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A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation (2013)

Chapter: Step 3 Determine Goals and Objectives

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Suggested Citation:"Step 3 Determine Goals and Objectives ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 3 Determine Goals and Objectives ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 3 Determine Goals and Objectives ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 3 Determine Goals and Objectives ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 3 Determine Goals and Objectives ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 3 Determine Goals and Objectives ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 3 Determine Goals and Objectives ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 3 Determine Goals and Objectives ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 3 Determine Goals and Objectives ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 3 Determine Goals and Objectives ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 3 Determine Goals and Objectives ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 3 Determine Goals and Objectives ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 3 Determine Goals and Objectives ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 3 Determine Goals and Objectives ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 3 Determine Goals and Objectives ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 3 Determine Goals and Objectives ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 3 Determine Goals and Objectives ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 3 Determine Goals and Objectives ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 3 Determine Goals and Objectives ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 3 Determine Goals and Objectives ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 3 Determine Goals and Objectives ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 3 Determine Goals and Objectives ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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Suggested Citation:"Step 3 Determine Goals and Objectives ." Transportation Research Board. 2013. A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22634.
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STEP 3 DETERMINE GOALS AND OBJECTIVES Step 3 introduces specific disaster scenarios and operational priorities and strategies to help meet objectives for evacuation. TASK 3.1 FIRST DETERMINE OPERATIONAL PRIORITIES Determining operational priorities is the precursor to setting goals and objectives. Develop/Consider Scenarios Developing scenarios is important in emer- gency planning because it enables emergency managers, transportation managers, and other key players to think through and practice all the stages of an actual disaster, including coordination, actions, and resource needs. The actual disaster is almost certain to be different from what is planned, but the process, the relationships developed, and the decisions on frameworks and strategies for control and operations will lead to better outcomes. Large- scale scenarios give emergency managers and other partners more realistic expectations of: FIGURE 3-1: Hurricane Rita, September 2005. FEMA News Photo

Page 46 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives • What transit agencies can deliver and when • How different modes and public and private entities can work together for greater impact • The types of support transporta- tion agencies can provide, from population and traffic information to cones and variable message signs • The likely impacts of various decisions, such as the traffic congestion impacts of an evacuation that is not staged In the event of an actual disaster, emergency managers will then be able to make better, more informed decisions on public protection actions, for example, selective evacuations with selective sheltering-in-place. (For special event planning, the scenario is the planned special event.) Revisit Tool 2.1, Preliminary Risk Assessment, to identify likely causes for potential scenarios to explore and plan. Focus first on scenarios that have both a high likelihood and a high number of people impacted. See Figures 3-1, 3-2, and 3-3. Remember that some events may be co-related: drought can increase the risk of wildfire; winter storms or flooding can increase the risk of a dam or levee breach. For each threat or hazard, the planning team will work through how the incident will develop, the warnings issued, impacts on the jurisdiction(s), and finally to the consequences of the event. Each scenario should include: • Prevention/protection • Initial warning–develop and analyze the course of action, e.g., evacuate or shelter- in-place or both (depending on location) • Impact/specific consequences • Response requirements • Restated response requirement as priorities Table 3-1 illustrates two transportation-related scenarios developed for the TRB guidebook on emergency training exercises. It is significant to note that both scenarios identify multijuris- dictional coordination as major issues. This guidebook will also be referenced in Step 6. FIGURE 3-2: Oklahoma, May 1999. FEMA News Photo FIGURE 3-3: California, October 1989. FEMA News Photo

Page 47 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives Feature Scenario 1: Port Dirty Nuclear Explosion Scenario 2: Highway Collapse/Chlorine Gas Leak Weapon Dirty nuclear bomb, explosives Explosives, chlorine gas First Target Ship/port Highway overpass Second Target Highway overpass Highway rail overpass, train carrying hazardous materials Time of Year Summer, July 4 Summer Time of Day Morning rush hour Evening rush hour Special Features Holiday travel Outdoor festival near second incident scene Modes Affected Freight (port operations), highway, and transit Freight (rail operations), highway, and transit Major Issues Radiation preparedness, evacuation, mass hysteria, transportation gridlock, and multijurisdictional cooperation Chemical preparedness evacuation or sheltering for special event, transportation gridlock, and multijurisdictional cooperation TABLE 3-1: Example scenarios from the joint TCRP Report 86/ NCHRP Report 525, Volume 9: Guidelines for Transpor- tation Emergency Training Exercises, Attachment 5.

Page 48 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives NATIONAL PLANNING SCENARIOS While developing scenarios, refer to the National Planning Scenarios. The current version is available on ODP Secure Portal (https://odp.esportals.com) and the Lessons Learned Information Sharing system (https:// www.llis.dhs.gov). The 15 scenarios include terrorist attacks, natural disasters, and other emergencies. They are listed in Table 3-2. They provide sufficient detail to allow a scenario to be customized for local circumstances. (The summary columns of notice/no notice, public protection measures, and regional coordina- tion are not from the DHS tables but were developed based on reviews of the scenarios.) National Planning Scenarios Advance Notice? Public Protection Measures Include: Regional Coordination Required?Evacuation Shelter-in-Place Improvised nuclear device No Yes Yes Yes Aerosol anthrax No Yes Yes Yes Pandemic influenza Yes No No, possible isolation Yes Plague No No Possibly Yes Blister agent No Yes No Yes Toxic industrial chemicals No Yes Yes Yes Nerve agent No Yes Yes Yes Chlorine tank explosion No Yes, self-evacuate Yes Yes Major earthquake No Yes Yes Yes Major hurricane Yes Yes Yes Yes Radiological dispersal device No Yes Yes Yes Improvised explosive device No Yes Yes Yes Food contamination Yes No No Yes TABLE 3-2: National planning scenarios

