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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendixes ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22664.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

i Contents APPENDIX A TRAVELER INFORMATION AVAILABILITY ................................................... A-1 APPENDIX B PUBLIC AGENCY SURVEY .................................................................................... B-1 APPENDIX C FOCUS GROUP QUESTION PATH ....................................................................... C-1 APPENDIX D TRIP LOGS AND FIGURES OF RESULTS .......................................................... D-1 APPENDIX E SURVEY QUESTIONS ............................................................................................. E-1 APPENDIX F SUPPLEMENTAL SURVEY QUESTION ............................................................... F-1 APPENDIX G FOCUS GROUP SUMMARY: OVERALL .............................................................. G-1 APPENDIX H FOCUS GROUP SUMMARY: NEW YORK CITY METRO (TEANECK, NJ) . H-1 New York City metro area – Light Users Group – February 16, 2012 .................................................................. H-1 New York City metro area – Heavy Users Group – February 15, 2012 ................................................................ H-5 APPENDIX I FOCUS GROUP SUMMARY: ORLANDO ............................................................... I-1 Orlando - Light Users Group - March 7, 2012 ....................................................................................................... I-1 Orlando - Heavy Users Group - March 6, 2012 ..................................................................................................... I-5 APPENDIX J FOCUS GROUP SUMMARY: SAN FRANCISCO ................................................... J-1 San Francisco - Light Users Group – February 29, 2012 ........................................................................................ J-1 San Francisco - Heavy Users Group – February 28, 2012 ...................................................................................... J-6 APPENDIX K FOCUS GROUP SUMMARY: WASHINGTON DC METRO (ROCKVILLE, MD) ................................................................................................................................................................. K-1 Rockville - Light Users Group – February 8, 2012 ................................................................................................ K-1 Rockville - Heavy Users Group - October 2011 .................................................................................................... K-5 APPENDIX L RESULTS (COMBINED): DETROIT/SALT LAKE CITY METRO AREAS..... L-1

ii APPENDIX M RESULTS (COMBINED): NYC (TEANECK, NJ)/ORLANDO/SAN FRANCISCO/WASHINGTON, DC (ROCKVILLE, MD) METRO AREAS ................................. M-1 APPENDIX N SUPPLEMENTAL SURVEY RESULTS (6 CITIES COMBINED) .................... N-1 APPENDIX O FEATURES, GUIDANCE, AND FUTURE FACILITATION OF AN EFFECTIVE TI PROGRAM ....................................................................................................................................... O-1

A-1 A P P E N D I X A Traveler Information Availability SOURCES Detroit Teaneck, NJ Orlando Salt Lake City San Francisco Washington, DC (Rockville, MD) 511 phone call x x x x x Electronic highway message signs x x x x x x Electronic local roadway message signs x x Email, text messages (subscription based) x x x x x x Highway advisory radio x x x x x x Mobile Smartphone "apps" (Iphone or Droid) x x x x x x On-board devices (e.g. Garmin, Tom- Tom, Onstar) x x x x x x Radio x x x x x x Social media sites (e.g. Twitter) x x x x x x Television x x x x x x Websites (using a laptop or desktop) x x x x x x Websites via mobile devices x x x x x x

A-2 TYPES Detroit NYC (Teaneck, NJ) Orlando Salt Lake City San Francisco Washington, DC, (Rockville, MD) Alternate routes Live traffic cameras x x x x x x Parking availability x x x x Public safety information (Amber or Silver alerts) x x x x x x Roadwork/ construction zones x x x x x x Safety information ("Buckle-up", "Signal when changing lanes") x x x x x x Special events x x x x x Traffic incidents x x x x x x Travel times x x x x x x Weather information x x x x x x

B-1 A P P E N D I X B Public Agency Survey Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems Public Agency Web-based Survey Question 1. What real-time traveler information does your agency disseminate to the traveling public? (Please check all that apply and provide additional information as necessary in the space provided.) Answer Options Response Percent Response Count Roadway travel condition status (e.g., traffic map of current speeds) 85.1% 40 Roadway CCTV video 87.2% 41 Traffic incidents 91.5% 43 Travel times 68.1% 32 Alternate routes 29.8% 14 Parking availability 2.1% 1 Roadwork / Construction Zones 93.6% 44 Transit alternatives 34.0% 16 Special Events 70.2% 33 Weather information 74.5% 35 Public Safety information (e.g., Amber Alerts, Silver Alerts, etc.) 80.9% 38 Safety information (e.g., “Buckle Up”, “Signal When Changing Lanes”, etc.) 59.6% 28 Other (please specify) or Comment 15 answered question 47 skipped question 0 Other: 1. Roadway CCTV is disseminated to the media by subscription. They make it available to the public; however, the entire state is not necessarily covered. 2. Ferry schedules, Mountain Pass Closures and winter driving conditions, Active Traffic Management System on select corridors. 3. Weather information is limited to weather conditions affecting traffic. Parking availability is forthcoming later this year and will include real-time availability. 4. You don't specify the method of data sharing: internet, phone or roadside devices. I am assuming you mean all three and have answered accordingly.

