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A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation (2013)

Chapter: Step 4 Develop the Plan

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This step is the heart of the entire process and describes how to carry out the three major tasks in multijurisdictional emer- gency evacuation plan development: 1. Develop and analyze courses of action and decision points; 2. Identify resources; and 3. Identify information and intelligence needs. The many tools for this step are numbered to correspond to the three major tasks. • Tool 4.0, Evacuation Operations, Resource, and Information Needs Evalu- ation Sheet–”Thought Starters”, provides suggested discussion questions and topics for each of the three main tasks. • Tools 4.1.1 and 4.1.2 provide guidance on the overall timeframe. Time required for individual actions should be estimated and discussed as part of plan development, tested in exercises, then confirmed or amended after an actual event. The workshop(s) on developing and analyzing courses of action should bear down on these questions. De- tailed checklists can help, such as the Re- source Inventory Checklist (Tool 4.2.6), the Multijurisdictional Multimodal Evacuation STEP 4 DEVELOP THE PLAN Each of these three tasks may require a work- shop or meeting. To make sure all the re- quirements for an effective workshop are being carried out, revisit the “Workshop in a Box” Resource following Step 6 of this guide prior to each meeting or workshop.

Page 70 Step 4 - Develop the Plan Planning Checklists (Tool 5.2), or example checklists from FEMA or from other ju- risdictions as noted in the bibliography. • Tools 4.2.1 through 4.2.6 provide lists of resource needs, information on FEMA resource typing, templates for organizing transportation-related data, and a checklist on data collected. • Tool 4.3, Checklist for Inter-agency Communications and Information Shar- ing between Transportation Agencies, Emergency Management, and Others can help coordinate exchanges of information and situational awareness in exercises and planning as well as in actual events. The following flowcharts present slightly differ- ent approaches to steps and decision points that involve coordination among agencies, jurisdic- tions, service providers, and other stakeholders. 1. FEMA developed the Capability Activ- ity Process Flow for Citizen Evacuation and Shelter-in-Place Capability. It is included in the TCL for evacuation. The flow diagram (Figure 4-1) offers a high- level view of the evacuation process. The full TCL for evacuation and sheltering in place provides much more detail and is included in Appendix A, which can be found on CRP-CD-132, as an effective checklist for review of plan capabilities. 2. The Planning Evacuation Flowchart (Figure 4-2) was developed for this guide to assist planners and emergency responders through the major steps and decision points that involve interjurisdictional coordination for matching resources to needs required in a large-scale evacuation. It identifies the key transportation-related information needed (e.g., databases) at various points throughout an evacuation exercise or event. 3. Figure 4-3, Evacuation Steps Flow- chart, adds more decision points, more processes and references to plans such as Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs), versus the resources identified in Figure 4-2 regarding transportation and mass care. It also addresses reentry. These three flowcharts help place the entire evacuation process in context.

Page 71 Step 4 - Develop the Plan FIGURE 4-1: Evacuation and Shelter-in- place Flowchart from FEMA Target Capabilities List

Page 72 Step 4 - Develop the Plan THE EVACUATION FLOWCHART RELATED TO RESOURCE DATABASES (FIGURE 4-2) Planners can use this Evacuation Flowchart to plan in advance for the types of decisions, resources, and information that may be required to assess the need for multijurisdic- tional coordination and to match resources to needs in an evacuation. Review the flow- chart to identify how the different resource databases will support an evacuation. Use the following legend to navigate through the flowchart in Figure 4-2. Rounded box–“Start” and “End” points. Diamond–Indicates where a decision is necessary. Accom- panied by Yes/No questions. Rectangle box–Represents a step or action to be taken. Arrows–Indicate the flow of action in an evacuation. Resource Database–Indicates the specific databases identified in Steps 2 and 4 of the guide that provide necessary information at specific points in the evacuation planning, response, and reentry stages. These also correspond to steps in the Resource Inventory Checklist. Note that many of the databases and resources are the responsibility of non-transportation functional areas, such as ESF #6, Mass Care, and ESF #8, Medical Support. The “owners” of the mass care, law enforcement/public safety, and medical resources and respective databases already have contacts, contracts, and mutual aid agreements in place with their counterparts in nearby regions and adjacent states.  TipState agencies typically deal directly with counterpart agencies in other states, while local jurisdictions correspond with other juris- dictions and state agencies within their own state, particularly with regard to mutual aid agreements and formal requests for assis- tance. On many occasions, however, jurisdictional agencies deal directly with other agencies across state lines on an operational basis without going through state agencies; these usually occur in neighboring jurisdictions with extensive regular interaction. This in- teraction and coordination may be facilitated by the MPO or COG.

Page 73 Step 4 - Develop the Plan Incident Does incident require advanced action Identify affected population Yes Incident Contained No Does incident require evacuation of population Evacuation of permanent residents, tourists, pets and livestock Yes Population able to shelter in place Special Facilities Database: list all institutions in jurisdiction (hospitals, nursing homes, schools, etc.) Estimated # of Evacuees Database: U.S. Census, neighborhoods, subdivisions, schools, churches, organizations, etc. Do individuals need assistance to get to safe shelter Self Evacuees No Need Assistance to Evacuate Yes Databases: Special Facilities, Reception/Pickup Locations Transportation Assistance (Mass Trans, Drivers, ADA) Personal Vehicle to Evacuate Ambulatory but no Vehicle Non-ambulatory, Need Additional Assistance Other Destinations Access and Functional Needs Database: hospitals, nursing homes, staffing requirements, pick-up locations, etc. Public ShelterOther Destination /Self Shelter Hotel/Motel Database- Transportation Related Database Public Shelters List No Database FIGURE 4-2: Planning Evacuation Flow Chart

Page 74 Step 4 - Develop the Plan Incident O ccurrence Incident/Hazard N otification M obilize First Responders Protective Action Required? Contained by Law Enforcem ent & Local Authorities Inform Em ergency M anagers Yes Determ ine Affected Area & Population (e.g. state, local, neigh- borhood) Identify U nique Populations Situational Aw areness Evacuation Response Required? Shelter-in-Place O ther Evacuation Execute Individual Justification Plans or SO PS Determ ine Evacuation Destinations Activate Jurisdiction M O U s Coordinate w ith Special Facilities Identify Transfer/ Pick-up Points Activate Jurisdiction M O U s M ass Transportation Required? Identify Required Transportation (vehicle data) Contract & M obilize Transportation Resources N otify Public Alternate Transportation Required? Activate Jurisdiction M O U s Identify Transportation Evacuation Route and Drop-O ff Locations Transfer Evacuees Im plem ent Pedestrian/Bicycle O ption M ass Care Required? Determ ine M ass Care N eeds and Secure Facilities Conduct M ass Care O perations Activate Jurisdiction M O U s Safe for Recovery? Facilitate Re-entry of Evacuees Incident O ver N o N o Yes N o Yes N o Yes N o Yes N o Yes Transportation M ass Care Legend Term inator Predefined Process Process Decision Im plem ent Traffic Control Strategies Is Transport Assistance required? Can accom m odate locally? Yes Yes N o N o FIGURE 4-3: Evacuation Steps Flow Chart.

Page 75 Step 4 - Develop the Plan TASK 4.1 DEVELOP AND ANALYZE COURSES OF ACTION Within Task 4.1 are three subtasks to help planners develop and analyze courses of action: 1. Establish the timeline, 2. Depict decision points in the scenario, and 3. Identify and depict operational tasks. Subtask 4.1.1 Establish the Timeline The timeline can be the first agenda item in a workshop with the convener developing the background materials and research to make effective use of everyone’s time. TIMELINE FOR EMERGENCY EVACUATION–NOTICE OR NO-NOTICE Begin to determine how each scenario or possible incident will unfold. Work out the timeline, placing decision points where necessary. Example decision points are identified in Figures 4-1, 4-2, and 4-3. FIGURE 4-4: Evacuation Timeline FEMA The general timeline of steps for an evacuation are depicted in Figure 4-4. Notice events such as hurricanes provide more time for each of the evacuation steps. Advanced planning for no-notice events therefore becomes very critical, as the time available for the remaining steps becomes very compressed. “Given the spontaneous and chaotic nature of no-notice events or emergency incidents, these phases are likely to overlap in time. Therefore, the progression of these phases is not meant to indicate a firm timeline.” (FHWA 2006) Advanced Planning “The planning phase enables agencies to work together to establish a cooperative system, including roles and responsibilities, resource management and infrastructure operations, and key points of contact for agencies that would be involved. Include public education in advanced planning.  Recommended TipIn choosing multijurisdictional sce-narios for large-scale evacuation, choose at least one no-notice event and one notice event. In addition to the differences in the timeline and likely response actions, this will also give you the opportunity to practice different jurisdictional roles as “send- ers” and “recipients” of evacuees.

