this guide, potential damages to transportation infrastructure are the primary concern. Once the lists are collected, planners can then organize the data into a matrix that will be usable to the planning team. The threats and hazards can be organized by frequency of occurrence or magnitude of the event. They may be grouped by intensity or severity of event. Planners could decide to organize by the size of an area the event may impact or the duration the event may last. Or plan- ners may decide to organize the data by the number of fatalities the event is likely to cause. Planners must decide how best to organize the data for their own jurisdiction and how each would impact the community for which they are developing the evacuation plan. Planners also need to recognize that one threat or hazard event may have a ripple effect. For example, a hurricane (natural event) may cause power failures (technological event) that could lead to civil disturbance (human-caused event). Planners must realize events may not be independent of each other and therefore they must plan responses for all contingen- cies, including combinations of evacuation and shelter-in-place protective actions. During the analysis phase, facts and assumptions will be produced. Facts are verified pieces of information. They can be laws and regulations. They may be population statistics or terrain maps. They are documented and real. Assump- tions are not facts. Assumptions consist of in- formation accepted as being true in the absence of facts in order to provide a framework or to establish expected conditions of an operational environment so that planning can proceed.  Tip TRB’s NCHRP Report 525, Vol. 15: Costing Asset Protection: An All-Hazards Guide for Trans- portation Agencies (CAPTA) is designed as a planning tool for top-down estimation of both capital and operating budget implications of measures intended to reduce risks to locally acceptable levels. CAPTA supports mainstreaming an integrated, high-level, all-hazards, national incident management system-responsive, multimodal, consequence-driven risk manage- ment process into transportation agency programs and activities. The guide is supplemented online with a downloadable Microsoft® PowerPoint slide show and CAPTool, a spreadsheet tool for implement- ing the CAPTA methodology. A help file is also available online.

Page 30 Step 2 - Understand the Situation Assumptions should only be used as facts if they are considered valid, or deemed likely to be true, and are necessary for solving the problem. In the planning process, assumptions should be used sparingly, and every effort should be made to obtain facts or historical precedent. TASK 2.2 GATHER CONTACTS AND DATA ON PEOPLE AND ANIMALS THAT MAY NEED EVACUATION The planning team must have extensive informa- tion about the jurisdiction itself. Population demographics can be obtained from the United States census website. The local planning com- mission or department should have detailed de- mographic and land use data. Tool 2.2 provides a template for estimating total evacuees and self-evacuees based on demographic data. The local visitor’s bureau plus contacts with local, state, or federal parks or major attractions such as museums or amusement parks can provide a profile for tourists and visitors, with seasonal data and location information that will supple- ment the basic demographic data for the region. Tool 2.2 includes instructions for developing rough estimates of individuals that may need additional assistance in an emergency situation. The local chamber of commerce can identify major employers in the area that should be included in the broader collaborative planning team, both as constituents requiring information and support in an evacuation, and as sources for potential resources for evacuation and recovery. Agencies such as state and local health depart- ments, education departments, and corrections can provide information on regional institutions such as hospitals, nursing homes, assisted living facilities, schools, and day care centers, and correctional facilities that may need additional assistance in an evacuation. Tool 2.3 provides a series of templates and instructions for gathering important transportation-related information for this range of institutions. Such institutions should have their own plans in place, but may not (not all states require day care centers to have plans, for example). However, a regional review of plans and a broader perspective may identify that many hospitals and nursing homes, for example, all have agreements with the same one or two ambulance providers, that would be overwhelmed in a major emergency. Looking outside the region (including investigating FEMA national agreements) may help fill potential gaps. State and local health departments, para- transit providers, and community-based,  HintWork to develop contacts within a 20-mile radius, a 50-mile radius, and 100+ mile radius. Depending on the type of threat or hazard you may face, people nearby may also be impacted and overwhelmed, so start local, but think regional and beyond as well.

