National Academies Press: OpenBook
Page i
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Feasibility Study for Highway Hazardous Materials Bulk Package Accident Performance Data Collection. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22649.
×
Page R1
Page ii
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Feasibility Study for Highway Hazardous Materials Bulk Package Accident Performance Data Collection. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22649.
×
Page R2
Page iii
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Feasibility Study for Highway Hazardous Materials Bulk Package Accident Performance Data Collection. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22649.
×
Page R3
Page iv
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Feasibility Study for Highway Hazardous Materials Bulk Package Accident Performance Data Collection. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22649.
×
Page R4
Page v
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Feasibility Study for Highway Hazardous Materials Bulk Package Accident Performance Data Collection. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22649.
×
Page R5
Page vi
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Feasibility Study for Highway Hazardous Materials Bulk Package Accident Performance Data Collection. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22649.
×
Page R6
Page vii
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Feasibility Study for Highway Hazardous Materials Bulk Package Accident Performance Data Collection. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22649.
×
Page R7
Page viii
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Feasibility Study for Highway Hazardous Materials Bulk Package Accident Performance Data Collection. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22649.
×
Page R8

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

H A Z A R D O U S M A T E R I A L S C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M HMCRP REPORT 10 Feasibility Study for Highway Hazardous Materials Bulk Package Accident Performance Data Collection Philip J. Daum EnginEEring SyStEmS, inc. (ESi) Aurora, IL Christopher P. L. Barkan Mohd Rapik Saat Laura E. Ghosh rail tranSportation and EnginEEring cEntEr (railtEc) UnivErSity of illinoiS at Urbana-champaign Urbana, IL Subscriber Categories Freight Transportation • Motor Carriers TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2013 www.TRB.org Research sponsored by the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM The safety, security, and environmental concerns associated with transportation of hazardous materials are growing in number and complexity. Hazardous materials are substances that are flammable, explosive, or toxic or that, if released, produce effects that would threaten human safety, health, the environment, or property. Hazardous materials are moved throughout the country by all modes of freight transportation, including ships, trucks, trains, airplanes, and pipelines. The private sector and a diverse mix of government agencies at all levels are responsible for controlling the transport of hazardous materials and for ensuring that hazardous cargoes move without incident. This shared goal has spurred the creation of several venues for organizations with related interests to work together in preventing and responding to hazardous materials incidents. The freight transportation and chemical industries; government regulatory and enforcement agencies at the federal and state levels; and local emergency planners and responders routinely share information, resources, and expertise. Nevertheless, there has been a long- standing gap in the system for conducting hazardous materials safety and security research. Industry organizations and government agencies have their own research programs to support their mission needs. Collaborative research to address shared problems takes place occasionally, but mostly occurs on an ad hoc basis. Acknowledging this gap in 2004, the U.S. DOT Office of Hazardous Materials Safety, the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, the Federal Railroad Administration, and the U.S. Coast Guard pooled their resources for a study. Under the auspices of the Transportation Research Board (TRB), the National Research Council of the National Academies appointed a committee to examine the feasibility of creating a cooperative research program for hazardous materials transportation, similar in concept to the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and the Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). The committee concluded, in TRB Special Report 283: Cooperative Research for Hazardous Materials Transportation: Defining the Need, Converging on Solutions, that the need for cooperative research in this field is significant and growing, and the committee recommended establishing an ongoing program of cooperative research. In 2005, based in part on the findings of that report, the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU) authorized the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) to contract with the National Academy of Sciences to conduct the Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program (HMCRP). The HMCRP is intended to complement other U.S. DOT research programs as a stakeholder-driven, problem-solving program, researching real-world, day-to-day operational issues with near- to mid- term time frames. Published reports of the HAZARDOUS MATERIALS COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America HMCRP REPORT 10 Project HM-07 ISSN 2150-4849 ISBN: 978-0-309-25882-1 Library of Congress Control Number 2012956044 © 2013 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, RITA, or PHMSA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not- for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the sponsors of the Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR HMCRP REPORT 10 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs William C. Rogers, Senior Program Officer Charlotte Thomas, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Ellen M. Chafee, Editor HMCRP PROJECT 07 PANEL William R. Rhyne, Kingston, TN (Chair) Daniel Blower, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI Cheryl A. “Cherry” Burke, Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI John F. Cannon, Brenner Tank LLC, Fond du Lac, WI John L. Conley, National Tank Truck Carriers, Inc., Arlington, VA Roger D. Sims, Sims Professional Engineers, Highland, IN Todd Treichel, RSI-AAR Railroad Tank Car Safety Research and Test Project, Leesburg, VA Charles H. Hochman, PHMSA Liaison James Simmons, PHMSA Liaison Douglas W. “Doug” Scheffler, U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters Liaison Ann Purdue, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program (HMCRP) Project HM 07, “Accident Performance Data of Bulk Packages Used for Hazardous Materials Transportation,” was led by Engineering Systems, Inc. (ESI) as the prime contractor. The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Dr. Christopher P.L. Barkan provided subcontractor assistance. Philip J. Daum, P.E., served as the principal investigator, assisted by Dr. Barkan, who was co-principal investigator. Dr. Mohd Rapik Saat led the efforts at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, supported by Ms. Laura E. Ghosh, who was a graduate research assistant on the project. The project team would like to acknowledge the HM-07 oversight panel for sharing their knowledge throughout the project. Further, as the success of this project relied heavily on input from industry, the proj- ect team would like to thank, for a facilities tour as well as provision of expertise and time, Mr. Tom Anderson and Mr. Scott Hevelone at LBT, Inc., in Omaha, Nebraska; Mr. Kenny Wagner at FleetPride, also in Omaha; and Ms. Joey Langel, Mr. Bruce Overton, Mr. Steve Risewick, and Mr. S.J. Risewick, Jr., at Seneca Tank in Des Moines, Iowa. For the valuable insights provided during interviews, the project team thanks Mr. Adrian Carter and Mr. Ed Dunne at the Office of Hazardous Materials Technology, PHMSA; Mr. Carl McKnight and Ms. Stephanie Kim at Guident Technologies, Inc., consultant to PHMSA; Mr. Paul Bomgardner at FMCSA; Ms. Haldis M. Fearn at HMF2, LLC; and Lieutenant Beasley, Illinois State Police. Finally, the project team thanks, for interest in the project and conveying information to/from organization members: Mr. John Conley at National Tank Truck Carriers Association; Mr. Jeff Sims, Mr. Michael Daubert, and the Tank Conference Engineering Committee at the Truck Trailer Manufacturers Association; Mr. Jim Silver at Silver/CIMS LLC Inspection Services, Inc., representing the International Tank Container Organization; Mr. Patrick Kelly and Mr. Brian Knapp at the American Petroleum Institute; Mr. Tom Schick at American Chemistry Council; and Mr. Roger Smith and Ms. Amy Park at the Compressed Gas Association.