Page 76 Step 4 - Develop the Plan Incident Notification “This phase assumes an incident has occurred and been detected, and notification must be established. This is when the Incident Command System (ICS) is initialized. Activation and Mobilization “This phase involves the dissemination of information to the public and all preparation for the actual evacuation. The ICS will be established and operational. Evacuation Operations “This phase covers the actual exit movement and transfer of people and goods from the affected area to another. The ICS will direct state, county, and local agency support. Re-Entry “This phase involves the ingress of evacuees. It will require coordination among local, county, and state agencies, through the ICS, to ensure a safe and orderly re-entry process.” (FHWA 2006) Tool 4.1.1 describes a free online evacuation clearance time estimation tool developed by the DHS, called the Real Time Evacuation Planning Model (RTEPM). This tool calculates vehicle clearance times for self-evacuees with evacuation areas and other parameters determined by the users. Some jurisdictions already have evacuation models. For those who do not, this tool may support scenario development and planning for the Activation and Mobilization and Evacuation Operations phases of the timeline. See Figures 4-5 and 4-6. Note that RTEPM only models clearance times with traffic and congestion for self-evacuees. For more realistic timelines and clearance times, RTEPM should be paired with locally adjusted timelines for a Public Assisted Evacuation Plan (PAEP), as described in Tool 4.1.2, which builds in the additional time required to organize and implement a PAEP for a notice event. TIMELINE: PLANNED SPECIAL EVENTS The timeline for planned special events is similar to the emergency timeline in its steps. Because the events are planned with appropriate coordi- nation in place, there is less chance of chaos.  TipThe Oak Ridge Evacuation Model-ing System (OREMS) is another tool for evacuation modeling. Go to http://emc.ornl.gov/ products/oak-ridge-evaluation- modeling-system.html. Reminder Planning for special events can help you plan for evacuations and other emergencies. The collaborative partnerships and many of the op- erational strategies to manage traf- fic, make use of transit, disseminate public information, and manage travel demand will be very similar, though the timelines are different. !

Page 77 Step 4 - Develop the Plan Five Phases of Managing Travel for Planned Special Events 1. Regional planning and coordination 2. Event operations planning 3. Implementation activities 4. Day-of-event activities 5. Post-event activities Integration of lessons learned from post-event activities into future event planning and opera- tions creates a seamless process allowing for continuous improvement of transportation system performance from one event to the next. Task 4.1.2 Depict the scenarios and identify decision points and operational tasks For evacuation planning, the two major variants to explore are events with notice and events with little or no notice. These scenarios can be investigated in parallel or sequentially, but both need to be addressed for a robust, all-hazards evacuation plan. Identify scenarios that are specific enough to require clear thinking and de- cisionmaking about how to respond, but broad enough to spark ideas and creative thinking on how to address variations and contingencies. Multijurisdictional stakeholders can review the scenarios and develop them further by adding decision points and fitting them into the steps on the timelines–at least one timeline for a notice event and one for a no-notice event. Next planners can identify and place operational tasks on the timelines. Planners can use the following list to help identify operational tasks. • What is the action? (phasing down regular bus service to implement evacuation service; or closing down on ramps to the highway in areas beyond the immediate danger zone) • Who is responsible for the action? (the transit agency or the DOT sup- ported by law enforcement) • When should the action take place? (once notice is given that an evacu- ation should take place) • How long should the action take and how much time is actually available? (depending on the event and how riders are notified, it could take hours to return riders back to their homes; that may not be possible in a no-notice event such as a chemical spill, so what are the options, how would the transit agency respond, and how would it inform its riders about what to do?) FIGURE 4-5: North Carolina, Sep- tember 1999. FEMA News Photo FIGURE 4-6: Louisiana, October 2002. FEMA News Photo

Page 78 Step 4 - Develop the Plan • What has to happen before? • What happens after? • What resources does the person/ entity need to perform the action? Tool 3.4 from the previous step identifies potential operational actions for various transportation modes. FHWA’s Emergency Transportation Operations (ETO) section offers a wide array of resources related to highway operations. Resources range from Traffic Incident Management through Planned Special Events to the Disaster/Emergency Transporta- tion Operations, particularly focused on evacuation. Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) are an important element. The ETO website is www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/opssecurity. Figure 4-7 identifies key decision points for determining whether an event is local or re- gional, as well as possible response actions. Not all events will require regional responses; know- ing the difference is an important decision step. At this point, the core planning team can decide one or more potential courses of action. The strategies identified in Tool 3.4 are good starting points for developing the course of action. • Periodically stop and test the action to determine if it is making progress towards the end of the event. • See if new goals and objec- tives have been created. • Watch for tasks that may not have been completed. The failure of one task could cause the operation to fail. • Check for gaps and omissions. • Look for inconsistencies in organizational relationships; for example, if they were sup- porting another jurisdiction, would they still be able to support their own emerging needs? Deciding among potential actions for a particular scenario is accomplished by compar- ing costs and benefits against the goals and objectives. Identify the best possible action or “package of actions,” and present it to senior officials for approval. Mandatory evacuations and closing roads and bridges as a preventive strategy may not be popular, but are far less costly in lives and resources than the late at- tempt to rescue those who refuse to leave. Helpful Concept of Operations and Overall Evacuation Planning Guidance “Operational Concept: Assessment of State of the Practice and State of the Art in Evacuation Transportation Management” includes transit as well as highway operations (FHWA, 2006) The “Routes to Effective Evacuation Planning” series developed by the U.S. Depart- ment of Transportation, FHWA, provides a series of documents consistent with DHS/ FEMA National Response Plan concepts and guidance. The series includes: “Using Highways During Evacuation Operations for Events with Advance No- tice” (2006); “Using Highways for No-Notice Evacuations” (2007) and “Evacu- ating Populations with Special Mobility Requirements” (2009). These and other resources such as the “Emergency Transportation Operations Publications Series Presents: The Best of Traffic Incident Management, Traffic Planning for Special Events and Evacu- ation & Disaster Planning (CD)” are available through the FHWA Emergency Transportation Op- erations Knowledge Management Center webpage at www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/opssecurity

P ag e 79 Step 4 - D evelo p the Plan ee for FIGURE 4-7: Decision Tr mining a Deter Regional Event

Page 80 Step 4 - Develop the Plan TASK 4.2 IDENTIFY RESOURCES Planners and the Emergency Operations Team should first identify resources needed to ac- complish tasks (without regard to availability). Different resources may be needed at different stages of the event. For example, maps with demographic information or information on lane configurations and capacity for the highway network will be very useful in the planning stages while real-time traffic informa- tion will be more useful during response. The FHWA “Operational Concept: Assessment of State of the Practice and State of the Art in Evacuation Transportation Management” includes examples of needed resources (mostly highway) for each stage of evacuation plan- ning, response, and recovery (FHWA 2006). Tool 4.2.1 provides lists of resources–equipment and assets, intelligence, management, personnel and teams, vehicles, and routes that are typically controlled or owned by DOTs, Emergency Management, MPOs, and transit agencies. “Resource typing is categorizing, by capability, the resources requested, deployed, and used in incidents. Measurable standards identifying re- source capabilities and performance levels serve as the basis for catego- ries. Resource users at all levels use these standards to identify and inven- tory resources. Resource kinds may be divided into subcategories to define more precisely the capabilities need- ed to meet specific requirements.” FEMA “ Resource Typing The National Integration Center (NIC) has developed and published more than 120 resource typing definitions. Tool 4.2.2 provides an introduction to FEMA resource typing as it relates to transportation, with screen shots of two of the Tier I resources that are related to transit and transportation that could be used to support an evacuation and reference links to other resources. The tools related to resources are as follows: 4.2.1 Examples of Resources (list) 4.2.2 Overview of FEMA Resource Typ- ing for Transportation Resources 4.2.3 TR–Transportation Related Re- sources Database Templates 4.2.3.1 Major evacuation routes 4.2.3.2 Food/fuel vendors along major evacua- tion routes (selected- with generators) 4.2.3.3 Variable message sign (VMS) and dy- namic message sign (DMS) inventory 4.2.3.4 Public works equipment and re- sources inventory 4.2.4 TA–Transportation Assistance 4.2.4.1 Intermodal facilities or other desig- nated reception/collector locations 4.2.4.2 Mass transportation modes database 4.2.4.3 Vehicle fleet information form 4.2.4.4 Manager/supervisor/dispatcher/driver database 4.2.5 PS- Public Shelter Transportation Reference 4.2.6 Resource Inventory Checklist