Page 31 Step 2 - Understand the Situation faith-based, and for-profit and nonprofit organizations provide extensive services to non-institutionalized individuals without ac- cess and functional needs who are dispersed throughout the community. Tool 2.4 provides a survey form and template for gathering trans- portation-related information for such groups. State (and sometimes local) departments of agriculture and national, state, and local as- sociations can provide information on animals that may need evacuation or secure shelter. Tool 2.5 provides two templates and instructions, one for an inventory of institutions (including ranches) for livestock, animal shelters, zoos, and research facilities, and a second template for estimating numbers of pets/companion animals. Actions: Find out “Who’s Who” in your region. Continue adding to Tool 1.1, Network Contact Database, initiated in Step 1 as you identify the partners who have the necessary information to support (or preferably complete and take ownership of) the database tools in this step. Start with the names you know; add to this as you continue the process of building your plan and building your relationships, recognizing that the relationships may be the most important part of your plan. Ask the people who “own” the resource to complete their portions of the database. The workshop that caps off this initial data gathering can help you to continue to gather information and build relationships. TASK 2.3 PLAN AND CONVENE A REGIONAL WORKSHOP, BUILDING ON THE INFORMATION AND CONTACTS DEVELOPED IN TASKS 2.1 AND 2.2 Use Tool 2.6, Evacuation Needs Discussion Guide to assist in developing discussion ques- tions. Use the Resource, “Workshop in a Box,” (beginning on page 137 of this guide) to plan and implement the workshop recommended. Note: Workshops may be useful at various stages of planning. The “Workshop in a Box” Resource provided at the conclusion of Step 6 Tools can be adapted for use during any phase of planning, and is refer- enced in multiple chapters of the guide.

Page 32 Step 2 - Understand the Situation TOOL 2.1: PRELIMINARY RISK ASSESSMENT PURPOSE: Develop a high-level overview of primary risks and hazards in your community or region. DIRECTIONS: This is a quick exercise to assist in the identification of the primary risks in your community. For the following table, using your best judgment (and referring to experts or other resources as needed), briefly assess some of the major risks that might impact your community, estimating first the probability of the event; then the likely number of people impacted; and finally whether the event might overwhelm local resources and require support from regional, state, and/or federal partners. This is intended to get you thinking of some “worst case scenarios”–some more likely than others. Refer to emergency plans, historical data, the FEMA tools on mapping local natural hazards (FEMA.gov/), and to any UASI (Urban Area Security Initiative) or other analyses as to risks and hazards. You may also want to check whether others in your region are familiar with or have run scenarios with Sea, Lake and Overland Surges from Hurricanes (SLOSH)–a computer- ized model run by the National Hurricane Center (NHC) to estimate storm surge heights. Any sites near a nuclear power plant will have extensive planning documents for evacuations and drills as part of their standard procedures. Such planning and documentation may also be useful for other hazards. Note that emergency managers have more complex and detailed assessment forms including maps; this tool is intended to get individuals and groups started on the conversation. The list items are adapted from the NCHRP Report 525/TCRP Report 86, Volume 9: Guidelines for Transportation Emergency Training Exercises (TRB 2005, Table 1, Emergency Events Affecting Transportation Agencies), to include those threats that could conceivably cause an evacuation. STEP TWO—TOOLS