Page 49 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives Identify potential traffic, transit, intermodal, and interjurisdic- tional challenges and opportuni- ties presented by the scenario Using information gathered in Step 2, analyze the demographics against the transportation network. See Figures 3-4 and 3-5. In addition to highways, other transportation modes and routes will likely be employed, including large numbers of pedestrians traveling on the road network. Note that Step 4 includes tools for inventorying resources ranging from buses and roads to intermodal centers; Step 3 focuses on objectives and strategies that help define the resource and information requirements, although the two steps are interrelated. SCENARIO PLANNING TOOLS Alternate modes and transportation partners are identified in Tools 3.1, 3.2, and 3.3. Tool 3.4 stresses strategies for all modes. Tool 3.5 stresses traffic signals, signs, and roadway markings that can assist drivers. Greater detail on transportation, transit, and intermodal resources appear in Step 4. The agencies managing an evacuation will need to rely on the existing transportation network to carry evacuees from at-risk areas to safe areas. Each component of the transportation network should be reviewed to determine critical characteristics, including: • Carrying capacity (number of vehicles/passengers per hour) • Potential choke points (e.g., railroad cross- ings, interchanges, and lane reductions) • Potential vulnerabilities (e.g., bridges or tunnels) • Sensitivity to seasonal considerations (e.g., snow, fog, and flooding) • Location respective to evacuation population distribution • Location respective to potential sheltering and care destinations • Proximity to alternate, parallel routes TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES Management of an emergency evacuation pres- ents a number of distinct challenges for agencies tasked with initiating and coordinating the movement of large numbers of evacuees out of a hazard region in an orderly and efficient manner. FIGURE 3-4: Texas, August 2008 FEMA News Photo FIGURE 3-5: North Dakota, April 2009. FEMA News Photo

Page 50 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives Scale and Patterns of Movement First and foremost, a large-scale evacuation scenario will place great strain on the transportation network’s ability to handle a large volume of evacuees and vehicles. Traffic volumes and patterns of movement may differ significantly from what the traveling public and those tasked with traffic management at the state, county, and local levels have experienced. Compromised Infrastructure Certain types of incidents, such as earthquakes, fires, chemical plumes, or hostile incidents or threats, may also compromise the safety and availability of certain critical infrastructure, such as bridges, tunnels, viaducts, and transit. This compounds the difficulty of managing an evacuation. Emergency officials, supported by information from first responders and the general public, need to quickly identify, assess, and respond to compromised transportation infrastructure by widely disseminating information on closures and re-routing emergency vehicle movements. Secondary Incidents Following the initial event that triggers the evacuation, secondary incidents (e.g., vehicle collisions and aftershocks) can further com- promise evacuation infrastructure. Such events may require emergency responders to re-assess the evacuation strategy and provide updated information to evacuees who are impacted by the effects of such secondary incidents. Because transportation agencies are able to contribute significant resources and capa- bilities to the emergency evacuation process, transportation and emergency management coordination is an integral part of both the planning process and the real-time implementation of an evacuation scenario. TRANSPORTATION MODES A jurisdiction and region should consider all transportation options, including all modes, as viable alternatives. See Figures 3-6 and 3-7. Although roadway and highway networks will be principal conduits for moving large numbers of people, the nature and consequences of events will dictate what transportation options are best. With the foreknowledge of capacity and the FIGURE 3-6: Louisiana, September 2008. FEMA News Photo FIGURE 3-7: Texas, August 2008. FEMA News Photo

Page 51 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives available transportation resources by corridor, decisions can be made as to how to distribute evacuees among modes. Likely candidates for evacuation modes and networks include: • Local roadways • Highways • Private vehicles • On-road transit (bus and paratransit vehicles, including private sector over- the-road coaches and school buses) • Commuter and regional rail systems, subways, and light rail systems • Ferries and other boats • Taxis • Vans and buses operated by CBOs, FBOs, NPOs, and private sector agencies • Airplanes, both commercial and private • Pedestrian movements INTERMODAL COORDINATION Those who need additional assistance, such as paratransit or lift-equipped vehicles, should be advised how to secure such services. Tool 3.1 provides guidance on that type of coordination. In many cases, it will be necessary and most efficient to ask those who are able to walk to a nearby pick-up location, which can be a local bus stop or other easily identified landmark. Local buses or vans will often transport people to a more central location where they are transferred to vehicles more suitable for longer distance travel, such as regional rail systems or over-the-road coaches. Transferring between modes can take place at established intermodal facilities, such as bus/rail stations, or can be improvised at a landmark location with good access to local roads, transit, and evacuation routes, such as a stadium or convention center. Contraflow Contraflow is a form of reversible traffic op- eration in which one or more travel lanes of a divided highway are used for the movement of traffic in the opposing direction. Since 1999, contraflow has been used to evacuate regions of the southeastern U.S. under threat from hurri- canes and is now considered as a potential pre- paredness measure for other mass-scale hazards. • Contraflow segments are most common and practical on freeways because they are the highest-capacity roadways, are designed to facilitate high-speed operation, and do not incorporate at-grade intersections that can interrupt flow or permit unrestricted access into the reversed section. Freeway contraflow can be implemented and controlled with fewer personnel than unrestricted highways. • States have varied the number of inbound lanes used for outbound evacuees. However, nearly all of the contraflow strategies current- ly planned on U.S. freeways have been de- signed for the reversal of all inbound lanes. • Some states also have used shoulder lanes for evacuation and service traffic. • Some early research suggests that re- serving some contraflow lanes for buses (and perhaps other vehicles with profes- sional trained drivers) could improve the carrying capacity of both the regu- lar lanes and the contraflow lanes.