B-2 5. Not all of this information is available in all formats. For example; Travel Times are disseminated via our DMS. Access to Transit information is available only through a 511 transfer. But those checked above are disseminated to the public via one system or another. 6. AASHTO leads the 511 Deployment Coalition, which is a group of states deploying and operating real time information systems through the web, message signs and personal devices such as cell phone. 7. We provide transfers through our 511 system to public transportation, ferry, and rail agencies. We also provide real-time ferry information. 8. Homeland Security Messages. 9. CMS info. 10. Road conditions and chain requirements - Travel services. 11. Winter Road Conditions-by specific roadway and segment, Dynamic Message Sign messages, and Customized emergency alerts, specific to traffic impacts 12. We also provide transfers/links to information on seaports, airports, commuter services, tourist agencies and other 511 systems. We provide congestion information and disseminate emergency information regarding road closures, evacuation routes, and shelter openings and closings. 13. We also provides links to and/or transfers to seaports and airports, commuter services, tourist agencies and other 511 systems. We provide an emergency information page on our web site to provide information to the motorists on road closures, evacuation routes, alternate routes and shelter openings and closings. We also provide information on congestion over what a motorist can glean from the travel time/speed information provided. 14. In the next few months we'll be adding Travel Times, but currently do not do this. DMS messages, and winter road conditions 15. Safety information only as requested and funded by the Governor's Safety Office 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% 70.0% 80.0% 90.0% 100.0% Ro ad w ay tr av el … Ro ad w ay CC TV v id eo Tr af fic in ci de nt s Tr av el t im es A lte rn at e ro ut es Pa rk in g av ai la bi lit y Ro ad w or k / Co ns tr uc tio … Tr an si t al te rn at iv es Sp ec ia l Ev en ts W ea th er in fo rm at io n Pu bl ic S af et y in fo rm at io … Sa fe ty in fo rm at io … Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems Public Agency Web-based Survey

B-3 Question 2. Please indicate why your agency disseminates this real-time traveler information to the traveling public (check all that apply): Answer Options Response Percent Response Count Providing this information is part of our agency’s overall demand management strategy 72.3% 34 This information allows the traveling public to make better travel decisions 97.9% 46 The literature and past research indicate that providing this information to the traveling public is an effective demand management strategy 57.4% 27 We have evaluation data that demonstrates the benefits of providing this information to the traveling public 29.8% 14 We have an ongoing program for evaluating the provision of traveler information to the public 40.4% 19 Other agencies like ours are providing this information to the traveling public 63.8% 30 Federal Highway Administration guidance and encouragement 66.0% 31 Federal Highway Administration notice of the Final Rule on Real- time System Management Information Program 46.8% 22 Other (please specify) 4 answered question 47 skipped question 0 Other: 1. Safety for the traveling public is our #1 reason; the Final Rule has not been a reason in the past, but will become a reason in the future. 2. Helping the public make informed travel decisions 3. Traveler information system puts the power of knowledge in the "hands" of the motorist so they can avoid problem areas and help reduce congestion. This knowledge allows the motorist to assess their travel before leaving to better plan their commute by providing them the information they need to plan what route to take, time to leave and mode to take. Getting information en route limits the motorist's options. 4. It keeps our first responders safer if the public knows about traffic incidents to avoid or winter road conditions.

B-4 Question 3. Please indicate your perceptions of the importance of each type of traveler information your agency provides to the public in terms of meeting agency program goals. (Note: Please rate only those you selected in Question 1, select N/A if not used.): Answer Options Very effective Effective Somewhat effective Not effective N/A Rating Average Response Count Roadway travel condition status (e.g., traffic map of current speeds) 17 20 5 0 4 3.29 46 Roadway CCTV video 25 16 2 1 2 3.48 46 Traffic incidents 22 20 3 0 0 3.42 45 Travel times (e.g. current travel times to major destinations or interchanges) 13 18 2 0 11 3.33 44 Alternate routes 7 6 6 1 16 2.95 36 Parking availability 2 3 0 0 27 3.40 32 Safety information (e.g., “Buckle Up”, 3 8 17 1 12 2.45 41 0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% 100.0% 120.0% Pr ov id in g th is in fo rm at io n is p ar t of o ur a ge nc y’ s … Th is in fo rm at io n al lo w s th e tr av el in g pu bl ic to m ak e … Th e lit er at ur e an d pa st re se ar ch in di ca te th at … W e ha ve ev al ua tio n da ta th at … W e ha ve a n on go in g pr og ra m fo r e va lu at in g th e … O th er a ge nc ie s lik e ou rs a re p ro vi di ng th is in fo rm at io n … Fe de ra l H ig hw ay A dm in is tr at io n gu id an ce a nd … Fe de ra l H ig hw ay A dm in is tr at io n no tic e of t he F in al … Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems Public Agency Web-based Survey

B-5 “Signal When Changing Lanes”, etc.) Special Events 10 20 7 0 5 3.08 42 Weather information 13 18 7 0 5 3.16 43 Public Safety information (e.g., Amber Alerts, Silver Alerts, etc.) 10 18 10 1 3 2.95 42 Roadwork / Construction Zones 19 23 3 0 0 3.36 45 Transit alternatives 4 5 8 3 16 2.50 36 Other (please specify) 1 answered question 47 skipped question 0 Other: 1. In California we rely on regional 511 agencies, media and the private sector

B-6 Question 4. How is this information disseminated to the traveling public? (Please check all that apply) Answer Options Response Percent Response Count Highway dynamic message signs 93.2% 41 Arterial dynamic message signs 56.8% 25 Highway advisory radio 70.5% 31 511 System (defined as land line or mobile call-in system with intelligent voice recognition (IVR) that allows menu driven access to real-time traveler information) 81.8% 36 Websites (accessed through a desktop or laptop) 95.5% 42 Social media sites 59.1% 26 Websites (accessed via mobile device) 84.1% 37 "Apps" (e.g., travel info related iPhone or Droid applications) 27.3% 12 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 Roadway travel condition status (e.g., traffic map … Roadway CCTV video Traffic incidents Travel times (e.g. current travel times to major … Alternate routes Parking availability Safety information (e.g., “Buckle Up”, “Signal When … Special Events Weather information Public Safety information (e.g., Amber Alerts, Silver … Roadwork / Construction Zones Transit alternatives Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems Public Agency Web-based Survey