Page 33 Step 2 - Understand the Situation For most events, consider whether location would matter; for example, if a truck or train overturns and explodes on or near the border of a neighboring town or county, such as on a bridge, would that complicate the response? For this assessment, assume in most cases that the event will occur at the most inconvenient or dangerous location (near a school or nursing home, for example) and the most inconvenient time (at morning rush hour or in the middle of the night, as usually seems to be the case). For columns 2 and 3, indicate high, medium, low or zero for your judgment as to risk and the number of people likely to be affected. If you anticipate that a situation may call for some to shelter-in-place and others to evacuate, please note that in the comments column. For column 4, indicate regional, state, multi-state, federal, or not applicable–including all that might apply–for your assessment of the type and level of coordination that might be required if local resources are overwhelmed. Please add a comment/notes if you want to clarify or remind yourself of your thinking. NCHRP 20-59 (32) A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation Tool 2.1, Preliminary Risk Assessment Regional/ State/ Multi-state/ Federal Probability/ # People Impacted, Event type role likely Comments Frequency/ Likelihood Needing to Evacuate (indicate N/A if not applicable) Assessment High Med. Low Zero High Med. Low Zero High Med. Low Zero Natural Hazards Earthquakes Floods Hurricane/ Typhoon Ice storms Landslides Naturally occurring epidemics Snowstorms and blizzards Tornadoes Tsunami Volcanic eruption Wildfire Human- Caused Intentional Bomb threats and other threats of violence Fire/ arson Riot/ civil disorder Sabotage: External and internal actors Security breaches Terrorist assaults using chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear agents Terrorist assaults using explosives, firearms, or conventional weapons War Workplace violence Human-Caused Unintentional Accidental contamination or hazardous materials spills Accidental damage to or destruction of physical plant and Preliminary Risk Assessment This excerpt can be viewed in full on CRP-CD-132.

Page 34 Step 2 - Understand the Situation TOOL 2.2: EE–ESTIMATED NUMBER OF EVACUEES Each database includes a sample with instructions, followed by a blank form that can be customized for an individual jurisdiction. Estimated Number of Evacuees: data for this table should come from the U.S. Census and from local estimates. Smaller sets of data could be col- lected and inventoried for a jurisdiction to help identify all residents. NCHRP 20-59 (32) A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation Tool 2.2, EE – Estimated Number of Evacuees Estimated Number of Evacuees Estimated Evacuees That Estimated Evacuees That Estimated Evacuees Jurisdiction Name Type Total Estimated Evacuees May Need Additional Assistance With Basic May Require Specialized Transportation Assistance That May Require Case Management Transportation (e.g., lift equipped vans) (e.g., medical transport) Name of jurisdiction Full (will include all This will be the number of This initial estimate can be This initial estimate can be This initial estimate can evacuating (state / residents) evacuees that a jurisdiction could based on demographic based on U.S. Census be based on state or city / town / expect in the event of an information on households estimates on individuals local health agency neighborhood / Partial (will be a % of evacuation. For example if an without vehicles or on with disabilities (though not estimates on area (coast/inland) / total population) for evacuation has been ordered for estimates from the local all disabilities require a lift- institutional populations; etc.) some events a location an entire town, then the number transit agency on their rider equipped vehicle) or on and on law enforcement could have full would be the U.S. Census figure profiles (including the estimates from the local estimates of correctional evacuation of one area for the total number of people number of riders that make transit agency on their facility populations. The and partial evacuations for that town plus any tourists or use of the lift on their lift- paratransit rider profiles. estimate will be refined of another area visitors to the area. But if the equipped buses). Tourists The estimate will be refined with additional evacuation order is for 100% of and visitors that did not with additional information information from CBOs, the coastal residents and 50% of arrive in personal vehicles from CBOs, FBOs, NPOs, and FBOs, NPOs, and other everyone else then the may also need assistance. other sources. sources for non- jurisdiction would have to The estimate will be refined institutionalized people calculate the number of evacuees with additional information who would need they could expect. from CBOs, FBOs, NPOs, and extensive support. other sources. Estimated Number of Evacuees This excerpt can be viewed in full on CRP-CD-132. STEP TWO—TOOLS

Page 35 Step 2 - Understand the Situation The U.S. Census Bureau has extensive demographic data down to the county level and below. For a quick snapshot and estimate of the numbers of people who may need additional assistance to evacuate, poverty, disability, and age are probably the best short-hand indicators of the likely scope. http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/disability/demofiles.html http://www.censusscope.org/us/map_poverty.html The tools that follow this first demographic snapshot are designed to help a region hone in on the specifics of facilities, institutions, and those who are out in the com- munity who may need additional assistance. It is likely that the state and local Depart- ments of Health and Corrections agencies have already gathered much of the required information, but may not have focused on the transportation implications. The questions on ambulatory status are designed to avoid potential concerns about patient privacy.