Page 52 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives Contraflow Contraflow lanes typically do not significantly degrade traffic safety, because they are usually well controlled. There are significant differences between contraflow operation on urban arterial roadways and long sections of interstate freeways during hurricane evacuations. Key issues with contraflow lanes: Crossover points may need to be constructed in advance with ramps and transition points evaluated. Some of the key issues that arise during evacuation lane reversals are: • Traffic control • Access • Merging, • Use of roadside facilities • Safety • Labor requirements • Cost From an operational standpoint, the most criti cal areas of reversible segments are the transi- tion zones. For reversible lanes to be effective the capacity of the transition sections (into an out of the contraflow lanes) must be capable of accommodating the increased volume. , - , d Transferring from local transit to alternate modes becomes particularly important if local buses operate on natural gas or alternate fuels that may not be available in the destination jurisdiction. This also al- lows local buses and paratransit vehicles to make multiple local trips in neighborhoods and with clients they may already know. TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT TACTICS In most evacuation scenarios, the majority of evacuee movement will take place on roadways and highways in both personal and transit vehicles. Given the potentially large number of vehicles that will be accessing the limited roadway network at the same time, consider how regional cooperation can increase the effective capacity of the roadways. The viability of the traffic management plan employed during an evacuation will have a direct relationship to the safety and comfort of the evacuees. Tool 3.5 provides an overview and picture examples of traffic control devices from signs to pavement markings to gates that can assist drivers in understanding what to do in emergency situations that require evacuation. Local transportation planners should be involved in the development of the evacuation plan. Their understanding of the regional transportation net- work enables them to identify ways to improve the carrying capacity of roadways and transit systems in a safe manner. Traffic management centers and their experienced staff can provide the critical real-time traffic information and expertise to plan, communicate, and coordinate among transportation, law enforcement, and other entities. These are mentioned in Tools 3.3 and 3.4 and among the resources in Step 4. Plan- ners can enable decision makers to determine: • How to shift roadway use among a region’s interstates and primary and secondary roadways • Which routes are available for the most expedient movement of at-risk populations from their originating points to the highway network

Page 53 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives • How to deliver evacuees to final destinations • How to assign lane usage on interstates and other primary highways • How to stage evacuations to mini- mize roadway congestion • Whether to dedicate lanes for high-occupan- cy vehicles and any other vehicles required to move certain special population groups • Whether and how to establish contraflow lanes An integral component of the evacuation traffic management plan is the selection of tactics to move traffic more efficiently. The challenge lies in identifying those tactics that provide the greatest increase in carrying capacity while imposing realistic time and resource requirements for implementation (King County 2008). Tool 3.3 provides a list of potential traffic management, transit, and travel demand strategies that could be employed during an evacuation (associated with an objective). Convene at Least One Collaborative Workshop on Operational Priorities Convene an inclusive workshop to establish one or more “core” scenarios, discuss operational priorities, and develop goals and objectives. Good preparation with read- ahead information and careful facilitation can ensure that workshops are worthwhile and meet specific intermediate objectives, for the meeting and for the entire process. • Tool 3.1, Evacuation Operational Priorities and Goals and Objectives Discussion Guide–”Thought Starters”, can be used together with the resource, “Workshop in a Box” and the background information in this step. • Tools 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, and 3.5 may also be useful to spark discussion and develop locally appropriate goals and objectives for interregional coordination for a large-scale evacuation. This may require more than one workshop, depending on the level of agreement on scenarios, operational priorities, and goals and objectives. • Tool 3.2, Transportation Coordination Spectrum of Considerations for Access and Functional Needs Populations, addresses the planning objective that all evacuees have access to appropriate transportation support and can maintain independence in the least restrictive shelter accommoda- tions possible for their individual situation. The table helps transportation managers coordinate with medical transportation managers to identify and classify evacuees with access and functional needs accord- ing to the types of transportation they may need and potential destinations. • Tool 3.3, Primary Entities and Transpor- tation Modes Involved in Evacuation, addresses the objective to ensure that all modes and appropriate entities are included in planning for evacuations. The table helps transportation and emergency managers identify roles modes and enti- ties can play in evacuations, either in providing transportation resources, or identifying community needs, or both. • Tool 3.4, Transportation Operations Coordination Checklists, addresses the objective that all appropriate “tools” in the traffic management, transit operations, and travel demand management “toolboxes” are considered in planning for and responding to a disaster requiring evacuation. Most will require inter-regional coordination. • Tool 3.5, Traffic Control Devices Sup- porting Evacuation, serves to generate discussions on strategies and possible modifi- cations to identifying resource needs around traffic signals, lane markings, and signage.