B-7 On-board devices (but not mobile devices) 4.5% 2 Media outlets 79.5% 35 Via arrangement with 3rd party traveler information providers 43.2% 19 Other (please specify) 3 answered question 44 skipped question 3 Other: 1. Our 511 will be online in a couple of months, Our information is also disseminated via third party which address those items not checked. 2. We have a data feed we make available to third party traveler information providers. We are in the process of developing the use of social media to provide traffic information and to market our system. We also will be deploying an iPhone application to provide location based information. 3. In the next month or so we'll be launching our 511 events on Twitter. 0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% 100.0% 120.0% H ig hw ay d yn am ic m es sa ge s ig ns A rt er ia l d yn am ic m es sa ge s ig ns H ig hw ay a dv is or y ra di o 51 1 Sy st em (d ef in ed a s la nd … W eb si te s (a cc es se d … So ci al m ed ia s ite s W eb si te s (a cc es se d vi a … "A pp s" (e .g ., tr av el in fo … O n- bo ar d de vi ce s (b ut n ot m ob ile … M ed ia o ut le ts Vi a ar ra ng em en t w ith 3 rd p ar ty … Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems Public Agency Web-based Survey

B-8 Question 5. Please indicate why your agency has chosen the dissemination methods listed under Question 4 (Please check all that apply): Answer Options Response Percent Response Count We are taking advantage of the latest information dissemination technology/technologies 84.1% 37 The literature and past research indicates that these are effective dissemination methods 63.6% 28 We have evaluated the effectiveness of these information dissemination methods 36.4% 16 We have an ongoing program for evaluating effectiveness of these information dissemination methods 29.5% 13 Other agencies are providing traveler information via these dissemination methods 59.1% 26 Federal Highway Administration guidance and encouragement 61.4% 27 Federal Highway Administration notice of the Final Rule on Real- time System Management Information Program 40.9% 18 Other (please specify) 7 answered question 44 skipped question 3 Other: 1. As in previous question, the FHWA Final Rule on RTMIP has not been why in the past but will be in the future. 2. Cost-effectiveness is a factor in deciding which dissemination mechanisms to use. We have hesitated to develop apps because they are expensive to develop and maintain. 3. Skip. 4. We are currently undergoing a study to evaluate the effectiveness of our information dissemination. 5. That's as far as we have been able to get with the funding available 6. It is important for us to reach as many people with our information as possible so we look to utilizing as many dissemination methods as are available. 7. We do what we do as it has shown that it gets the information out. We are in need of adapting to new "push" mechanisms, which we are now evaluating.

B-9 Question 6. Please indicate your perception of the overall effectiveness of each of the following methods for disseminating traveler information to the public in terms of providing benefits to the traveling public (Note: Please rate only those you selected in Question 4, select N/A if not used): Answer Options Not effective Somewhat effective Effective Very effective N/A Rating Average Response Count Highway dynamic message signs 1 2 7 32 1 1.33 43 Arterial dynamic message signs 1 1 13 12 13 1.67 40 Highway advisory radio 2 19 11 4 8 2.53 44 511 System (defined previously) 1 3 17 18 1 1.67 40 Websites (accessed through a desktop or laptop) 2 1 11 27 0 1.46 41 Via arrangement with 3rd Party traveler information providers 1 2 9 14 12 1.62 38 Social media sites 3 5 14 9 9 2.06 40 Website access via mobile device 2 5 14 18 3 1.77 42 “Apps” (e.g., travel info related iPhone or Droid applications) 2 3 5 9 17 1.89 36 On-board devices (not mobile) 2 2 5 4 22 2.15 35 Commercial radio and TV 1 3 13 17 3 1.65 37 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% 70.0% 80.0% 90.0% W e ar e ta ki ng ad va nt ag e of t he la te st in fo rm at io n di ss em in at io n … Th e lit er at ur e an d pa st re se ar ch in di ca te s th at th es e ar e ef fe ct iv e di ss em in at io n … W e ha ve e va lu at ed th e ef fe ct iv en es s of th es e in fo rm at io n di ss em in at io n … W e ha ve a n on go in g pr og ra m fo r ev al ua tin g ef fe ct iv en es s of … O th er a ge nc ie s ar e pr ov id in g tr av el er in fo rm at io n vi a th es e di ss em in at io n … Fe de ra l H ig hw ay A dm in is tr at io n gu id an ce a nd en co ur ag em en t Fe de ra l H ig hw ay A dm in is tr at io n no tic e of th e Fi na l R ul e on Re al -t im e Sy st em … Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems Public Agency Web-based Survey

B-10 Other (please specify) 1 answered question 44 skipped question 3 Other: 1. See comments above related to boxes unchecked Question 7. Part A. Please indicate the evaluation techniques and/or inputs used by your agency (Please check all that apply): Answer Options Response Percent Response Count Traveler surveys (If you select this option, please also select an applicable italicized option below.) 61.5% 24 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 Highway dynamic message signs Arterial dynamic message signs Highway advisory radio 511 System (defined previously) Websites (accessed through a desktop or laptop) Via arrangement with 3rd Party traveler … Social media sites Website access via mobile device “Apps” (e.g., travel info related iPhone or Droid … On-board devices (not mobile) Commercial radio and TV Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems Public Agency Web-based Survey