Page 81 Step 4 - Develop the Plan Resource Inventorying INCIDENT RESOURCE INVENTORY SYSTEM (IRIS) Once resources are typed, they are inventoried based upon mission requirements, capability of resources, and response time. FEMA provides a database for local and state entities called IRIS (Incident Resource Inventory System) as part of its National Incident Management (NIMS) sup- port function. Guidance in the use of this system is also available at the FEMA website. It is not a national resource ordering database, but a system that can be used to maintain inventories of the 120 Tier 1 resources for their own and for mutual aid use. (Tool 4.2.2, Overview of FEMA Resource Typing for Transportation Resources, includes screen shots from the flyer and one page of the manual for IRIS. Agencies can enter any of the typed resources [e.g., buses, arrow signs, and variable message signs] into IRIS.) Of course, transit agencies with 40 or 4,000 buses will NOT have 40 or 4,000 buses to deploy in the event of an emergency; availability will vary by season, by time of day, by the amount of notice and the anticipated length of the deployment, and by the number of operators and supervisors that can reasonably be deployed without causing undue harm and disruption to current operations. With that understanding, transit agencies can maintain constant, current inventories of transit vehicles and support vehicles; fuel, tires, and other maintenance and servicing supplies; and rosters of opera- tors, supervisors, maintenance and servicing personnel, and other support personnel. Many transit agencies regularly provide support across jurisdictional lines on an ad hoc basis as needs arise and as resources are available. For multijurisdictional evacuation planning, it is essential for transit managers and operations planners to be forthright and realistic with emergency managers and planners as to: • The time it will take to deploy any spare buses and operators (or trains, ferry boats, or other mass transit modes), • An approximate number of vehicles “im- mediately available” on an average day, • The ramp up time necessary for a larger no-notice event,  Urban Transit TipUrban transit agencies often have subcontract relationships or agree-ments with other transportation providers, such as private coach operators for suburban transit operations, local bus operators, paratransit operators, and others. Transit agencies may also be a logical coordinating central point for other resources such as school buses, intercity buses, vanpool services, and other options. A transit operator will also often act as the local host for “United We Ride” (unitedweride.gov), a federal initiative of the Coordinating Coun- cil on Access and Mobility established to coordinate human service transportation at the local level. Approximately 40 states have devel- oped coordinated transportation plans, with many more local “chap- ters”. United We Ride has extensive resources, ambassadors and part- ners to help communities coordinate human service transportation.

Page 82 Step 4 - Develop the Plan • The factors that would increase or decrease that ramp up time, and what kind of support they could expect to provide for a notice event, and • When most or all regular service might be expected to be cancelled or diverted. Tool 4.2.4.3, Vehicle Fleet Information Form, provides an inventory resource that can assist in that discussion. Similarly, highway resources such as variable message signs may be in many locations far from where they are needed for evacuation (such as at construction sites). It will take time to locate, move and reset them. Organizing and Tracking Resources Once the resources have been inventoried, those needing the resources organize them for ease of access. The planning phase can develop a system for organization and tracking of resources, such as a searchable database or a series of electronic spreadsheets in folders on a common site with restricted access. The host of such a site might be the CAME or a sponsoring agency. Organization might occur by locations, by jurisdiction, by ease of access, by special category (such as vehicles requiring Commercial Driver License certification) or by function (debris removal, information services). The participants in the planning process must define what system will provide the best access and accuracy prior to and during an adverse event. Every agency and organization involved in an exercise or event must keep good records, documenting labor and other costs, to be considered eligible for potential reimbursement. For example, Chicago Transit Authority establishes a unique job order number for timesheets, materials requests, and other tracking for emergency events. Extensive information on all aspects of resource management is available on the FEMA website and in ETO resource documents and will not be replicated here.  TipPotential messages for permanent signs and for dynamic signs should be discussed in advance to ensure consistency across the region. The “Resource Inventory” workshop would be a good forum for these and other discussions around sce- narios and resource availability. Tip Emergency Management will want to verify that health and correctional facilities have established mutual aid agreements or contracts with com- parable facilities in nearby as well as distant jurisdictions, to be activated depending on the event. Health facili- ties are the primary responsibility of ESF #8, Public Health and Medical Services, while detention and correc- tional facilities are the primary respon- sibility of ESF #13, Public Safety and Security. Appropriate transportation resources must also be identified.

Page 83 Step 4 - Develop the Plan Transportation Related Re- sources Database Templates Tools 4.2.3 through 4.2.5 provide templates to classify, identify, and inventory resources. Each jurisdiction and agency can: • Complete its portion of the resource inventory prior to the workshop; and • Identify availability of resources and potential constraints to using those resources. This will help match resources to needs and identify resource shortfalls. The planning team can then begin the process of developing lists of private suppliers or other jurisdictions that will be called upon to supple- ment the gaps. Planners will match resources with other geographical/regional needs so that multiple demands for the same or similar re- sources can be identified and conflicts resolved. TASK 4.3 IDENTIFY INFORMATION AND INTELLIGENCE NEEDS The two major and equally impor- tant facets of identifying informa- tion and intelligence needs are: • Interagency, interdisciplinary, and interjuris- dictional communication and information exchanges (internal communication), and • Accurate and timely communication with the public and with community partners in the communication network (if active) (public communications). In the planning stages of internal communication: • Clarify what information will be exchanged with counterparts within functional area in other jurisdictions; • Determine which communications are necessary within each jurisdiction across other functional areas; and • Work out the logistics of how to communicate.  TipPlanners can estimate capability at this point. A capability esti-mate is an assessment of a jurisdiction’s ability to take a course of action. It represents the capabilities and resource types needed to complete a course of action. Capability estimates help decide if pursuing a particular course of action is realistic and support- able. The capability estimates may be written documents, tables or matrices, or oral presentations. The information should be able to answer most questions about whether a jurisdiction has the ability to support a course of action. Planners can use capability estimates for both present and future operational planning. Refer to the FEMA Target Capabilities List (Appendix A) for details.

Page 84 Step 4 - Develop the Plan • Practice sharing information between Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs) and Traffic Management Centers (TMCs) and, if appropriate, with Fusion Centers (DHS funded). In the planning stages of public communication: • Decide how to communicate with the public in a clear, consistent manner. • Work very closely with ESF #15, External Affairs. • Include in pre-scripted messaging and public education efforts - The meaning of terms, - Evacuation routes, - What to take and what to leave behind, - Information on transporting pets, - Where to meet for pick-ups if transportation is needed, - Advantages of a “buddy system,” and - How to obtain transportation assistance if needed. • Keep messages consistent as pos- sible across the jurisdictions in the geographic planning area. • Include community partners with strong ties to the whole community, in particular to groups and individuals with access and functional needs. (Refer to TCRP Report 150 on how to establish and engage a community network.) • Use multiple media, communications methods, and languages that are acces- sible to the deaf and hard of hearing, to those who are blind or of low vision, to those who do not speak English, and to those who may have cognitive disorders. • Employ social media, such as Facebook and Twitter, to reach the broadest possible audience. • Keep messages simple, clear, and accurate. In the Activation and Response phases: • Work closely with External Affairs to ensure that information gets out quickly and that it accurately conveys • How the public should respond–who needs to move, when, and to where; • Who needs to stay where they are, why that is safer, and how long they need to stay there; and • How to request transporta- tion assistance.  TipThe FHWA document, Information Sharing Guidebook for Transportation Management Centers, Emergency Op- erations Centers, and Fusion Centers may be helpful in carrying out this task. Tip Florida uses 511 for evacuation information and has developed apps for smart phones and tablets. It uses GPS to determine the loca- tion of the nearest shelter and pro- vides turn-by-turn directions. http:// floridaevacuates.com/mobile/.

Page 85 Step 4 - Develop the Plan • Use any tracking and registration that has taken place during the evacuation. • Use social media and commu- nity networks, even if only partially intact, to spread the word. In the reentry and recovery phase: • Reentry requires extensive intelligence exchanges and coordination among all disci- plines, to ensure that all is ready and secure. • Public information will be more dif- ficult to disseminate, particularly if people have relocated for an extended period of time to distant locations. Tool 4.3, Checklist for Inter-Agency Com- munications and Information Sharing, provides worksheets to plan and track communication within transportation, across jurisdictions and multiple stakeholders, and public com- munication through multiple stages of an event. It is intended for use in planning, and could be one of the tools used in the Intelligence and Information Exchange Workshop.