Page 54 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives The checklists outline a three-part strategy that includes actions to: • Improve roadway capacity and efficiency • Prioritize, reorient, and supplement transit service in several modes • Manage transportation demand with actions directed at both vehicles and passengers These checklists can help emergency, trans- portation, and transit planners and managers identify the agencies and transportation-related actions that will be critical in an evacuation. Note: Many of these strategies and coordination actions will also be useful for planned special events. Task 3.2 Establish Goals and Objectives (as part of a workshop) GOALS Goals are broad, general statements that indicate the intended solutions to the problems identified as threats or hazards that the planning team established in Step 2. They are results that personnel and resources are supposed to achieve. They will be used to gage when the response is achieved and the operation is deemed successful. For example, a jurisdiction’s goal in fire events may be to minimize the loss of life by evacuating the maximum amount of people possible from the immediate hazard area. The desired result would be to move the maximum amount of people out of the fire area to safety. Example: Relationships among the Mission, Operational Priorities, Goals, and Objectives Plan Mission: Effectively coordinate and direct avail- able resources to protect the public and property from hazards or threats. Operational Priority: Protect the public from hurri- cane weather and storm surge. Goal: Complete evacuation before arrival of tropical storm winds. Desired result: All self-evacuees and assisted evacuees are safely outside of the expected impact area prior to impact. Objective: Complete tourist evacuation 72 hours be- fore arrival of tropical storm winds. Desired result: tourist segment of public protected prior to hazard onset, allowing resources to be redirected to accomplishing other objec- tives in support of this goal or other goals. (From FEMA 2010) OBJECTIVES Objectives are more specific and identifi- able. They lead to achieving response goals and determine the actions that participants in the event must accomplish. Objectives then refer to activities that must take place, procedures to do so, or procedures by specific organizations. Using the fire evacuation from the above goal, some objectives may be:

Page 55 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives • Prevent people from entering the evacuation area and becoming an ad- ditional burden to the road system • Properly plan evacuation routes to provide for the best balance of flow and eliminate or minimize gridlock • Maximize use of roadways early in the event to reduce traffic load later in the event (when smoke and panic will hamper evacuation efforts) • Provide proper guidance to motorists through the use of uniformed officers, public works, and/or mutual aid employ- ees along with appropriate signage • Ensure timely response by pre-staging neces- sary resources, such as changeable message boards, signs, uniformed officers, tow trucks, and public works/mutual aid personnel As each objective is accomplished resources supporting that objective can then be shifted to other goals or objectives.

Page 56 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives STEP THREE—TOOLS TOOL 3.1: EVACUATION OPERATIONAL PRIORITIES AND GOALS AND OBJECTIVES DISCUSSION GUIDE —”THOUGHT STARTERS” PURPOSE: This tool can encourage advanced thinking about mass evacuation before a planning session when multiple stakeholders are involved, including public agencies, CBOs and FBOs, and multiple jurisdictions. This tool focuses on the objectives for Step 3 of the planning process. This tool may be useful to professionals in the fields of transit, transportation, and public works as well as emergency management, law enforcement, and other first responders–anyone convening or participating in mass evacuation planning. DIRECTIONS: This tool can be used before and during an evacuation planning session to prompt thinking and discussion about multijurisdictional scenarios, operations, and goals and objectives. Use the following questions for self-reflection in advance of a meeting or as an icebreaker at a meeting. To foster discussion, refer to the information in this step, the intermediate goals and objectives from the “Workshop in a Box,” and Tools 3.2, 3.3, and 3.4. • Consider events and scenarios that might occur in this area where large- scale evacuation requiring multijurisdictional coordination may be needed. Refer to the risk and scenario information under Step 1. • Which two evacuation scenarios do you think are most likely to be challenging for multijurisdictional coordination? • Which two evacuation scenarios do you think are most likely to be perceived as both plausible for this region and compelling and interesting for you and other stakeholders? Midway or earlier in the workshop, ask the group to reach general consensus on one to three overarching, comprehensive scenarios that the Emergency Operations Team can use as organizing principles for Step 4 and as the foundation for exercises and drills in Step 6. (The scenarios can be modified in Step 4 and during the exercise planning as more information becomes available; this is essentially the “straw man” to encourage focused rather than hypothetical responses.) Based on these scenarios, ask the team to discuss: • Types of evacuation operations needed and corresponding evacuation roles and re- sponsibilities of various modes and agencies (refer to Tools 3.2, 3.3, and 3.4) • Goals and objectives for a successful evacuation response and reentry The convener can develop additional topics and customized questions as needed.