Page 36 Step 2 - Understand the Situation TOOL 2.3: IF–INSTITUTIONAL FACILITIES Each database includes a sample with instructions, followed by a blank form that can be customized for an individual jurisdiction. Institutional Facilities: These locations will require additional assistance to evacuate their respective inhabit- ants. These institutionalized persons may also require specialized transportation resources, specialized support, equipment, and trained attendants to accompany the evacuees. Questions for the jurisdiction/region to assist in identifying vulnerable locations: Note: These inventory questions relate primarily to transportation needs. However, the individu- als conducting the inventory may also want to ask about other issues they may need to be aware of such as communication, supervision, procedures for transfer of medical or other records, procedures for tracking and supervising unaccompanied minors, and other logistical issues not necessarily bearing on transportation. FEMA’s CPG 101, version 2, Appendix C, pages 114-115 (section on Population Protection) provides a comprehensive set of questions on evacuation and sheltering in place. Likewise, the Target Capabilities List section on evacuation provides guidance. Are all nursing homes accounted for? Note: Responsibility usually assigned/delegated to ESF #8, Public Health and Medical Services. Are all hospitals and long-term care facilities identi- fied? Note: Responsibility usually assigned/delegated to ESF #8, Public Health and Medical Services; complicated cases would require case management and medical transportation, but transit/other transportation resources may be asked/be able to assist with ambulatory patients and those with moderate mobility impairments, using lift-equipped vehicles. Do multiple nursing homes, hospitals, and long-term care facilities rely on the same ambulance or specialized transportation services? Are these resources likely to be overwhelmed in a major regional emergency? What is the fallback plan? For reference, Tool 3.2 provides an overview of key considerations for coordination of standard and medical transportation requirements. Do all nursing homes and hospitals have agreements with comparable destination facilities? Are all schools (public and private, including pre-school) inventoried? Note: It is anticipated that most plans designate responsibility for schools to ESF #6, Mass Care, Emergency Assistance, Housing, and Human Services. In some cases, this may mean that the plan focus is mainly on using schools as shelters. Each jurisdiction and region needs to evaluate this. Note: Many schools have their own STEP TWO—TOOLS

Page 37 Step 2 - Understand the Situation fleets or contract for “yellow bus” services. Some of these vehicles are usually equipped with lifts for students with mobility impairments. However, coordination and public transit support may be needed, depending on the type of event (notice or no-notice), the time of day, location, etc. Are all group homes and adult day care facilities inventoried? Note: Responsibility usually assigned/delegated to ESF #8, Public Health and Medical Services, but transportation/transit support and coordination may be needed or requested. Are all detention facilities inventoried? Note: Responsibility usually assigned/delegated to ESF #13, Public Safety and Security, but transportation/transit support may be requested. NCHRP 20-59 (32) A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation Tool 2.3, IF – Institutional Facilities INSTITUTIONAL FACILITIES – HOSPITALS/HEALTH CARE FACILITIES Facility Address Contact # of Beds Estimates on Ambulatory Status Name: this table would contain Specific location should be Complete contact information for Population at these locations Identifying approximate numbers hospitals, nursing homes, here; it could also be noted the owner / manager / staff that can be calculated by counting of patients across the spectrum of rehabilitation centers, and other here if there is an alternative would be assigned and working at the total number of beds at mobility will aid in planning for medically related facilities mailing address the location the facility versus the number transportation of occupied beds Name Address Contact/# # % Institutional Facilities This excerpt can be viewed in full on CRP-CD-132.