Page 86 Step 4 - Develop the Plan STEP FOUR—TOOLS TOOL 4.0: EVACUATION OPERATIONS, RESOURCE AND INFORMATION NEEDS EVALUATION SHEET–“THOUGHT STARTERS” This tool can be used to encourage advance thinking about mass evacuation before the three workshops anticipated for Plan Development. The workshops or planning sessions should involve multiple stakeholders, including public agencies, community-based and faith-based organizations, and multiple jurisdictions. This tool may be useful to professionals in the fields of transit, transportation, and public works as well as emergency management, law enforcement and other responders–anyone convening or participating in mass evacuation planning. DIRECTIONS This tool can be used before or during an evacuation planning ses- sion to prompt thinking and discussion about: • Develop courses of action: scenarios, timelines and operations planning • Roles and relationships with regards to courses of actions • Resource needs • Resources available, and resource gaps, • Roles and relationships with regards to resources • Information and intelligence needs • Roles and relationships with regards to information and intelligence The questions are best used as accompaniment to the “Work- shop in a Box” Resource following Step 6. The convener can develop additional topics and customized questions as needed. Task 1. Develop Courses of Action(s) 1. What are your thoughts on the operational options being con- sidered for the selected evacuation scenario(s)? 2. Which ones do you like? 3. Which do you think will have the most impact? 4. Which do you think the general public will best accept?

Page 87 Step 4 - Develop the Plan 5. Which do you think carry the most political risk? 6. What is the preferred package of multiple actions that could make a big difference? 7. What role would your agency have in implementing that complete package? Roles and Relationships Mass evacuations by definition encompass multiple jurisdictions, public agencies, private entities, and community-based and faith-based organizations. Understanding the web of roles, respon- sibilities, and relationships involved in a mass evacuation is a necessary first step for success. Consider the following questions in advance of the meeting or to use as discussion starters, particu- larly any changes in your thoughts since these questions were asked at an earlier workshop (Step 2): 1. What operational role would your agency or organization play in the selected scenario(s) for a large-scale evacuation, in implementing the preferred package of strategies? 2. What type of planning is needed so that your agency or or- ganization will be equipped to fulfill that role? 3. What other agencies or organizations would likely be your part- ners in implementing the operations package? 4. What information about your partners’ roles in operations would be useful? Task 2. Resource Needs Mass evacuations involve all segments of a population. This requires planning for the full scope of transportation-related needs. The phrase “transportation-related needs” is used broadly to include resources and support required for: 1. Self-evacuees (e.g., signage along routes, gas, food, open roads, traffic control) 2. Individuals without cars (e.g., buses, coaches, subway, ferries, or other modes of transportation) 3. Individuals with access and functional needs (e.g., accessible vehicles, specialized staff support, multi-lingual communication or pictograms, accessible shelters). Available Resources Use the following questions for self-reflection in advance of a meeting or as an icebreaker at a meeting. 1. What types of transportation-related resources will your agency or organization have to meet the needs of constituents and/or clients for the scenario(s) identified in Step 3? For example, if you are a transit manager, how many vehicles could you deploy with one hour of notice? With two hours of notice? Within four hours? With two days notice? Would time of day or day of week impact your resources? What factors most influence your ability to respond? 2. To whom will your organization turn if your resources are not sufficient? 3. Which entities might turn to your organization for transportation-related resources?

Page 88 Step 4 - Develop the Plan 4. What type of planning needs to occur within the region to ensure that transportation-related resources will be in place to meet the transportation needs of all evacuees in a mass evacuation? Roles and Relationships for Resources 1. What resources would your agency or organization need in a large-scale evacuation? 2. What resources would your agency or organization have or con- tribute to support a large-scale evacuation? 3. What type of planning is needed so that your agency or organization will be equipped to fulfill that role? 4. What other agencies or organizations would likely be your partners in evacuation planning, response, and recovery? 5. What information about your partners’ roles in evacuation plan- ning, response and recovery would be useful? Task 3. Information and Intelligence 1. What information and intelligence will you need in order to do your part to support a large-scale evacuation? 2. When would you need the information? 3. From whom would you expect to get the information? 4. How would you expect to get the information? 5. How would you expect to get the information if your primary or preferred method of communication was not available? Roles and Relationships for Information and Intelligence 1. What role would your agency or organization play in a large-scale evacuation with regards to information and intelligence? For example, how would you communicate your need for resources or your availability of resources? 2. What type of planning is needed so that your agency or organization will be equipped to fulfill that role? 3. What other agencies or organizations would likely be your information and intelligence partners in evacuation planning, response, and recovery? 4. What information about your partners’ roles in evacuation plan- ning, response and recovery would be useful?

Page 89 Step 4 - Develop the Plan TOOL 4.1.1: REAL TIME EVACUATION PLANNING MODEL This tool corresponds to Task 4.1.1: Establish the Timeline In the planning and response phases, it is important to know how long it may take to evacuate a segment or a large part of the population. These two tools used in tandem can help a region that does not have its own model or tools understand some of the dynamics and potential timeline requirements for the activation and response portions of the timeline for an evacuation. PURPOSE: Jurisdictions and regions that do not have evacuation clearance time models in place (that estimate traffic and congestion based on different scenarios of population, time of day, and other factors for events such as hurricanes) may be able to obtain similar ve- hicle clearance time estimates for their jurisdiction or region by using this tool. DIRECTIONS: Contact the Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate for ac- cess to the model (either the beta test version or the full model). Use the model to estimate vehicular clearance times for different scenarios, including notice and no-notice events. Use caution with the results of the model for no-notice events, as the model does not take into account the coordination and movement of people with access and functional needs, which will likely require additional time. For scenarios for events with notice, use this tool in conjunction with Tool 4.1.2, the Public Assisted Evacuation Plan timeline. This project is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate. The Real Time Evacuation Planning Model (RTEPM), is a clearance time calculator tool for vehicular traffic evacuating an area. The tool was developed based upon the end-user’s requirement to give them the ability to “draw a polygon on a map, push a button and have the clearance time calculated for that polygon.” This GIS based tool accesses census and traffic information, generates trips, assigns them to the selected roadway network and determines the number of hours to evacuate the identified area. The user has the ability to adjust the endpoints of the evacuation, include or exclude certain roadways, identify shelters as destinations, adjust population for seasonal effects, specify a one day or multi day evacuation, and select behavioral curves as to how quickly the evacuation is expected to progress. The project focused on evacuation planning for hurricanes, looking closely at the results obtained in the FEMA/USACE Hurricane STEP FOUR—TOOLS

Page 90 Step 4 - Develop the Plan Evacuation Studies conducted for hurricane prone states. This tool has potential application for other evacuations related to wildfires, nuclear power plants, dams, chemical stockpiles, and every- day hazardous materials incidents. The project expects to be concluded in 2012 and potentially transitioned into an operational mode. See Figure 4-8. For additional information, the reader is directed to the Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate. Note that the clearance times identified in the RTEPM do not include the additional time required to coordinate and deploy mass transit assistance for carless populations, or the additional time needed to evacuate nursing homes, hospitals, and other facilities. The Public Assisted Evacuation Plan (Tool 4.1.2) together with the RTEPM can provide reasonable clearance time estimates, especially for events with notice, for those jurisdictions or regions without access to clearance time models. FIGURE 4-8: Real Time Evacuation Planning Model Flyer.

Page 91 Step 4 - Develop the Plan TOOL 4.1.2: PUBLIC ASSISTED EVACUATION PLAN (PAEP) TIMELINE FOR NOTICE EVENTS PURPOSE: This tool provides a timeline for a PAEP, which should be helpful for planning and responding to an evacuation for a notice event, especially hurricanes and possibly wildfires and tsunamis. It sets forth key phases and milestones for evacuation response that should be planned for ahead of time. See Figure 4-9. Phases include the Leaning Forward Phase, the Make Ready Phase, the Execute PAEP Phase, the Wind Down PAEP Phase, and the Transition to Response Phase. DIRECTIONS: This timeline should be used as a starting point for local, regional, and state planning efforts for determining the timeline for a notice evacuation event, particularly hurricanes and possibly wildfires and tsunamis. However, for wildfires and tsunamis, the notice might be much shorter, thus there would be less time to respond before the event. Plans across governments and agen- cies should consider various actions during each of these phases and work together to ensure adequate collaboration, and refine the timeline estimates for their particular region and event. Moreover, plans from various agencies and across multiple jurisdictions should come to agree- ment on and adhere to the timeline and to the operational strategies that accompany it. STEP FOUR—TOOLS 84 hours 72 hours 60 24 03036405054 61258 LEAN FORWARD EXECUTE PAEP MAKE READY WIND DOWN PAEP TRANSITION TO RESPONSE Begin pickups for ground-based PAEP, including bus, rail, van shuttle and ambulance Lean Forward Phase: Local, state and federal agencies activate plans, notify staff, begin mobilizing resources and equipment Launch PAEP ; Dispatch buses and security Begin evacuating people to airports for those that need to leave the region via plane Transit/coach buses with last passengers leave area Begin contraflow of highways Last vans, train and ambulances leave the area Emergency responders mobilize for recovery phase Airports shut down (if neccessary) ~12 hours prior to disaster Public Assisted Evacuation Plan (PAEP) Example Timeline for Notice Events State Phase 1: Evacuation of areas outside of any levee protection system State Phase 3: Begin to evacuate remain- ing areas at risk; implement contraflow (if indicated/ available as a strategy), elected officials/authorized entity orders mandatory evacuation of specified high-risk areas State Phase 2: Evacuate next tier of high-risk areas FIGURE 4-9: Public Assisted Evacuation Plan Example Timeline