Page 57 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives TOOL 3.2: TRANSPORTATION COORDINATION SPECTRUM OF CONSIDERATIONS FOR ACCESS AND FUNCTIONAL NEEDS POPULATIONS OBJECTIVE: Ensure that all evacuees have access to appropriate transportation support and can maintain independence in the least restrictive shelter accommodations possible for their individual situation. PURPOSE: This table helps identify and classify evacuees with access and functional needs, the types of transportation they may need, and potential destinations in an evacuation. DIRECTIONS: Use this tool to plan for the full range of transportation requirements. In response phase, coordinate between general transportation and medical needs transportation (case man- agement) to process transportation requests and deploy transportation resources dur- ing an evacuation. [The first four categories will largely be the responsibility of ESF #1, Transportation; the last three largely the responsibility of ESF #8, Medical.] STEP THREE—TOOLS

Page 58 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives TOOL 3.2, TRANSPORTATION COORDINATION SPECTRUM OF CONSIDERATIONS FOR ACCESS AND FUNCTIONAL NEEDS POPULATIONS Level Types of Access and Functional Needs Sheltering Transportation Mode or Vehicle Independent Travel and trans- Self-selected: private home, Mass transit (buses, trains) fer without help hotel or general shelter or personal autos Minor assistance not re- Persons who are deaf or Self-selected: private home, Mass transit (buses, trains) lated to mobility hearing impaired, blind, or hotel or general shelter or personal autos with cognitive disability Minor mobility assistance Walker, collapsible wheel- Self-selected: private home, Mass transit (buses, trains), chair, service animal hotel or general shelter; personal autos, vans (e.g., from communication assistance group homes or adult day care) needed in general shelter; possibly including companion or caregiver (case by case) Adaptive transport Motorized wheelchair or Self-selected or acces- Mass transit (buses, trains) scooter–need lift or ramp, able sible areas in general shelters, or personal autos–transport to transfer independently may need elevated cots, with mobility device/animal other accommodations Travel with assistance Motorized wheelchair or scoot- Self-selected or acces- Mass transit, personal autos, er–need lift or ramp, unable to sible areas in general shelters, lift-equipped vans or buses— self-transfer mobility device may need elevated cots, transport with mobility device. other accommodations Major mobility assistance Wheelchair with assistance, Self-selected or acces- Mass transit, personal autos, gurney or stretcher sible areas in general shelters, lift-equipped vans or buses, or may need elevated cots, more specialized transport with other accommodations caregiver–case management Major medical assistance Continuous medical Assisted living (individual or Ground and air ambulances, attention–IV, oxygen, medical facility), long-term care facility accessible buses, mass monitoring equipment (LTC) or acute care hospital. transit with caregiver– Facility-to-facility (hospital to case management hospital, LTC to LTC, assisted living to assisted living)

Page 59 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives TOOL 3.3: PRIMARY ENTITIES AND TRANSPORTATION MODES INVOLVED IN EVACUATION OBJECTIVE: Ensure that all modes and appropriate entities are included in planning for evacuations. PURPOSE: Identify the roles that entities can play in evacuations in either provid- ing transportation resources or identifying community needs or both. DIRECTIONS: Review the descriptions, identify the counterparts in your region or commu- nity, and verify that they are included in emergency evacuation planning. Potential community service providers (last three rows) are listed in much greater detail (but not with these role distinctions) in Tool 1.4, Potential Community Partners. Primary Entities and Transportation Modes Involved in Evacuation This excerpt can be viewed in full on CRP-CD-132. STEP THREE—TOOLS TOOL 3.3, PRIMARY ENTITIES AND TRANSPORTATION MODES INVOLVED IN EVACUATION Entity/Mode Role in Providing Trans-portation Resources Role in Identifying Com- munity Needs Issues to Consider; Pros/Cons Highway/other roadway Foundation for majority of movement–self-evacuees and assisted evacuees Know the highway infra- structure; traffic manage- ment centers have data on roadways, potential bottle- necks; incident management teams keep traffic moving Extensive options and strate- gies to consider; see Tool 3.4, Transportation Operations Coordination Checklists, Step 4 MPO/COG Limited; primarily coordina- tion/demographic, map- ping, transportation network, transit, highway capacity, other information/convener Potentially substantial, provid- ing demographic information, possibly convening community providers with service providers Rarely has assets to control, rarely has authority to act; usually offers “neutral ground” and meeting place resources and information Emergency manager (EM) In some states and regions (particularly rural areas), EM is in charge of arranging and securing transporta- tion assets (e.g., school buses, private vehicles) In most communities, EM is ultimately in charge; often delegates to health agencies, fire departments, public safety, and others Roles and available resources vary greatly by region and state; most EMs are well- versed in NIMS and ICS; evolving emphasis on vul- nerable populations/whole community “top down” and “bottom up” increasing vis- ibility; push for inclusion Fixed-route transit (bus) Buses can provide transporta- tion to the community along the fixed route or buses can be deviated to serve other routes during an emergency Data on regular patterns of bus patrons could be use- ful for evacuation planning Transition from regular service to emergency service needs careful planning and coordina- tion. Buses provide medium- high occupancy for evacuation and allow for geographic flex- ibility based on road network