F O R E W O R D By William C. Rogers Staff Officer Transportation Research Board HMCRP Report 10: Feasibility Study for Highway Hazardous Materials Bulk Package Acci- dent Performance Data Collection offers methodologies for collecting and analyzing perfor- mance data for U.S. DOT-specified hazardous materials bulk packages (i.e., portable tanks and cargo tank motor vehicles), identifies and evaluates institutional barriers to data collec- tion, and makes suggestions for overcoming these barriers. The report offers a methodical approach for developing and implementing a reporting database system to collect infor- mation about damage to U.S. DOT-specified hazardous materials bulk packages involved in accidents, regardless of whether the damage resulted in a leak of contents, as well as the characteristics of the accidents. If implemented, the system would provide a comprehensive source of information to help the industry assess potential improvements in package design and allow decisionmakers to develop conditional probabilities of release and amounts of release in transport accidents by road. Bulk packages are a common method of transporting hazardous materials. The ability to predict the performance of these packages in a transportation accident is critical in the evaluation of risks. Accurate data on the impact of various design specifications on package performance in accidents are essential for safety, robust risk analysis, and better packaging selection decisions by carriers, shippers, and regulators. A long-standing, private-sector initiative managed by the Railway Supply Institute (RSI) and the Association of American Railroads (AAR), the RSI-AAR Railroad Tank Car Safety Research and Test Project, has col- lected and analyzed damage reports on tank cars involved in railroad accidents, whether or not the damage resulted in a leak of contents. The resulting data have been used to develop conditional release probabilities and amounts released for tank cars having different design specifications and features. Such specifications and features include overall release prob- abilities as well as probabilities by the location of the leak (i.e., shell, head, top or bottom fittings, or multiple locations). No such data exist for cargo tank motor vehicles or portable tanks; therefore, risk estimates for these types of packages are based on loose estimates and anecdotes rather than quantitative data. Under HMCRP Project 07, Engineering Systems, Inc., with the University of Illinois, was asked to (1) review package performance studies and analyses of U.S. DOT-specified hazardous materials bulk packages whether hauling hazardous or non-hazardous materials; (2) discuss the implications of different definitions for data collection, including the effects of various accident severity thresholds; (3) investigate existing data collection strategies; (4) interview package manufacturers, carriers, and shippers to determine how they have incor- porated accident performance into their designs and specifications; (5) interview regulatory and enforcement agencies, as well as other potential users of the data, to understand their