Page 38 Step 2 - Understand the Situation TOOL 2.4: AE–ASSISTED EVACUEES (NON-INSTITUTIONAL) Each database includes a sample with instructions, followed by a blank form that can be customized for an individual jurisdiction. Individuals with Access and Functional Needs (non-institutional). Individuals with access and functional needs for communication, supervision, mobility, and transportation are widely dispersed in every community. The best way to reach out to these individuals is through their existing connections to the community–through the trusted messengers that work with them regularly. Refer to the list of potential partners in Tool 1.4, Potential Community Partners. Some of these partners are public agencies, such as public health organizations that may offer free or reduced-price health care, or paratransit service providers. Many of these partners are faith-based, community-based, or nonprofit organizations that work with specific communities, such as churches for a particular language group, or a volunteer organization working with the mentally ill or persons with cognitive disabilities. The organizations and the groups they serve will vary in every location; the “Potential Partners” is a place to start. Note that many communities have established coordination networks among community-based organizations to reduce duplication and to better understand additional support that may be available. “United We Ride” is a national initiative replicated in many states to coordinate human service organizations that have transportation resources. “Service Link” in New Hampshire is an example of such a coordination effort. TCRP Report 150: Communication with Vulnerable Populations—A Transportation and Emergency Management Toolkit provides comprehensive, step-by-step guidance on how to establish a strong network of community-based organizations to support emergency and evacuation planning. The templates included herein are based on that type of outreach. It is possible or even likely that there will be some duplication of individual clients who receive service from more than one type of agency. However, in terms of total numbers, there are likely many others who will not be counted in the initial inventory, so the count and contacts should be useful for plan- ning purposes. As the network grows and expands its role to promote personal and “buddy system” emergency preparedness, individuals may “get the message” from more than one trusted messenger. STEP TWO—TOOLS

Page 39 Step 2 - Understand the Situation TOOL 2.4: AE PART 1: POTENTIAL NETWORK PARTNER INFORMATION SHEET PURPOSE: This is a template to gather information for collaborative network contacts. DIRECTIONS: Distribute this at meetings and by email. Summarize information in the database (Tool 2.4, AE part 2), but preserve the forms for the additional information on population groups. Follow up on leads to other groups. Update regularly. NCHRP 20-59 (32) A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation Tool 2.4, AE part 1: Potential Network Partner Information Sheet [Logo of sponsoring agency if desired] [Evacuation Planning/ Project name] Name _____________________________________________Position/Title Agency/Company _____________________________ Address _______________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________City Telephone _______________________________ _____________________Back-up phone__________________Email _____Do you or your agency work with or represent any individuals or groups that may be considered vulnerable*? Population groups your agency/ organization serves _____________________ Approximate number of individuals you work with or represent______ Approximate percentages of individuals you work with by mobility status: ____% Ambulatory ____% Ambulatory with assistance (cane, walker) ____% With adaptive device (e.g., scooter or wheelchair) able to transfer ____ % With adaptive device unable to transfer (e.g., specialized motorized chair) ____ % With a service animal ____% With one or more companion animals or pets ____ % With a personal caregiver (including relative/ partner/ friend or paid staff) ____ % With independent transportation (including caregiver if applicable) ____% Requiring stretcher ____% Requiring advanced medical support during transport (e.g., respirator, IVs) ____% Requiring advanced supervision ____Do you know others who have such contacts? Briefly describe other contacts and the population group(s) they serve AE Part 1 This excerpt can be viewed in full on CRP-CD-132.

Page 40 Step 2 - Understand the Situation TOOL 2.4: AE PART 2: ASSISTED EVACUEES NCHRP 20-59 (32) A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation Tool 2.4, AE Assisted Evacuees Part 2 HOME HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS AND SIMILAR IN-HOME SUPPORT SERVICES (E.G., MEALS ON WHEELS); PARATRANSIT OPERATORS; DIALYSIS CENTERS; AND COMMUNITY-BASED, FAITH-BASED, AND NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Agency/Organization Contact # Registered/Served Estimates on Ambulatory Status This will contain the names of in-home Complete contact information for the Population for these could be determined Identifying approximate numbers of care providers and others who provide owner / staff who would have a list of by the number of patients / clients clients across the spectrum of mobility in-home support. These providers furnish patients or clients they tend to registered and supervisory requirements, as well as in-home health care or other support to a pet/ companion animal information will constantly changing set of clients over a aid in planning for transportation fairly large area; they should be contacted to determine if they have clients living within the area who may require assistance in evacuating, or in developing their own plan or buddy system to help them evacuate. Name Contact/# # % AE Part 2 This excerpt can be viewed in full on CRP-CD-132.