Page 92 Step 4 - Develop the Plan TOOL 4.2.1: EXAMPLES OF RESOURCES PURPOSE: This list provides examples of resources that may be necessary to plan, train, exercise, and respond to evacuations. The resources are categorized by agency/organization and listed in alphabetical order. The list is compiled from the literature review and interview findings and is not comprehensive. DIRECTIONS: Use the lists to inventory existing resources and identify those that are needed and potentially available through other agencies/organizations. Note that different resources may be needed at each different stage: Planning/preparedness, mitigation, response and recovery. FHWA’s Resources can also be entered into the FEMA IRIS system (profiled below). It has been noted that transit agencies should be careful when they enter resources into a resource typing database. Though they may have 1,000 buses or 100 paratransit vehicles, at any given time they may only have a dozen of the former or one or two of the latter to readily deploy to an incident. The number will vary by season, by day of week, by amount of notice, by the anticipated amount of time the vehicles would be needed, and by the availability of qualified drivers and possibly supervisors. Examples of Resources List This document can be obtained in digital format from the guide website. TOOL 4.2.1, EXAMPLES OF RESOURCES DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Equipment and Assets • Code Red/Reverse 9-1-1® emergency alert notification • Event radio channels to communicate with people in field • Hardwired, secure telephone lines with direct links to regional municipalities • Voice Interoperable Program for Emergency Response (VIPER) on mobile phones on same frequency Intelligence • Maps of hurricane and surge zones, flood zones, wildfires, etc. • Registry for access and functional needs populations, medical special needs, pets, livestock–updated bi-annually • State Medical Asset Resource and Tracking Tool, a web- based tool to track hospital bed count daily • Trigger points and evacuation timeline STEP FOUR—TOOLS

Page 93 Step 4 - Develop the Plan TOOL 4.2.1, EXAMPLES OF RESOURCES Management • Annual county inventory of medical special needs/ fragile populations and available ambulances • Annual inventory of resources in counties not at risk • Clearly defined roles and responsibilities for all agencies participating in the evacuation • Gap analysis between number of vehicles available and number needed for evacuation • List of vehicles in county available for evacuation • Private Assets Logistics Management (PALM) system that manages private sector assets that can be accessed during an evacuation • Standard Operating Guidelines (SOG), updated every two years • Statewide mutual aid agreements for ambulances • WebEOC Personnel • Contacts in other agencies for real-time information • EM personnel in EOC with decision making authority • State Incident Management Team available to help counties with evacuation • Logistics staff to coordinate resources and resource requests • Personnel to update registry information Vehicles • Ambulances (basic life support, advanced life support, bariatric)–private and public • EM vehicles • Fire department vehicles • School buses for areas without mass transit METROPOLITAN PLANNING ORGANIZATION/COUNCIL OF GOVERNMENTS (MPO/COG) Intelligence/Data • 511 service operated by state to provide updates on state and interstate highways • GIS maps • Mapping tool to provide: • Information to evaluate placement of law enforcement and equipment • Weather information • Hurricane tracking • Traffic flow information including contra flow map • Modeling capabilities • Evacuation models by zip code, neighborhood, city, county or state • Hurricane models • Monitoring of blue tooth numbers • Reliable data from traffic cameras Management • Centralized Traffic Operations Center (TOC) • Convening leaders of different agencies to discuss evacuation plans • Funding coordination • Study to help public information officers reach access and functional needs populations Personnel • Staff support to committees for planning and after-action reviews • GIS staff

Page 94 Step 4 - Develop the Plan TOOL 4.2.1, EXAMPLES OF RESOURCES TRANSIT AGENCY AND OTHER TRANSPORTATION PROVIDERS Equipment and Assets • Evacuation route signage • Generators at transit facilities • GPS on buses • Meters in stations to count number of people allowed into stations • Parking lots where stalled vehicles can be towed • Queue ropes • Radios on buses • Subway Stations (both non-accessible and ADA accessible) Intelligence • Assessment to identify number of people who need assistance to evacuate from special facilities, their physical characteristics (e.g., ambulatory, able to transfer from wheelchair to bus seat, needs wheelchair, needs stretcher) and the type of vehicle they need • Estimates of time required to load and unload buses, drive to destination, and return • Hyper alert application for mobile phones to alert staff and operators • Joint Rail Control Center • Maps for drivers (e.g., to off-site bus storage areas, pickup, transfer, and drop off points) Management • 3-1-1 System to coordinate requests for evacuation transportation • Communication–internal, intra-agency, external • Employee preparedness letters • Social media • Subscription service • Website • Credentials/identification for all personnel • Designated pickup and transfer points • Documents to track assets and operators’ hours • Off-site vehicle storage • Registry (2-1-1, access and functional needs, medical special needs) • Shelter for transit facility personnel • Signal systems • Software that integrates resource requests with reimbursement • Transportation resources database to track vehicle status • WebEOC Personnel • Dispatcher • Drivers • Law Enforcement • Transit personnel assigned to EOC • Transit personnel to track vehicles and number of evacuees Vehicles • Dispatcher • Drivers • Law Enforcement • Transit personnel assigned to EOC • Transit personnel to track vehicles and number of evacuees COMMUNITY-BASED/FAITH-BASED ORGANIZATIONS (CBOS/FBOS) Equipment and Assets Intelligence Management Personnel Vehicles

Page 95 Step 4 - Develop the Plan STEP FOUR—TOOLS TOOL 4.2.2: OVERVIEW OF FEMA RESOURCE TYPING FOR TRANSPORTATION RESOURCES PURPOSE: The purpose of this tool is to direct planners to the FEMA website to find extensive resources about resource typing–a major element of resource management. FEMA has developed a free, online tool so that jurisdictions and agencies can record their Tier 1 resources. See NIMS IRIS (National Incident Management System, Incident Resource Inventory System) below.

Page 96 Step 4 - Develop the Plan DIRECTIONS: Go to http://www.fema.gov/emergency/nims/ResourceMngmnt.shtm#item5 FEMA also released guidance in March 2007 to revise its former policy on resource typing. For details go to http://www.fema.gov/pdf/emergency/nims/ng_0001.pdf Some transportation-related resources are typed and defined in the Public Works section: • http://www.fema.gov/pdf/emergency/nims/508-7_public_works_resources.pdf • http://www.fema.gov/txt/emergency/nims/public_works_resources.txt; buses are on page 21. For accessibility, text versions of all typed resources are provided on the FEMA website. Variable message signs, arrow signs, and snow removal equipment are also included. Animal Protection Resource Typing Animal Protection Resource Typing for transportation resources includes large animal transport and small animal transport. The following are references to the FEMA Resource Typing. • http://www.fema.gov/pdf/emergency/nims/508-1_animal_health_resources.pdf • http://www.fema.gov/pdf/emergency/nims/508-1_animal_health_resources.txt More than 120 resources have been typed as Tier 1 resources. Resources are being revised on an as-needed basis as the NIC and stakeholders recognize errors or updates. FEMA has developed a free, online tool so that jurisdictions and agencies can record their Tier 1 resources (http://www.fema.gov/pdf/emergency/nims/508- 7_public_works_resources.pdf) . Readers are referred to the website for original diagrams, and to the text version for those with visual or other impairments. For accessibility, text versions of all typed resources are provided on the FEMA website. The public works reference is http://www.fema.gov/txt/emer- gency/nims/public_works_resources.txt; buses are on page 21.