B-11 Web form 51.3% 20 E-mail 35.9% 14 Phone survey 30.8% 12 Direct mail survey 2.6% 1 Traveler focus groups 25.6% 10 511 call statistics 79.5% 31 Other (please specify) 6 answered question 39 skipped question 8 Other: 1. We have U of M currently conducting studies using various evaluation techniques. 2. We will be implementing a survey shortly. We also allow user feedback on the phone and web without an actual survey. 3. 511 web statistics. 4. Our system has a feedback function where callers can leave feedback on how the system is working and to report traffic. This function is well used and we have made some modification to how the system operated based on this feedback. 5. Use of Twitter for public input. Web use tracking and statistics. Use of web surveys and focus groups is not done on a regular basis. 6. Website traffic via Google Analytics. 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% 70.0% 80.0% 90.0% Tr av el er s ur ve ys (If y ou s el ec t th is o pt io n, … W eb fo rm E- m ai l Ph on e su rv ey D ir ec t m ai l su rv ey Tr av el er fo cu s gr ou ps 51 1 ca ll st at is tic s Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems Public Agency Web-based Survey

B-12 Question 7. Part A Continued. Agency specific sponsored research initiatives (please indicate any/all specific types of traveler information that have been or are being evaluated by your agency): Answer Options Response Percent Response Count Roadway travel condition status (e.g., traffic map of current speeds) 64.1% 25 Roadway CCTV video 43.6% 17 Traffic incidents 66.7% 26 Travel times 59.0% 23 Alternate routes 20.5% 8 Parking availability 17.9% 7 Roadwork / Construction Zones 46.2% 18 Transit alternatives 17.9% 7 Special Events 25.6% 10 Weather information 38.5% 15 Public Safety information (e.g., Amber Alerts, Silver Alerts, etc.) 23.1% 9 Safety information (e.g., “Buckle Up”, “Signal When Changing Lanes”, etc.) 30.8% 12 Other (please specify) 10 answered question 39 skipped question 8 Other: 1. Not clear on what is being asked 2. 511 system at a high level, general level 3. http://www.ncdot.org/doh/preconstruct/tpb/research/download/2006-13FinalReport.pdf 4. None 5. None 6. At this point, evaluation is limited to statistics available for call volumes, web stats, and Twitter followers. No formal information content evaluation is currently being done. 7. Dynamic Truck Parking Info research project 8. We don't have any formalized research efforts going, but we do track and categorize the feedback we receive and utilize that information to improve the operation of the system, which provides information on the checked boxes above. 9. I am not clear if your perspective of "being evaluated" refers to rigorous analysis or ongoing performance reporting. My responses are based on what we do related to ongoing performance reporting. 10. None

B-13 Question 7. Part B. Please indicate the traveler information components that are assessed when your agency evaluates the public’s use of the information it disseminates (Please check all that apply). Answer Options Response Percent Response Count Type of information 69.4% 25 Information quality [Note: specific criteria have been established in the Final Rule for establishment of a Real-time System Management Information Program] (If you select this option, please also select an applicable italicized option below.) 66.7% 24 Information Timeliness 66.7% 24 Information Accuracy 75.0% 27 Information Availability 66.7% 24 Information Accessibility (If you select this option, please also select an applicable italicized option below.) 72.2% 26 Dynamic Message Signs 47.2% 17 Highway Advisory Radio 27.2% 10 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% 70.0% 80.0% Ro ad w ay tr av el co nd iti on … Ro ad w ay C CT V vi de o Tr af fic in ci de nt s Tr av el t im es A lte rn at e ro ut es Pa rk in g av ai la bi lit y Ro ad w or k / Co ns tr uc tio n … Tr an si t al te rn at iv es Sp ec ia l E ve nt s W ea th er in fo rm at io n Pu bl ic S af et y in fo rm at io n … Sa fe ty in fo rm at io n … Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems Public Agency Web-based Survey

B-14 511 (defined as land line or mobile call-in system with Intelligent Voice Recognition that allows menu driven access to real-time traveler information) 80.6% 29 Websites 83.3% 30 Mobile Devices 61.1% 22 On-board Devices 13.9% 5 Media 38.9% 14 Third Party Providers 27.8% 10 Traveler Decision Making (If you select this option, please also select an applicable italicized option below.) 44.4% 16 Departure time 25.0% 9 Destination choice 16.7% 6 Mode Choice 16.7% 6 Pre-trip route choice 30.6% 11 En-route route choice 27.8% 10 Other (please specify) 3 answered question 36 skipped question 11 Other: 1. Route choice. 2. We track what the traveler is asking for, that is what facilities gets the most calls to check on travel conditions, what time of day are peak periods, what area of the state gets the most calls, etc. 3. For Traveler Decision Making we also assess and provide travel reliability information. 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% 70.0% 80.0% 90.0% Ty pe o f i nf or m at io n In fo rm at io n … In fo rm at io n … In fo rm at io n … In fo rm at io n … In fo rm at io n … D yn am ic M es sa ge … H ig hw ay A dv is or y … 51 1 (d ef in ed a s … W eb si te s M ob ile D ev ic es O n- bo ar d D ev ic es M ed ia Th ir d Pa rt y … Tr av el er D ec is io n … D ep ar tu re ti m e D es tin at io n ch oi ce M od e Ch oi ce Pr e- tr ip r ou te … En -r ou te ro ut e … Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems Public Agency Web-based Survey