Page 41 Step 2 - Understand the Situation TOOL 2.5: LA–LIVESTOCK AND OTHER ANIMALS Each database includes a sample with instructions, followed by a blank form that can be customized for an individual jurisdiction. Livestock, Animal Shelters, Zoos, Animal Research Facilities Livestock may need transportation logistics support (e.g., clearing roads to allow for large herd movements to a nearby safer location), or support in coordinating transportation vehicles (e.g., for high value race horses). See Figure 2-1. The support function is addressed in the resource areas in Step 4; this step focuses on identifying major regional facilities that may be at risk for a particular event. State or local associations (e.g., Cattlemen’s Association) can assist in identifying ranches, feed lots, or other facilities or locations at risk as well as potential resources for movement or safe locations for shelter. The National Alliance for State Animal and Agricultural Emergency Programs (NASAAEP.org), the National Animal Rescue and Sheltering Coalition (narsc.net), and the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) (http://www. avma.org/disaster/default.asp) all provide support and resources for planning for animals. Animal shelters should be inventoried to identify whether they have a hardened facility, so they could shelter in place for most events. They should also know the number, types, and sizes of crates they have available or can quickly obtain in case they have to move (e.g., in the event of a chemical release). STEP TWO—TOOLS FIGURE 2-1: Cattle rescued from the flooded marshes of lower Cameron Par- ish, Louisiana, 2005. FEMA News Photo FIGURE 2-2: Hurricane Gustav’s animal evacuation, Texas, 2005. FEMA News Photo

Page 42 Step 2 - Understand the Situation NCHRP 20-59 (32) A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation Tool 2.5, LA – Livestock and Other Animals Comments- # movable cages/ evacuation versus Facility Address Contact # Animals Types and Sizes containers shelter potential, requirements Enter the facility Full street address Complete contact Average number of Summary inventory of What provisions are Brief description of name. information for the animals on site types, e.g., 1,000 on-site if a move is existing emergency owner / staff cattle, 100 dogs, or 50 required? plans for housecats versus 5 evacuation and/or tigers and 3 hippos shelter-in-place Similar to animal shelters, zoos, and facilities with research animals need emergency planning contingencies–can they shelter in place for all events? If they need to move, how would they transport animals securely? Note that the agency or agencies charged with ESF #11, Agriculture and Natural Resources, are likely to be the leaders in this section. Pets/Companion Animals In the fall of 2006, Congress passed H.R. 3858, the Pets Evacuation and Transportation Standards Act of 2006 (PETS Act). On Friday, October 6, 2006, President Bush signed the PETS Act into law. The PETS Act amends the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act to ensure that state and local emergency preparedness operational plans address the needs of individuals with household pets and service animals following a major disaster or emergency. The PETS Act authorizes FEMA to provide rescue, care, shelter, and essential needs for individuals with household pets and service animals, and to the household pets and animals themselves following a major disaster or emergency (http://www.avma.org/disaster/petsact_faq.asp). See Figure 2-2. The templates for Institutional (Tool 2.3) and Assisted Evacuee (Tool 2.4) planning include placeholders to develop estimates for pets/companion animals. The AVMA provides an on-line calculator to estimate the number of pets in a given community, based on national averages from a 2007 market research study: http://www.avma.org/reference/marketstats/ownership.asp. The AVMA website (http://www.avma.org) also has links to state resources for states that have submitted plans. In addition, the American Red Cross, FEMA, DHS, Centers for Disease Control, the American Humane Association, and the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals have all developed pet-care and related emergency community preparedness materials. Livestock and Other Animals This excerpt and the comparable template for pets/com- panion animals can be viewed in full on CRP-CD-132.