Page 97 Step 4 - Develop the Plan Medical Emergency Resource Typing including paratran- sit vehicles, defined with some restrictions Medical Emergency Resource Typing for transportation assets also includes fixed wing and rotary wing aircraft, and ground ambulances, as well as ambulance strike teams. These include detail comparable to the Multi-Patient Medical Transport Vehicle. • http://www.fema.gov/pdf/emergency/nims/508-3_emer- gency_medica_%20services_%20resources.pdf • http://www.fema.gov/txt/emergency/nims/508_3_emergency_medical_%20services.txt

Page 98 Step 4 - Develop the Plan TOOL 4.2.3: TR–TRANSPORTATION RELATED RESOURCE DATABASE TEMPLATES PURPOSE: These databases are designed to assist planners in helping self- evacuees make their way to their destinations. DIRECTIONS: Initial databases include a sample with instructions, followed by a blank form that can be customized for an individual jurisdiction. Screen shots of related, more detailed, self-explanatory Excel sheet database resource templates are also provided. Tool 4.2.3.1, Major Evacuation Routes This tool is a list of the major evacuation routes for adjoining jurisdictions or states. For hurricane-prone locations, these are already predetermined and include evacuation signage. For other locations, the list can include major routes such as highways, interstates, or other multi-lane roads. In preparing to use this tool, consider the following questions: • Is the route itself routinely subject to hazards, such as flooding? See Figure 4-5 • Are there potential bottlenecks, such as lane drops? • How will bottlenecks be handled in a major evacuation? • Are alternate routes identified in case there is infrastructure damage, debris, or a major incident that blocks a route? • Will a route, or a specific section/segment along the route, re- quire law enforcement to keep evacuation traffic moving? • Are there any jurisdictional questions among law enforcement agencies as to which is charged with monitoring and staffing the route or segment? • Is there coordination among jurisdictions as to designating routes and how to man- age those routes in the planning, response, and reentry phases of an evacuation? STEP FOUR—TOOLS

Page 99 Step 4 - Develop the Plan Tool 4.2.3.2, Selected Food/Fuel Vendors along Major Evacuation Routes Pre-determine food and fuel vendor locations before an evacuation occurs. These services will need generators to operate if there is a power outage. Include contact information. Consider staffing the facility with local law enforcement. Priority for refueling should also be considered. NCHRP 20-59 (32) A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation Tool 4.2.3, TR – Transportation Related Resource Database Templates Major Evacuation Routes Example Specific law enforcement agency contact information should be here Specific law enforcement agency assigned to monitor / staff route or segment Route Potential Bottlenecks Law Enforcement Assigned Law Enforcement Agency Contact Specific route that will be used during evacuations. For hurricanes/tsunamis Identify specific locations, (e.g., lane drops); potential Yes / No / if needed: if the route or segment along the route has Specific law enforcement agency assigned to monitor / Specific law enforcement agency contact these have been predetermined and have signs showing directional arrows. Other jurisdictions should include large multi-laned routes such as highways and interstates. mitigation (e.g., divert some traffic to alternate route prior to lane drop) been pre-determined that law enforcement must be used tToransportation Related Resour ce cDatabase Tuations it emplates This excerpt can be viewed in full on CRP-CD-132. facilitate eva should be so noted here. staff route or segment information should be here Route Potential Bottlenecks Law Enforcement Assigned Law Enforcement Agency Contact NCHRP 20-59 (32) A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation Tool 4.2.3.2, Selected Food/Fuel Vendors along Major Evacuation Routes Food/Fuel Vendors along Major Evacuation Routes Example Route Vendor Address Contact Generator Food/Fuel/Both Name: specific route or segment along the Name of facility Specific location along the route should be here; it Complete contact information for the owner/ Yes / No: if location has no generator the Designates if location has food, fuel, or both evacuation route could also be noted here if there is an alternative mailing address manager/ staff that would be assigned and workingSelected Food/Fuel V at the evacue s if tendors along here ionMajor Evacuation Routes was power; without power This excerpt can be viewed in full on CRP-CD-132. the location locat facility could only remain open and functional to ceases to be a viable facility Route Vendor Address Contact Generator Food/Fuel/Both

Page 100 Step 4 - Develop the Plan Public Works Equipment and Resources Inventory Tool 4.2.3.3, Variable Message Sign and Dynamic Message Sign Inventory (separate Excel sheet- screen shot for reference only) Possible supplement to FEMA Resource Definition Tool 4.2.3.4, Public Works Equipment and Resources Inven- tory (separate Excel sheet- screen shot for reference only) Note: some of these are included in FEMA resource typing; many are not. Variable Message Sign and Dynamic Message Sign Inventory This excerpt can be viewed in full on CRP-CD-132. This excerpt can be viewed in on CRP-CD-132.

Page 101 Step 4 - Develop the Plan TOOL 4.2.4: TA–TRANSPORTATION ASSISTANCE PURPOSE: The following databases inform emergency managers of potential assets that can be used to coordinate and assist evacuees needing additional assistance to make their way to safe refuge. DIRECTION: Each database includes a sample with instructions, followed by a blank form that can be customized for an individual jurisdiction. The screen shot for the supplementary Excel sheet (4.2.4.3) is provided for those desiring more detail for logistics planning. 4.2.4.1 Intermodal Facilities Database 4.2.4.2 Mass Transportation Modes Database 4.2.4.3 Vehicle Fleet Information 4.2.4.4 Manager/Supervisor/Dispatcher/Operator Database STEP FOUR—TOOLS

Page 102 Step 4 - Develop the Plan TOOL 4.2.4.1: IF–INTERMODAL FACILITIES OR OTHER DESIGNATED RECEPTION/COLLECTOR LOCATIONS PURPOSE: Reception/Pickup Locations: this database serves to coordinate those pre-determined locations that evacuees would be directed to for reception/pickup for transportation to shelters. DIRECTIONS: Each database includes a sample with instructions, followed by a blank form that can be customized for an individual jurisdiction. Promising practice Some places use these gathering opportunities to register and “tag” people (and service animals, pets, and durable medical equipment) prior to transport, for ex- ample, attaching associated wristbands to children and their parents. • Employ trained staff from Mass Care to help with registering people and resolving concerns about people with access and functional needs such as unaccompanied minors, people with cognitive disabilities, with language barriers, and other needs. • Ensure that service animals remain with their owners at the transportation “hand-off” between modes and that caregivers stay with their client(s) and/or family member(s), and that mobility devices and other durable medical equipment stay with the owner, or at least are carefully tracked, scanned, and transported at the same time, so the owner is reunited with his/her equipment immediately upon arrival at the destination shelter. STEP FOUR—TOOLS  TipWhile planning, “sending” jurisdic-tions need to verify how they will collect people, how and where they will identify them, their families and their belongings, how they will transport them, and how they will coordinate with receiving jurisdic- tions as to appropriate destinations.

Page 103 Step 4 - Develop the Plan The database can be further designed to include information about how evacuees will get to the reception/pickup locations: walking or driving personal vehicles. The same form can be used to gather information on destination location reception centers, if there will be a central collection point prior to assigning people to shelters. The locations must be well known locations such as parks, libraries, schools, stadiums, or established intermodal facilities such as rail/bus stations. NCHRP 20-59 (32) A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation Tool 4.2.4.1, IF – Intermodal Facilities or Other Designated Reception/ Collector Locations Intermodal Facilities or Other Designated Reception/Collector Locations Example Facility Type Modes Served-check all that apply Name Address y Contact Name / # Ad hoc At-grade off street Grade separated Bus, Rail Ferry Air Other van # Parking spaces Person Capacity multi-modal Common Address; if This will contain E.g., E.g., park E.g., bus/ # spaces for Approx. max # name for a large the contact stadium, and ride lot, rail, bus/ cars, buses if that can fit facility facility name and phone mall, bus transfer rail/ air, designated; # designate number for museum, station, etc. bus/ car/ handicapped specific person who convention ferry, etc. designated collection could authorize center, etc. spaces location; use of the prepare facility. and post wayfinding signs in the event of an emergency. Intermodal Facilities or Other Designated Reception/Collector Locations Template Name Address y Contact Name / # Facility Type Modes Served-check all that apply # Parking spaces Person Capacity Ad hoc At-grade off street Grade separated multi-modal Bus, van Rail Ferry Air Other Intermodal Facilities or Other Desig- nated Reception/Collector Locations This excerpt can be viewed in full on CRP-CD-132.

Page 104 Step 4 - Develop the Plan NCHRP 20-59 (32) A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation Tool 4.2.4.2, Mass Transportation Modes Database Mass Transportation Modes Database Example Mode Name Address Contact Name / # # Vehicles, capacity per vehicle Capacity (Max. # People) Wheelchair life equipped? #Yes / # No # of wheelchair securement locations Transit (list all modes); school buses; coach or other national bus line; trains; airlines with pre-approved agreements; etc. School / Vendor name. This address may be the location where the mode is “housed”, for example school bus yard, or it could be the specific location for the mode such This will contain the contact name and phone number for person who could authorize use of each specific mode for evacuation. If there are different vehicle sizes and types, request averages or detail by vehicle type (what contact can provide) Total capacity mode can accommodate. Indicate the number of vehicles or the percentage or vehicles that are lift equipped Some vehicles have 1, 2 or more securement locations; indicate the approximate total for the entire fleet. as airports or train TOOL 4.2.4.2: MASS TRANSPORTATION MODES DATABASE (See also Tool 4.2.2 for FEMA Resource Typing for Buses and Multi-Patient Medical Transport Vehicles and Tool 4.2.4.3 Fleet Vehicle Information Form) PURPOSE: The Mass Transportation Modes Database tool is designed to provide a comprehensive listing of all modes of transportation that could be used to evacuate mass numbers of people. They include basic information on wheelchair lifts and securement locations on each vehicle. This as- sists in determining total capacity for evacuation of people with access and functional needs. DIRECTIONS: Include information from paratransit providers as well as from CBOs, FBOs, and NGOs where feasi- ble and where agreements are in place. Not all vehicles identified will be available in many situations. STEP FOUR—TOOLS station. Mass Transportation Modes Database Template Mode Name Address Contact Name / # # Vehicles, capacity per vehicle Capacity (Max. # People) Wheelchair life equipped? #Yes / # No # of wheelchair securement locations Mass Transportation Modes Database This excerpt can be viewed in full on CRP-CD-132.