B-15 Question 7. Part C. Please indicate the performance measures that have been or are currently being used to assess the impacts of your traveler information program on the operational efficiency of your transportation system. In particular, please identify any specific evaluations you have conducted on the effectiveness of the real-time information you disseminate and how those results may be accessed. (Please check all that apply and provide additional information as necessary in the space provided): Answer Options Response Percent Response Count Vehicle-hours of delay 34.4% 11 Person-hours of delay 3.1% 1 Travel time 65.6% 21 Speed 43.8% 14 Throughput 25.0% 8 Travel time index 21.9% 7 Planning time index 6.3% 2 Buffer index 6.3% 2 Duration of congestion 40.6% 13 Cost-benefit or return on investment 40.6% 13 Other (please specify) or Comment 9 answered question 32 skipped question 15 Other: 1. N/A 2. Ignore checked box, but I had to check something to continue....we have no existing performance measures and are currently working on them. 3. Incident Duration 4. Currently, there are no performance measures in place for traveler information program. However, we are working on using Travel Times, Travel Time Index, and Cost-Benefit for prioritization of projects (all types). The goal is to assess if the assumed result (i.e. reduce travel demand by 5 percent for DMS placement) is an actual result. 5. While we use some of these measures, we haven't tried to tie them to traveler information 6. None at this time, but plan to in future. 7. We don't have any performance measures that we can turn to that will indicate what benefit (what part of the total benefit) can be attributed to traveler information in improving operational efficiencies. 8. Please disregard this answer. The survey is requiring an answer for me continue, but you did not offer a "none of the above" option. 9. None

B-16 Question 8. What are the two biggest factors hindering your agency’s ability to effectively evaluate your traveler information program? Answer Options Response Percent Response Count Funding to support evaluation related work 53.1% 17 Gathering required input data from the public 37.5% 12 Determining how best to evaluate the many components of a traveler information program 59.4% 19 Lack of guidance and technical support 18.8% 6 Difficulty/cost of measuring actual operational impacts 65.6% 21 answered question 32 skipped question 15 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% 70.0% Ve hi cl e- ho ur s of d el ay Pe rs on -h ou rs of d el ay Tr av el t im e Sp ee d Th ro ug hp ut Tr av el t im e in de x Pl an ni ng ti m e in de x Bu ff er in de x D ur at io n of co ng es tio n Co st -b en ef it or re tu rn o n … Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems Public Agency Web-based Survey

B-17 Question 9. Is there any way in which you feel the practices of your agency are unique compared to typical practices with respect to providing traveler information? Answer Options Response Percent Response Count Yes 18.8% 6 No 81.3% 26 answered question 32 skipped question 15 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% 70.0% Funding to support evaluation related work Gathering required input data from the public Determining how best to evaluate the many components of a traveler information program Lack of guidance and technical support Difficulty/cost of measuring actual operational impacts Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems Public Agency Web-based Survey Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems Public Agency Web-based Survey Yes No

B-18 Question 10. If you answered yes, please describe the practice(s) and what makes it (them) unique. Answer Options Response Count 6 answered question 6 skipped question 41 Answers: 1. Please reference our annual comprehensive congestion report here: http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/Accountability/Congestion/2010.htm And our quarterly performance measures with information about travel information starting on page 22: http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/Accountability/GrayNotebook/navigateGNB.htm 2. We can target specific counties, metro areas, and roadways with floodgate messages on 511. 3. Recently deployed a Smartphone, hands-free, audible, location-relevant solution - Trumpit - on the iPhone, Android and BlackBerry platforms. 4. I feel that our agency maintains a higher level database then most allowing us to more effectively evaluate our actions 5. We're one of the few public agencies that provide all of our traveler information in XML feeds for developers, media outlets, and others without a lot of bureaucratic navigation. We provide transit schedule data, highway incident, construction and special event data, CCTV camera feeds, Commercial Vehicle files (restricted and posted bridges and bridge height clearances). We actively communication with Navigation device providers too to ensure the information is in their devices to avoid truck/bridge hits. 6. Please see: http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/accountability/ Question 11. Do you feel the practices of your agency, with respect to providing traveler information, are more effective compared to typical practices? Answer Options Response Percent Response Count Yes 40.6% 13 No 59.4% 19 answered question 32 skipped question 15 Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems Public Agency Web-based Survey Yes No

B-19 Question 12. If you answered yes, please describe the practice(s) and what makes it (them) more effective. Answer Options Response Count 12 answered question 12 skipped question 35 Answers: 1. Generally speaking I believe we provide a wider range of products and services then most other agencies. 2. Rural long distance travel time is implemented on I-70 and I-25 up to 100 mile segments 3. Focus on the customer experience and ROI related to new technologies. 4. Regardless of the platform you receive traveler information; it is IDENTICAL as it all gets populated instantaneously from a single database. This is also the identical information that we push out via our free XML feed. 5. We try to stay on the cutting edge of technology. 6. I believe that we provide a higher level of information 7. We have implemented XML feeds, created mobile applications, a mobile device friendly website (for those without Smartphones), phone information including call transfers, web based services with a transit trip planner (multi-operator) and customizable My511 services. We are trying to cover every medium a user may need/use. 8. Comprehensive, statewide approach. 9. Florida has been affective in deploying ITS in the state and have significant deployments of ITS (DMS, Sensors, CCTVs) in our urban areas. What make Florida more affective is that we have a good range of means of dissemination information to the public. 10. The use of our web pages, our 511 phone system, our social media efforts, our downloadable apps, and our subscription email alerts are some of the highest in the country. 11. we collect and use our own data from different collection methods (loops, etc.) 12. (not requested) We're missing "push" of data and social media usage. Question 13. Technology is changing rapidly, and the private sector is becoming more involved (e.g. generating and delivering its own congestion information through mobile devices). How do you think your agency may adapt its real-time traveler information system in response to these changes? (Please check all that apply, and elaborate in the space provided) Answer Options Response Percent Response Count Don’t envision much change 15.6% 5 May drop components of our traveler information program 12.5% 4 May expand our program to include additional components 68.8% 22 May partner more with the private sector 78.1% 25 Other (please specify) 3 answered question 32 skipped question 15