Page 60 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives TOOL 3.3, PRIMARY ENTITIES AND TRANSPORTATION MODES INVOLVED IN EVACUATION Entity/Mode Role in Providing Trans-portation Resources Role in Identifying Com- munity Needs Issues to Consider; Pros/Cons Rail transit Trains can provide trans- portation to the commu- nity along fixed rail lines Data on regular patterns of train patrons could be useful for evacuation planning Electric powered systems may fail during an emer- gency. Systems can provide high occupancy but limited geographic flexibility Paratransit Vehicles provide transporta- tion to people with access and functional needs re- lated to personal mobility Data on regular patterns of paratransit patrons would be very useful for evacuation planning Transition from regular service to emergency service needs careful planning and coordi- nation. Vehicles provide low occupancy for evacuation and allow for geographic flexibil- ity based on road network Air–commercial, private, and military, including fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters Provide rapid, longer-distance transport, as necessary, including air ambulances and support rescue efforts Limited; in locations such as Alaska with extensive air connections, pilots may have unique knowledge of iso- lated populations that may be impacted by a disaster Costly; fixed aircraft require adequate take-off/landing sites plus coordination; may not be able to deploy in bad weather situations; most helicopters have limited capacity. Coordi- nation with commercial, private and military resources likely entails a federal intervention Water modes–ferries, private craft Essential in evacuating islands without bridges to land, can also add capac- ity where bridges are over capacity or damaged Limited; may have unique knowledge of is- land populations Advance MOUs helpful; capac- ity and utility varies by location Other modes–unique to each location (e.g., inclined rail and people movers) Unique to each loca- tion and mode -- Varies by location Community service op- Vehicles can provide Drivers and dispatchers Advance planning and erators with vehicles (e.g., evacuation service to can inform service provid- contacts necessary to ensure FBOs, NGOs, CBOs) their regular clients if they have sufficient capacity ers with greater capacity of the locations and needs of their regular clients that trusted messengers are available to establish con- tacts and connections; will need to work out protocols on confidentiality, operations, communications coordination Community service providers Service providers can inform Advance planning and without transportation vehicles emergency management and contacts necessary to ensure (e.g., Meals on Wheels) authorized personnel of loca- tions and needs of their clients that trusted messengers are available to establish contacts and connections; will need to work out protocols on confi- dentiality, communications Community service providers In cooperation with the EM Transportation coordination without transportation, but designated lead for Mass is required to ensure that with lead emergency planning Care, can identify appropriate evacuees are transported and response responsibilities destinations for self-evacuees with their caregivers, their (e.g., Red Cross, Mass Care) as well as those requir- ing shelter: regular shelter; medical needs shelters; and regular shelters that are fully accessible and flexible enough to accommodate a range of functional needs mobility devices, their service animals, or whatever sup- port is needed to ensure their maximum independence and functions in a shelter environ- ment; and that the environ- ment is truly accessible to all

Page 61 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives TOOL 3.4: TRANSPORTATION OPERATIONS COORDINATION CHECKLISTS OBJECTIVE: Ensure that all appropriate “tools” in the traffic management, transit operations, and travel demand management “toolboxes” are considered in planning for and responding to a disaster that require evacuation. Most will require inter-regional coordination. PURPOSE: These Transportation Operations Coordination Checklists outline a three-part strategy that includes actions to improve roadway capacity and efficiency; prioritize, reorient, and supplement transit service in several modes; and manage transportation demand with actions directed at both vehicles and passengers. The specific actions within each of these strategic categories may be useful and require coordination across agencies and jurisdictions in the event of an evacuation. These checklists can help emergency, transportation, and transit planners and managers identify the agencies and transportation-related actions that will be critical in an evacuation. Note: many of these strategies and coordination actions will also be useful for planned special events. DIRECTIONS: Use the checklists to determine the transportation-related actions and interagency coordination efforts that may be required in each strategic area–roadway, tran- sit, and demand management–in evacuation planning and response. Transportation Operations Coor dination Checklists This excerpt can be viewed in full on CRP-CD-132. STEP THREE—TOOLS NCHRP 20-59 (32) A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation Tool 3.4, Transportation Operations Coordination Checklists TRANSPORTATION ROADWAY ACTIONS Communication Identify Is this needed? Coordination to General Description Decision Action Needed Comment  Needed Public or Maker Affected Groups Coordinated traffic signals, traffic control Closed-circuit television, variable message sign, signage Highway advisory radio AM or PM peak roadway configurations in effect (during off-peak hours) Roadway clearance Tow trucks deployed for incident response? Maintenance/construction lanes cleared? Bus set-aside routes and select reserved roadways Close inbound lanes on selected roads and highways Close outbound off-ramps on limited-access roads and highways; must proceed to evacuation destination Close outbound on-ramps on limited-access roads and highways to prevent those outside the evacuation area from adding to congestion Limited contraflow on selected limited-access roads and highways, e.g., one lane for bus convoys Unlimited contraflow on selected limited-access roads and highways; all normally inbound lanes used for outbound traffic Limited/unlimited contraflow on selected unlimited-access arterials (such as parkways and boulevards) (close inbound travel lanes) Actively manage critical intersections Segregate pedestrian and vehicle traffic and designate certain urban roadways for use by pedestrians Other