Page 105 Step 4 - Develop the Plan TOOL 4.2.4.3: VEHICLE FLEET INFORMATION FORM STEP FOUR—TOOLS VEHICLE-FLEET INFORMATION TOOL Purpose: This tool is designed as a resource inventory tool for transportation fleets. It can be adapted for any type of fleet for any type of vehicle. Directions: Examples of important items to inventory are: The number of vehicles The type of vehicles The location of stored vehicles The fuel type and storage locations of the fuel (can be used for sharing arrangements) The capacity of the vehicles Axle clearance (important in responses to flooding) The configuration of the vehicles (rail systems) as consists (and if the consist sizes can be changed, and what the maximum capa Vehicle deployment by time of day (this ensures that readiness can be assessed at peak, off-peak, and non-revenue hours) Each system can also add any additional information important to deployment of its fleet in an emergency. Carrier 1 Fleet - buses Buses in Service Storage Facilities Rail cars (see below) Weekday Saturday Sunday AM Peak Midday PM Peak Night Location: Location: Standard buses # Available Fuel type: Fuel type: Average seats per bus Amount: Amount: Average wheelchair tie- Estimated total seating capacity (with wheelchairs in place) Estimated total standing capacity (with wheelchairs in place) Estimated total wheelchair capacity Axle clearance Carrier 2 Fleet Saturday Sunday AM Peak Midday PM Peak Night Location: Location: # Available Fuel type: Fuel type: Average seats per bus Amount: Amount: Average wheelchair tie- Estimated total seating capacity (with wheelchairs in place) Estimated total standing capacity (with wheelchairs in place) Estimated total wheelchair capacity Axle clearance Charter/Commuter Bus Carrier 1 Fleet Saturday Sunday AM Peak Midday PM Peak Night Location: Location: # Available Fuel type: Fuel tType: Service A Amount: Amount: Service B Service C Total available Charter/Commuter Bus Carrier 2 Fleet Saturday Sunday AM Peak Midday PM Peak Night Location: Location: # Available Fuel type: Fuel type: Amount: Amount: School Bus System A Fleet Saturday Sunday AM Peak Midday PM Peak Night # Available Location: Location: Fuel type: Fuel type: Storage Facilities Storage facilities Storage facilities Storage Facilities Vehicles in Service Weekday Weekday Vehicles in Service Weekday Vehicles in Service Weekday Vehicles in Service Vehicle Fleet Information Form This excerpt can be viewed in full on CRP-CD-132.

Page 106 Step 4 - Develop the Plan TOOL 4.2.4.4: MANAGER/SUPERVISOR/DISPATCHER/DRIVER DATABASE PURPOSE: This tool is designed to help planners identify personnel needed and available to assist with emergency evacuations. DIRECTIONS: In the planning stage, identify drivers and operators who are willing to drive in an emergency situation. Most transit systems and large operations will include contact information for the managers who could authorize the use of the buses or other vehicles and drivers. The supervi- sors and dispatchers will keep the lists of drivers/operators. In certain types of incidents, such as a radiological incident, managers and drivers are not expected to put themselves and their equipment in danger; they would likely be deployed to a nearby site out of the danger area to transport people once they have been decontaminated. For small operations, actual drivers can be identified; however, the person who can authorize the driver can be the primary contact. STEP FOUR—TOOLS NCHRP 20-59 (32) A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation Tool 4.2.4.4, Manager/Supervisor/Dispatcher/Driver Database Manager/Supervisor/Dispatcher/Driver Database Example Mode Manager/Supervisor/Dispatcher/Driver Name Approximate # of drivers potentially available Contact Information Mode which drivers This should be the specific name of Approximate numbers of Phone numbers for have been authorized to managers or supervisors with authority drivers who might be managers/drivers / legally operate; for to request drivers to operate in an available/who have operators/ supervisors/ example school bus, emergency situation. See notes. Pre- volunteered should be dispatchers (include train, planes, etc. planning is needed to ensure such service is included in union agreements or contracts. Approximate numbers of drivers who would be available/who have volunteered should be included. included. (Will vary by event/ season/ time of alternate numbers). Manager/Supervisor/Dispatcher/Driver Database Template Mode Manager/Supervisor/Dispatcher/Driver Name Approximate # of drivers potentially available Contact Information Manager/Supervisor/Dis- day.) patcher/Driver Database This excerpt can be viewed in full on CRP-CD-132.

Page 107 Step 4 - Develop the Plan TOOL 4.2.5: PS–PUBLIC SHELTERS TRANSPORTATION REFERENCE PURPOSE: This database serves to coordinate the transportation aspects of the more comprehensive public shelter database information. DIRECTIONS: Include, at the minimum, the facility name, address, and capacity. For transportation purposes, it is only necessary to know when a particular shelter is at or near capacity, whether it has power or a generator for people with access and functional needs who might require power, and whether it accepts pets. Transportation (highway and transit) officials also need to know about roadway access and parking capacity. The survey template that follows the database provides a starting point for gathering the information. Such surveys may contain more detailed information than can be readily captured in the database, and if so should be appended to the database. Each database includes a sample with instructions, followed by a blank form that can be customized for an individual jurisdiction. This public shelters list table includes a placeholder for a database ID for each shelter which would be assigned for planning and tracking purposes and would correspond with the ID used by the American Red Cross or the designated agency responsible for ESF #6–Mass Care, Emergency Assistance, Housing, and Human Services function. The FEMA document, “Guidance on Planning for Integration of Functional Needs Support Services in General Population Shelters” (November 2010) (www.fema.gov/pdf/about/ odic/fnss_guidance.pdf) provides comprehensive guidance, checklists, and other tools to help local communities accomplish the mission stated in the title of the Guide. More jurisdictions now open and allow pets in the event of evacuations. The pets are not usually sheltered with the population, but the evacuees are usually allowed access to them. STEP FOUR—TOOLS

Page 108 Step 4 - Develop the Plan NCHRP 20-59 (32) A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation Tool 4.2.5, PS – Public Shelters Transportation Reference Public Shelters List – Transportation Reference Example Databas e ID Name Building # Address Directions Access Roads- Alternativ e access Parking capacity Host Capacity Pet Friendl y (P)- Generator – Additional Consideration s POC for question s # Facilit Could be Complete Directions Access Alternative Parking How will Yes/No: Yes/No: Any additional Name assigned y specific physical from one roads to routes capacity transportatio Pet care facility has information and to name building address of or more shelter available if for cars n be notified facilities a associated phone location ID, location evacuatio clearly primary (for self- when shelter are on- functionin with the number number, designated as n routes marked; access evacuees, is at or near site or g shelter for point or other a shelter including not route is staff and capacity? nearby. generator. location could of identifie could also be landmarks subject blocked? volunteers In a power be contact r used to to ) and for outage documented in designate specific building/roo m (i.e.: gymnasium). flooding or other hazards . buses people with power essential life- or mobility- devices this column. Public Shelters List- Transportation Reference Template Database ID Name Building # Address Directions Access Roads- Alternative access Parking capacity Host Capacity Pet Friendly (P)- Generator – Additional Considerations POC for questions   SHELTER FACILITY TRANSPORTATION SURVEY  Please print all information. This form is generic to many types of shelters; some of the questions on this form  might not apply to every site. In such cases, answer N/A (not applicable).    Site Name:   Street Address:   Town/City:       County/Parish:     State: _____   Zip Code: ______    Mailing Address (if different):   Phone: ( ) _____‐_______ Fax: ( ) _____‐_________  Email address (if applicable):   EMERGENCY CONTACT INFORMATION:  To verify facility readiness, availability, and capacity, contact (Name[s], phone number[s], cell number[s]); include  secondary contacts:  _____________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ _____________  Directions to the facility from the nearest major highway evacuation route. Use major landmarks (e.g., highways,  intersections, rivers, railroad crossings, etc.). Do not use landmarks likely to be destroyed or unrecognizable after  the disaster. Include latitude and longitude if available (they can be obtained via GPS).  ______________________________________________________________________________________                             ______________________________________________________________________________________                               Latitude: _______  Longitude: _______  Access: Are the identified roads subject to flooding or other blockage in a major event? Yes/No If yes, please  describe _______________________  Are there vehicle height or weight restrictions on roads or bridges leading to the shelter? If yes, please describe  ________________________________  Are there available detour routes in case a major access route is blocked? Please describe  _________________________________ Do these detour routes have height or weight restrictions? Please  describe ______________________  What parking is available at the facility? _____ # cars _____ # buses  Can the facility driveway accommodate (for both weight and turning radius): school buses (yes/no); over the road  coaches (yes/no); large trucks for supplies (yes/no)   Does the facility accommodate pets (e.g., in a nearby enclosure)?  Does the facility have a generator or back up power source? (Detail should be included in the master shelter  survey form.)   PS–Public Shelters Transportation Referaccess and encefunctional This excerpt can be viewed in full on CRP-CD-132..needs may need to Public Shelters Survey This excerpt can be viewed in full on CRP-CD-132._____________________ _ 