B-20 Other: 1. The FDOT will probably continue to provide traveler information, but we are turning more to the private sector to provide information (data) in the areas where we are not instrumented to supplement our data collection efforts. 2. NOTE: I chose Don't envision much change on this question since the survey required a box be checked to move to the next page, however, my response to this question is below: Change will come, hard to know how at this point. 3. We need to begin to "push" data and will look into social media. Question 14. Please elaborate on how you think your traveler information program may change. What will you do differently in the next five years? Answer Options Response Count 26 answered question 26 skipped question 21 Answers: 1. Make certain we meet the requirements of the FHWA RTMIP. More than likely, this could mean we partner more with the private sector as well as expand our existing program components. Additional metro information will be added. 2. Moving program to multimodal information based on GPS based Smartphones using voice recognition technology. In process of expanding traveler advisory radio system statewide with addition of synchronized WTMC 1380 AM repeaters to expand coverage of primary licensed WTMC 1380 AM. 3. Add travel time to the mix 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% 70.0% 80.0% 90.0% Don’t envision much change May drop components of our traveler information program May expand our program to include additional components May partner more with the private sector Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems Public Agency Web-based Survey

B-21 4. The quality and availability of data is increasing allowing us to consider alternative approaches to data collection. 5. Public is demanding more, quicker and diverse data in various formats. We'll have to try to keep up and pick the most effective tools. 6. it may be more cost effective to buy the data or sell the current data? 7. we are just about to develop an RFP for a second generation 511 system and we will likely have changes to our system at that time. 8. Work to integrate Intellidrive into our system. 9. Use private sector to process the data we are currently collecting. 10. Currently, we have an ATMS advertised that will integration many of our data source, automate incident management response protocol/plans, automate travel time, etc. This new tool will result in more reliable real-time information to the public. 11. Rely less on physical communication infrastructure and more on driver-provided consumer electronics. 12. States are including social networking to reach consumers and several states are trying privatization models 13. We have a core mission to manage our highways. That is the primary purpose and reason for the development of our database. We capture all the information in that database. The design effort put into this database will allow future development costs of new applications to be low. In addition, by making the data available to third parties, we can potentially work with them to develop future applications that are not around today. 14. Provide TI Apps for motorists. 15. We are looking to add a mobile web and mobile app to our service. Travel Times will be added to our service in a few months. 16. We will have 511, we are also keeping up with technology advancements to provide the public the best information we can and technology advancements are also helping us to have better information 17. if funding is available, we hope to provide more expansive information, including travel times in more areas of the state, bridge and border crossing information, etc. 18. More sources of information (911) will be processed in real time and sent to more outlets (pda's etc..) Probe data will become more common as will Itellidrive. 19. May make use of private sector data as a supplement to DOT data. 20. At this point I don't envision us disseminating less traveler information. To enhance the information we have, we would look to the private sector for assistance. We currently provide our traffic information at no cost. 21. Develop 511 mobile apps and look to partner with industry to leverage emerging in-vehicle devices. Also possibly seek out revenue sharing opportunities within the limits of state law. 22. We are looking to shift to a revenue generation business model to get a free system or at least a system supplemented with revenue generated by the commercialization of our assets. 23. We are following the use of the 511 phone system to measure impacts on use. 24. A lot will depend on the direction of technology. Do we want to put the information out there (e.g. via XML feed) and let the 3rd parties develop apps for its use, or do we develop it in-house? This is where we are right now. 25. In California, rely on "others". We will never do trip generation. 26. Push, push, push. Attempt to reduce those that have to call into our telephone system.

B-22 Question 15. Please provide the following information. Answer Options Response Percent Response Count Name: 100.0% 29 Title: 100.0% 29 Agency: 100.0% 29 Phone number: 96.6% 28 E-mail: 100.0% 29 answered question 29 skipped question 18

C-1 A P P E N D I X C Focus Group Question Path 1) Introduction [5 MINUTES] RTTIS Focus Group Question Path a. Moderator introduces self and project staff. b. The purpose of this focus group is for us to learn how you use various types of traveler information. c. This work is being done for the National Cooperative Highway Research Program, which is part of the Transportation Research Board of the National Academies. My company, Westat, is conducting these focus groups on their behalf. [City] is one of three locations in the country where we are conducting these groups. States sponsor this research and are really interested in learning about your uses, likes, and dislikes of real-time traveler information being provided. d. Focus group etiquette i. How many of you have taken part in a focus group? ii. Need to hear about your feelings. We are not here to reach consensus, but to hear and discuss a range of views. There are no right or wrong answers. iii. Cross talk among group, not to/from moderator; moderator guides the discussion to cover the topics we need to hear about iv. If the group gets off topic the moderator will step in to guide the group back to the topic. v. Give everyone the opportunity to speak vi. Inform of being audio-taped and possibly video-taped for offline analysis vii. Rest rooms, breaks viii. Please turn off and put away phones e. This focus group is just the first phase of a two-phase procedure. You have volunteered to take part in both phases, for which we will pay you $100 (125 in other cities). Today’s focus group will take up to 2 hours and we will pay you the first $50 (75 in other cities) as soon as the session is over. The second phase is where you will keep a record of your driving trips over the next 7 days. I’ll go over that procedure with you at the end of the session. After you complete the driving logs, we will send you an additional check for $50. It is very important that you continue through both phases of the procedure. 2) Ice breaker [5 MINUTES] a. Let’s start with introductions. Moderator: Go first to set an example of brevity. Going around the table, I would like each of you to tell us your first name and the town or neighborhood you live in. Then briefly tell us about a recent trip where you changed your route before or during the trip (or wished you had). WHERE 3) Sources of traveler information [35 MINUTES] a. Today we are going to talk about the sources and types of information that you use for your driving trips. We’re interested in a wide variety of information and sources that you