needs and uses of such data; (6) describe what data need to be collected, develop a data col- lection approach, and pilot test the approach; and (7) identify institutional barriers (e.g., legal, cost, privacy, and regulatory) and possible solutions. The final result is a report that offers methodologies for collecting and analyzing performance data for U.S. DOT-specified hazardous materials bulk packages, identifies and evaluates the institutional barriers to data collection, and makes suggestions for overcoming these barriers. Appendices to HMCRP Report 10 containing supplemental materials are provided on CRP-CD-128, which is provided with the report.

C O N T E N T S 1 Summary 7 Section 1 Introduction 8 Section 2 Information Needed to Assess Bulk Package Accident Performance 8 Literature Review 20 Industry Knowledge and Opinion 35 Information Collected by Existing Databases 43 Data Limitations of Existing Databases 44 Identification of Data Needs 51 Variable Evaluation 54 Selected Level of Detail 55 Section 3 Data Collection Methodologies 56 Literature Review 56 Accident Definitions 57 Reporting Thresholds of Existing Data Collection Strategies 60 Limitations of Existing Databases 61 Industry Experience 63 Approaches to Data Collection 64 Industry Opinion 67 Data Collection Process Options 70 Selected Data Collection Process for Further Implementation 81 Pilot Study 84 Conclusion 85 Section 4 Identifying a Methodology for Data Analysis 85 Literature Review 87 Approaches to Analyzing Data 89 Population-Wide Accident and Release Rates 92 Minimum Number of Records 98 Statistical Summary of the Pilot Study 107 Conclusion 109 Section 5 Institutional Barrier Identification 109 Industry Opinion 112 Identification of Institutional Barriers and Possible Solutions 115 Conclusion 116 Section 6 Conclusion and Suggested Research

117 References 119 Acronyms 121 Appendices A Through G Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.

Next: Summary »
Feasibility Study for Highway Hazardous Materials Bulk Package Accident Performance Data Collection Get This Book
×
 Feasibility Study for Highway Hazardous Materials Bulk Package Accident Performance Data Collection
Buy Paperback | $71.00
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

TRB’s Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program (HMCRP) Report 10: Feasibility Study for Highway Hazardous Materials Bulk Package Accident Performance Data Collection explores methods to collect and analyze performance data for U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT)-specified hazardous materials bulk packages such as portable tanks and cargo tank motor vehicles.

The report also identifies and evaluates institutional challenges to data collection, and makes suggestions for overcoming these challenges.

In addition, the report offers a methodical approach for developing and implementing a reporting database system to collect and characterize information about damage to U.S. DOT-specified hazardous materials bulk packages involved in accidents, regardless of whether the damage resulted in a leak of contents.

Appendices A through G have been published on a CD-ROM, which is bound into this report. Appendix titles are the following:

• Appendix A: Survey Development and Questions

• Appendix B: Conditional Probability of Release as a Function of Data Refinement

• Appendix C: Differences Between Highway and Rail Hazardous Material Transportation Affecting Development of a Bulk Package Accident Performance Database

• Appendix D: Option Evaluation Tool

• Appendix E: Pilot Study Data Collection Tool

• Appendix F: Links to Newspaper Articles

• Appendix G: An Example of Bulk Package Performance Analysis Using Multivariate Regression

The CD-ROM is also available for download from TRB’s website as an ISO image. Links to the ISO image and instructions for burning a CD-ROM from an ISO image are provided below.

Help on Burning an .ISO CD-ROM Image

Download the .ISO CD-ROM Image

(Warning: This is a large file and may take some time to download using a high-speed connection.)

CD-ROM Disclaimer - This software is offered as is, without warranty or promise of support of any kind either expressed or implied. Under no circumstance will the National Academy of Sciences or the Transportation Research Board (collectively "TRB") be liable for any loss or damage caused by the installation or operation of this product. TRB makes no representation or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, in fact or in law, including without limitation, the warranty of merchantability or the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, and shall not in any case be liable for any consequential or special damages.

READ FREE ONLINE

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!