Page 62 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives TOOL 3.5: TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES SUPPORTING EVACUATION OBJECTIVE: Use traffic control devices–signs, signals, and pavement markings–to communicate operational guidance, promote safety, and enhance the efficiency of evacuating traffic streams. PURPOSE: Traffic control devices, whether conventional Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) applications or those developed by local transportation agencies, can be used to increase capacity, provide clear guidance for drivers, and provide critical location information to evacuees and police, emergency management, and transportation agencies tasked with managing the event. DIRECTIONS: Review the descriptions, identify needs within the region or community for various threats that require an evacuation response, and adapt and/or apply traffic controls to fit needs. In its MUTCD, the FWHA establishes the standards that govern the design, placement, operation, and maintenance of road signs, pavement markings, and traffic signals in the United States (FHWA 2009). Among its important roles, the MUTCD is to establish the uniformity of appearance and application of traffic control devices across the country. In addition to signs and markings for construction zones, special events, and detours, these devices also include those for the control and guidance of traffic during other temporary and short-term occurrences, such as evacuations, incidents, and other emergency events. For more than 10 years, numerous new signs and markings have also been developed to meet the challenges of mass evacuations, particularly for hurricanes in the Gulf and Atlantic coastal states where recent experiences have illustrated the need for the specific guidance and control of traffic through contraflow sections and the communication of traveler information along evacu- ation routes. While none of these newer signs are currently included in the MUTCD, they have relied on the general guidelines and principles of the manual for their design and implementation. The following section highlights examples of adaptations of standard MUTCD traffic control devices developed by local transportation agencies for evacuation management plans that have been put into practice. They are included here rather in the Resources in Step 4 due to their unique and often innovative characteristics and the close correlation to the relevant strategies. STEP THREE—TOOLS

Page 63 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives SIGNS The MUTCD includes a section specifically dedicated to signing for emergency management. Chapter 2N of the manual includes guidance on the design, size, and placement of these devices, including evacuation route signing (FHWA 2009). Figure 3-8 shows the MUTCD standard EM-1 sign for a Hurricane Evacuation Route to be posted along designated evacuation routes. The EM-1 sign may also be used with leg- ends for types of hazards other than hurricanes, or this line of text may be omitted for more general use. On the left side of Figure 3-8 is a commonly used supplemental sign that shows AM and FM radio station frequencies that provide emergency information. In addition to the formally designated signs in the MUTCD, numerous local transportation agencies have developed their own signs for local use in emergencies and evacuations. These include signs specifically for use on contraflow road segments to convey radio frequencies for evacuation travel information, as well as general information that would be conveyed via variable message signs. Figure 3-9 shows another example developed by the Texas Department of Transportation (TXDOT) to facilitate the use of shoulder “evaculanes” in Houston. Agencies typically follow broad MUTCD guidance pertaining to shape, color, legend, and pattern, as well as other American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials standards pertaining to structural design and placement. Traffic control is important on contraflowing segments of roadway during evacua- tions, particularly on the reverse flowing lanes. When the alignments of directional freeway lanes become independent or separated by medians, drivers in contraflowing lanes may not always be aware of exit locations and services available because the signs in their lanes face in the other direction and they cannot see into the other lanes. FIGURE 3–8: MUTCD EM-1 Evacuation Route Sign Left hand Photo: Brian Wolshon (Permission Self-Granted) Right hand Photo: 2010 Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices, published by FHWA

Page 64 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives To accommodate these drivers, some agencies, such as the Alabama Department of Transporta- tion (ALDOT), use fold down signs adjacent to contraflow lanes. When not in use, these signs are folded upward and appear as blank sign backs, as shown on the left side of Figure 3-10. An ALDOT work crew member will unlock the latches that permit the bottom half of the sign to fall into the open position when needed and will secure the bottom sign half to the sign supports, as shown in right side of Figure 3-10. Figure 3-11 shows an example of a variable message sign used during contraflow operations. Located just before a key decision point outside of New Orleans, Louisiana, this sign guides drivers into the appropriate travel lane based on their des- tination. At this location, the left two lanes transi- tion into the contraflow lanes toward Baton Rouge, Louisiana, and the right two lanes continue in the normal-flow fashion north toward Mississippi. PAVEMENT MARKINGS Pavement markings are another type of traffic control device increasingly used for evacuations. These markings are not found in the MUTCD, FIGURE 3–9: TXDOT Evaculane Infor- mation/Regulatory Sign Brian Wolshon (Permission Self-Granted) FIGURE 3–10: Fold-down Guidance Sign- ing for Contraflow Lanes Source: Connor 2005, Alabama DOT

Page 65 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives but they have been developed and adapted based on broad guidance for local use. Figure 3-12 shows an example of pavement mark- ings used to designate shoulders as an additional travel lane. Developed by TXDOT, the markings are affixed on shoulders along U.S. Route 290, a westbound evacuation route for Houston, Texas, toward Hempstead, Texas, and locations beyond. The left side of the figure shows the marking on the inside shoulder adjacent to the normal flowing lanes, identifying that the lane can be used for emergency evacuation. These markings are particularly important in advance of interchange ramps because the paved shoulder aligns with the off-ramp and on-ramp auxiliary lane. The marking on the right side of the figure is used on the inside shoulder of the contraflowing lanes. The directional arrow above the hurricane symbol indicates the intended direction of travel. TXDOT officials report that many of the newest types of heat-applied ther- moplastic pavement markings, such as the ones shown in Figure 3-12, retain their retro-reflective properties even when submerged below 2 or 3 inches of water, making them desirable for use on routes prone to flooding. FIGURE 3–11: Variable message sign with traveler evacuation infor- mation, Interstate 10 to New Orleans, Louisiana Source: Alison Caterella-Michel FIGURE 3-12: Hurricane evacuation route directional shoul- der pavement markings (normal lanes at left and contraflow lanes at right), U.S. Route 290, Texas (Note: These photos were not taken under evacu- ation conditions.) Brian Wolshon (Permission Self-Granted)