C-2 might use before or during a trip to find out what kind of conditions you can expect on your trip, or to help plan your trip. b. First, let’s start with sources of traveler information. That is, where do you get your traveler information (e.g., news, website, etc.)? Moderator: Let someone name each source and ask to describe briefly (especially for light users group), then probe on: i. What types of information do you access from this source? Moderator: ONLY list and then tell come back to information types later. c. Use of traveler information sources (ASK FOR EACH SOURCE AS IT IS DISCUSSED) i. What do you like about sources types of information? (discuss each source individually as they come up) 1. How many of you are aware of each source of information? Moderator: Record number of the group who is aware of each type of information as it is discussed (ask question as soon as a new type of information is discussed). ii. What made you decide to use this source of information? How did you find out about it? iii. Do you look for this source of information pre-trip or during trips? iv. What effects do these information sources have on your trip? 1. Probe: frequency of changed route choices, route choice, travel time expectation, aborted/delayed trips v. Are there any other benefits of this source? 1. Probe: Peace of mind? Calling ahead to someone? vi. What limits the usefulness of traveler information sources for you? 1. Probe: What could be done better? What keeps you from using some sources? d. Features of traveler information sources and types (Possibly asked about each, but don’t emphasize—depends on time for each and many may come up naturally in discussing each). i. How credible/accurate is the type and source of information? ii. What is confusing or ambiguous? iii. Importance in making a trip change? iv. Quality/reliability? v. Convenience? vi. Ease of use? WHERE e. Probe on (if not familiar, ask them to say what they think it means): i. Electronic highway message signs ii. Electronic local roadway message signs iii. Highway advisory radio (usually a short range AM radio station dedicated to reporting traffic/traveler information) iv. Phone call to 511 traveler information phone number v. Websites NOT on mobile devices (e.g., using a laptop or desktop) vi. Social media sites (e.g., Twitter) vii. Websites through mobile devices viii. Receive email, text message, phone call by subscription service (either free or paid) ix. Mobile “apps” (e.g., travel info related iPhone or Droid applications) x. On-board devices (but not mobile devices) (e.g., Garmin, TomTom, Onstar) xi. Television

C-3 xii. Radio xiii. Other?—e.g., plan of action and evacuation routes POSSIBLE BREAK [10 MINUTES] WHAT 4) Traveler information type [30 MINUTES] a. Earlier we discussed the different ways you may get traveler information. We also discussed some of the types of information you may get from each source. Now, let’s come back and focus on the information itself. b. What sort of traveler information do you make use of (e.g., incidents)? Probe as necessary to reveal additional sources. c. Use of traveler information types (ASK FOR EACH TYPE AS IT IS DISCUSSED) i. What do you like about these types of information? (discuss each type individually as they come up) 1. How many of you were aware of each type of information before today? Moderator: Record number of the group who is aware of each type of information as it is discussed (ask question as soon as a new type of information is discussed). ii. What made you decide to use this type of information? iii. Do you look for this type of information pre-trip or during trips? iv. What effects do these information types have on your trip? 1. Probe: frequency of changed route choices, route choice, travel time expectation, aborted/delayed trips v. Are there any other benefits of X traveler information type? 1. Probe: Peace of mind? Calling ahead to someone? vi. What limits the usefulness of traveler information sources for you? 1. Probe: What could be done better? What keeps you from using some sources? d. Features of traveler information type (Possibly asked about each) i. How credible/accurate is the type of information? ii. What is confusing or ambiguous? iii. Importance in making a trip change? iv. Quality/reliability? v. Convenience? vi. Ease of use? vii. What are the benefits? WHAT e. Probe on (if not familiar, ask to describe what they think it means): i. Traffic map (showing speeds, incidents, etc.) 1. If yes, then what sources? a. Agency website; other website; smartphone app 2. If no, then why not? 3. Information not applicable to my trips; inconvenient to access; information is unreliable or inaccurate; don’t know how to access this information; information not available in my area; don’t have computer/internet; other (please specify)___ ii. Live traffic cameras (video or pictures of current traffic conditions) iii. Traffic incidents (reports of collisions, lane closures, etc.) iv. Travel times (reported current times to get from one location to another) v. Alternate routes