Page 109 Step 4 - Develop the Plan NCHRP 20-59 (32) A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation Tool 4.2.6, Resource Inventory Checklist Step 1: Identify and Locate Evacuees (From Step 2) Completed Estimate the number of people who will need to be evacuated. Permanent residents Tourists Commuters Estimate the number of self-evacuees. Locate self-evacuees. Identify by state, county, city, zip code, neighborhoods, or surge zone Estimate number of evacuees who will need assistance Identify assisted evacuees living in residential facilities (e.g., hospitals, long-term care facilities, rehabilitation centers, assisted living and retirement centers, detention facilities, state schools). Location of these facilities (specific location; note if there is an alternative mailing address) Primary contact person at each facility, phone, mobile phone number, email Number of beds at each facility (occupied/unoccupied) Number of people who are ambulatory Number of people who will need specialized transportation Estimate the number of assisted evacuees who are enrolled in day programs (e.g., public and private schools, child day care, adult day care, after-school programs, employment centers). Location of day programs (specific location; note if there is an alternative mailing address) Primary contact person at each facility, phone, mobile phone number, email) Estimate the number of assisted evacuees who live independently (e.g., people who receive in-home health care or who are carless, homebound, homeless, have mobility/ disability/cognitive limitations, or are latchkey children). Include estimates from network partners. Determine the number of people registered as needing assistance in an evacuation. (Not part of this guide and not recommended in most cases - refer to TCRP Report 150 for detailed discussion, Tool X.) How often is the registry updated? Dedicate a phone or email service residents can use to request assistance during an evacuation (e.g., 3-1-1). (Not part of this guide) Resource Inventory Checklist This excerpt can be viewed in full on CRP-CD-132. TOOL 4.2.6: RESOURCE INVENTORY CHECKLIST PURPOSE: Every jurisdiction and agency involved in an evacuation will develop its own procedures for identifying community needs and matching the resources required to meet those needs. Each process will be unique to the geographic area, type of event, available resources, and other variable factors. The stepped process presented here is a tool to help planners inventory the information and resources they will need for evacuations. DIRECTIONS: Use the following stepped process to inventory and match evacuation resources to the needs of self-evacuees and evacuees requiring assistance. Planners may choose to or- ganize the information in a database, list, or emergency evacuation plan. STEP FOUR—TOOLS

Page 110 Step 4 - Develop the Plan TOOL 4.3: CHECKLIST FOR INTER-AGENCY COMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION SHARING BETWEEN TRANSPORTATION AGENCIES, EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT, AND OTHERS PURPOSE: Whether notice or no-notice, emergency events that result in mass evacuation can produce the following conditions: 1. Multijurisdictional and interagency response 2. Large volumes of information 3. Complex webs of coordination and decisions Transportation agencies and providers can use the following worksheets in planning exercises to document communication, decisions, and other actions taken before and during an evacuation. The worksheets may also serve as reminders in the midst of an event, but advance practice and planning is important to ingrain the lessons. Most regions have one or more EOCs and TMCs, usually at local, city and/or county, and state levels. The planning effort should include the sharing of information between EOCs and TMCs and if appropriate, with Fusion Centers (DHS funded). Without that go/no go discussion based on what the data TMCs have available to share with the EOCs, it may be less likely that the evacuation will be organized in a way to limit congestion on the roadway network. The FHWA document, “Information Sharing Guidebook for Transportation Management Centers, Emergency Operations Centers, and Fusion Centers” (FHWA 2010) may be helpful. Informing the public (through multiple media, in multiple languages, and in multiple accessible formats) is an essential component of information shar- ing. It is primarily the responsibility of ESF #15, External Affairs. STEP FOUR—TOOLS This tool corresponds to Task 4.3: Identify Intelligence and Information Needs

Page 111 Step 4 - Develop the Plan DIRECTIONS: Use the worksheets to systematically organize information, convey and request key information, track decisions and actions to be taken, and document the incident (exercise scenario or actual incident). The steps below correlate to the worksheets that follow. 1. Assess the initial incident using available information. 2. Based on that information, determine what agencies and jurisdic- tions should be involved in communication activities. 3. Identify and collect the types of transportation information to be shared. The informa- tion collected reflects the user’s role and responsibilities in the management of the transportation-related resources. It also relates to defined emergency response functions. 4. Identify what information is to be provided and what informa- tion is needed from the expected participants. 5. Determine whether Emergency Management has updated its orders or directions since the initial assessment. This is especially important to understanding how the geographic and associated jurisdictional characteristics of the evacuation may be changing. 6. Prepare for the next cycle of information sharing and exchanges. 7. Based on emerging and updated information, identify what information is to be provided to and what information is needed from the expected participants. 8. Preparing for re-entry, coordinate among transportation disciplines across jurisdictions. 9. Preparing for re-entry, coordinate information across all jurisdictions and disciplines. 10. After action report—define how well interjurisdictional communication worked. NCHRP 20-59 (32) A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation Tool 4.3, Checklist for inter-agency communications and information sharing between transportation agencies, emergency management, and others Step 1: Assess the initial incident using available information. Incident Description Situation Location Nature of Incident/ Type of Danger (describe briefly) Situation Category (check all that apply) Shelter-in-Place Selective Evacuation ation __Shelter-place __Quarantine __Selective evacuation __Multiple locations __Official expedited commute __Major transit disruption __Other major trans. Facility closure power failure __Military, police, gov’t action n Time of Day/ Day of Week Wind speed/ direction Warning Time Expected Duration STEP 2: Based on that information, determine what agencies and jurisdictions should be involved in communication activities. Initial Discovery Stage Communications  Comments Interjurisdictional Information exchange: Is there a need for communications across jurisdictions within transportation? If yes, confirm details, below, and prepare fill in the types of transportation information in Step 3. Need for one-on-one calls/communications? With whom? Need for conference call(s) across transportation agencies? If yes: Determine lead agency Who initiates call? Who participates in call? When will initial call take place? Cross-functional Information exchange: Is there a need for communications within jurisdictions across functions- transportation, EMA, law enforcement, other? If yes, fill in the types of transportation information in Step 3. Checklist for inter-agency communi-Phased Release Full Evacu cations and information sharing be-Evacuation tween transportation agencies, emer- __Phased release __Full gency management, and others __Widespread evacuatio This excerpt can be viewed in full on CRP-CD-132.

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TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 740: A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation focuses on the transportation aspects of evacuation, particularly large-scale, multijurisdictional evacuation.

The guidance, strategies, and tools in NCHRP Report 740 are based on an all-hazards approach that has applicability to a wide range of “notice” and “no-notice” emergency events. The report follows the basic planning steps of the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s Comprehensive Preparedness Guide (CPG) 101. Each chapter parallels one of the six main CPG steps. Each chapter is further subdivided into smaller, discrete tasks, with cross-references to tools--such as templates or checklists--that are shown at the end of each chapter and are on a CD-ROM included with the print version of the report.

The CD-ROM is also available for download from TRB’s website as an ISO image. Links to the ISO image and instructions for burning a CD-ROM from an ISO image are provided below.

The contractor’s final report, which documents the development of the report, was published as NCHRP Web-Only Document 196. A PowerPoint presentation describing the entire project that resulted in NCHRP Report 740 is available for download.

Help on Burning an .ISO CD-ROM Image

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CD-ROM Disclaimer - This software is offered as is, without warranty or promise of support of any kind either expressed or implied. Under no circumstance will the National Academy of Sciences or the Transportation Research Board (collectively "TRB") be liable for any loss or damage caused by the installation or operation of this product. TRB makes no representation or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, in fact or in law, including without limitation, the warranty of merchantability or the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, and shall not in any case be liable for any consequential or special damages.

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