Page 66 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives The Florida Department of Transportation has developed another example of evacuation-related pavement markings for placement in the vicinity of interchanges along Interstate 10 between Jacksonville, Florida, and Tallahassee, Florida. As shown in Figure 3-13, these markings are applied to the inside shoulders near interchanges to show the interchange (mile marker) number. These pavement markings are not meant for drivers; they have been installed so that aerial surveillance crews flying over Interstate 10 during evacuation events can identify specific locations and refer- ence traffic conditions based on its proximity to specific interchange and mile marker locations. TRAFFIC SIGNALS Follow-up reports from several recent major evacuations note the limited coordination and responsiveness among traffic signals along evacuation routes. Because of this issue, the use of traffic signals during evacuations has become a control concern, particularly for the evacuation of urbanized areas under no-notice conditions. Recent reviews of practice showed no currently recognized standards or recommended rules of operation for traffic signals during evacuation emergencies. While the primary goal of traffic signals during an evacuation should be to facilitate the outbound movement of traffic away from the hazard zone, both cross street and turning traffic also need to be accommodated. In urbanized areas with densely spaced street grids, there may not be a clearly defined primary direction of movement. The timing of signals along primary arterial highways has become an issue during hurricane evacuations where traffic tends to move between population centers and through more sparsely populated areas. In several instances, evacuation traffic on the major highway passed through small towns with one or two traffic signals that had not been modified to facilitate the major emergency movement direction. In other cases, signal indications along the primary highway were set to a flashing yellow to maintain uninterrupted flow along the main route. However, some areas of these small towns became inaccessible, and local travelers have been unable to find adequate gaps to cross the major highway. To avoid similar conditions in future evacuations, some localities have FIGURE 3-13: Interchange location pave- ment marking, eastbound Interstate 10 at mile marker 283, Live Oak, Florida Brian Wolshon (Permis- sion Self-Granted)

Page 67 Step 3 - Determine Goals and Objectives maintained normal, non-emergency, peak-hour signal timings to service cross-street traffic, but this approach has led to congestion, long queues, and delays as well as the potential for prohibiting full clearance of the hazard zone. To address these issues, some state agencies now plan to use flashing yellow in conjunction with police enforcement to permit cross-street traffic maneuvers. A recent study conducted by Chen et al. (2007) to examine the effects of varied traffic signal timing for no-notice urban evacuation scenarios developed by the District of Columbia DOT to evacuate Washington, DC, under various no- and short- notice evacuation scenarios found that the “best” plan depended on what needed to be achieved. As expected, the longer green times for the outbound evacuation traffic was best for maximizing the amount of outbound evacuation traffic volume and minimizing their delay. The authors also recommended a flashing yellow to give a virtual infinite green to the evacuation traffic, but also pointed out that if approach volumes are nearer those of routine peak periods that the usual non-emergency timing plans could be most effective. If average delays of 15 minutes to cross street traffic were deemed to be acceptable, then cycle lengths of 180 seconds to 240 seconds (depending on the amount of evacuating volume) could also be effective. OTHER DEVICES Another device is the contraflow entry ramp closure gate that prohibits the entry of traffic into a roadway flowing in the opposite direction.. The gates are very similar in size and appearance to railroad gates or freeway closure gates used in western states during snow storms. Illustrated in Figure 3-14, these gates typically incorporate an arm that is lowered from a vertical open position to a horizontal closed position or is rotated horizontally from parallel to the road to perpendicular to the direction of travel (FHWA 2009). FIGURE 3-14: Contraflow Gate System (B&B Roadway & Security Solutions, LLC, 2002)

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TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 740: A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation focuses on the transportation aspects of evacuation, particularly large-scale, multijurisdictional evacuation.

The guidance, strategies, and tools in NCHRP Report 740 are based on an all-hazards approach that has applicability to a wide range of “notice” and “no-notice” emergency events. The report follows the basic planning steps of the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s Comprehensive Preparedness Guide (CPG) 101. Each chapter parallels one of the six main CPG steps. Each chapter is further subdivided into smaller, discrete tasks, with cross-references to tools--such as templates or checklists--that are shown at the end of each chapter and are on a CD-ROM included with the print version of the report.

The CD-ROM is also available for download from TRB’s website as an ISO image. Links to the ISO image and instructions for burning a CD-ROM from an ISO image are provided below.

The contractor’s final report, which documents the development of the report, was published as NCHRP Web-Only Document 196. A PowerPoint presentation describing the entire project that resulted in NCHRP Report 740 is available for download.

Help on Burning an .ISO CD-ROM Image

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CD-ROM Disclaimer - This software is offered as is, without warranty or promise of support of any kind either expressed or implied. Under no circumstance will the National Academy of Sciences or the Transportation Research Board (collectively "TRB") be liable for any loss or damage caused by the installation or operation of this product. TRB makes no representation or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, in fact or in law, including without limitation, the warranty of merchantability or the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, and shall not in any case be liable for any consequential or special damages.

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