Page 43 Step 2 - Understand the Situation TOOL 2.6: EVACUATION NEEDS DISCUSSION GUIDE PURPOSE: This tool can be used to encourage advance thinking about mass evacuation before a planning session when multiple stakeholders, including public agencies, community-based and faith-based organizations, and multiple jurisdictions, are involved. This tool may be useful to professionals in the fields of transit, transportation, public works, emergency management, and law enforcement as well as other responders–anyone convening or participating in mass evacuation planning. DIRECTIONS: This tool can be used before or during an evacuation planning session to prompt thinking and discussion about evacuation needs, roles, and responsibilities. The convener can develop additional topics and customized questions as needed. Roles and Relationships Mass evacuations by definition encompass multiple jurisdictions, public agencies, private entities, and community-based and faith-based organizations. Understanding the web of roles, respon- sibilities, and relationships involved in a mass evacuation is a necessary first step for success. Consider the following questions in advance of a meeting or to use as discussion starters: • What role would your agency or organization play in a large-scale evacuation? • What type of planning is needed so that your agency or or- ganization will be equipped to fulfill that role? • What other agencies or organizations would likely be your part- ners in evacuation planning, response, and recovery? • What information about your partners’ roles in evacuation plan- ning, response, and recovery would be useful? Note: These questions are re-visited throughout the process, as the plan takes shape and as understanding increases. STEP TWO—TOOLS

Page 44 Step 2 - Understand the Situation Needs Mass evacuations involve all segments of a population. This requires planning for the full scope of transportation-related needs. Developing the contacts and associated databases from Tools 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, and 2.5 provides a solid foundation for understanding the diversity and needs of the whole community including the following major categories of evacuees: • Self-evacuees (who may be caring for individuals with access and functional needs, and who may also have pets/companion animals) • Individuals without cars whose primary functional need is transportation (who may also be caring for individuals with other access and functional needs, and who may also have pets/companion animals) • Individuals in institutions, either full time or part time, who may have access and functional needs, and who may have pets/companion animals • Individuals with additional access and functional needs, beyond transportation, who are not in institutions, and who may have pets/companion animals

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TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 740: A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation focuses on the transportation aspects of evacuation, particularly large-scale, multijurisdictional evacuation.

The guidance, strategies, and tools in NCHRP Report 740 are based on an all-hazards approach that has applicability to a wide range of “notice” and “no-notice” emergency events. The report follows the basic planning steps of the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s Comprehensive Preparedness Guide (CPG) 101. Each chapter parallels one of the six main CPG steps. Each chapter is further subdivided into smaller, discrete tasks, with cross-references to tools--such as templates or checklists--that are shown at the end of each chapter and are on a CD-ROM included with the print version of the report.

The CD-ROM is also available for download from TRB’s website as an ISO image. Links to the ISO image and instructions for burning a CD-ROM from an ISO image are provided below.

The contractor’s final report, which documents the development of the report, was published as NCHRP Web-Only Document 196. A PowerPoint presentation describing the entire project that resulted in NCHRP Report 740 is available for download.

Help on Burning an .ISO CD-ROM Image

Download the .ISO CD-ROM Image

(Warning: This is a large file and may take some time to download using a high-speed connection.)

CD-ROM Disclaimer - This software is offered as is, without warranty or promise of support of any kind either expressed or implied. Under no circumstance will the National Academy of Sciences or the Transportation Research Board (collectively "TRB") be liable for any loss or damage caused by the installation or operation of this product. TRB makes no representation or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, in fact or in law, including without limitation, the warranty of merchantability or the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, and shall not in any case be liable for any consequential or special damages.

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