C-4 vi. Parking availability vii. Roadwork / construction zones viii. Special events ix. Weather information x. Public safety information (e.g., Amber Alerts, Silver Alerts, etc.) xi. Safety information (e.g., “Buckle Up”, “Signal When Changing Lanes”, etc.) xii. Other? 5) Features of traveler information sources and types [10 MINUTES]. Moderator: This question will summarize or rank order some of the things discussed. a. What is the most credible/accurate type of information? Source? i. What is the least? b. What is confusing or ambiguous type of information? Source? c. What is the most important piece of information in making a trip change? What source do you use the most to get that information? d. What is the most reliable source? Type of information? e. What is the most convenient source of information? f. What is the easiest source to use? Most difficult? g. What is the most beneficial type of information? Least? 6) Now that we’ve spent a while talking and thinking about different aspects of traveler information, let’s put it all together. If you were in charge of [city’s] traveler information program, what would you do to improve the information currently available to drivers? [5 MINUTES] a. Probe: You can be as creative as you like, remember that technologies are developing rapidly and what seems like science fiction today could be possible in just a few years. 7) What do you see as the overall value of traveler information? Can you summarize how useful it is to you? [5 MINUTES] 8) Final suggestions: are there any specific recommendations you would like to make for how [City] might improve traveler information to make it more useful? [5 MINUTES] 9) Driving log procedure [5 MINUTES] 10) Pay participants for first phase, have them sign receipts.

D-1 A P P E N D I X D Trip Logs and 8897 NCHRP 08-82 Driver Log – Participant # __ Figures of Results Date: __________________ 9. Please rate how strongly you agree or disagree with each of the following statements about the traveler information you received before or during your trips today: ***Complete this section for EACH trip taken during the day*** TRIP: 1. At what time did you start this trip? _______ am pm 2. At what time did you end this trip? _______ am pm 3. Did you encounter congestion or delays on this trip? Yes No 4. What was the primary purpose of this trip? ___work commute ___scheduled appointment ___leisure/errand/shopping 5. From what sources did you receive traveler information before starting this trip? (check all that apply): ___TV ___Radio ___DOT Website ___Other website ___Family/friend ___Navigation device ___Smartphone app ___511 call Other (specify):_________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Based on the pre-trip information you received, did you… (check all that apply) ___ let someone know when you expected to arrive at your destination? ___ choose to take the trip at a different time? ___ change your driving route? ___ use a different type of transportation (walk, bike, transit, carpool, taxi, etc.)? ___ choose a different destination or cancel a stop on your trip? ___ cancel your trip? 7. From what sources did you receive traveler information during this trip? (check all that apply): ___Radio ___Electronic travel time sign ___Other electronic sign ___Navigation device ___Smartphone app ___511 call Other (specify): _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Based on the information you received during your trip, did you… (check all that apply) ___ let someone know when you expected to arrive at your destination? ___ change the driving route of a trip? ___ switch to a different type of transportation (walk, bike, transit, carpool, taxi, etc.)?

D-2 a. The traveler information influenced my route choice. Strongly disagree  1—2—3—4—5  Strongly agree ___not applicable b. The traveler information was accurate. Strongly disagree  1—2—3—4—5  Strongly agree ___not applicable c. Making use of the traveler information saved me time. Strongly disagree  1—2—3—4—5  Strongly agree ___not applicable d. I am confident that I made the best decisions about my routes. Strongly disagree  1—2—3—4—5  Strongly agree ___not applicable e. Overall, I liked having traveler information for these trips. Strongly disagree  1—2—3—4—5  Strongly agree ___not applicable 10. Of all the traveler information you saw or heard today, what information was the most useful to you? Specify the information source and the information it provided: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________ 11. What information that you did not receive before or during your trips would have been useful to you? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________ 12. Describe the weather you encountered while driving today (check all that apply): ___ Clear ___ Rain ___ Road wet ___ Fog

E-1 A P P E N D I X E Survey Questions Traveler Information Survey Westat, a professional research firm, is conducting this survey under contract with the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). It will take approximately 15 minutes to complete. We want to understand travelers’ access to, perception of, and need for real-time traveler information, and your responses will lead to improvements. There will be no personal identifiers, so your responses to the web survey will be kept completely anonymous. Your responses will be shared only with the project team and NCHRP, but otherwise kept confidential. By choosing “next” you are providing consent and agreeing to participate in the survey which will begin on the next page. 1) Typically, how often do you take vehicle trips where you are the driver and the purpose is to travel to a regular location, such as a job, school, etc.?  Less than 1 day a week  1 day a week  2-3 days a week  4 or more days a week 2) Typically, how often do you take vehicle trips where you are the passenger?  Less than 1 day a week  1 day a week  2-3 days a week  4 or more days a week 3) Typically, how often do you take trips via public transit (for example, bus, train, subway)?  Less than 1 day a week  1 day a week  2-3 days a week  4 or more days a week 4) Please rate the IMPORTANCE of the following sources of traveler information that you use for your travel goals. If a source is not available in your area, then please choose "N/A" or skip that option. 1= Not at all important --- 7 = Extremely important Radio (AM, FM, or satellite) Television Websites through mobile devices Electronic highway message signs 511 traveler information phone number Social media sites (e.g., Facebook or Twitter)

E-2 Mobile "apps" (e.g., iPhone or Droid applications) Websites NOT on mobile devices (e.g., laptop or desktop) Email, text alerts or phone call by subscription service On-board devices (e.g., Garmin, TomTom, Onstar) 5) Please rate the ACCURACY of the following sources of traveler information that you use. If you do not use a source, then please choose "N/A" or skip that option. 1 = Not at all accurate --- 7 = Extremely accurate Electronic highway message signs Websites through mobile devices On-board devices (e.g., Garmin, TomTom, Onstar) Email, text alerts or phone call by subscription service Mobile "apps" (e.g., iPhone or Droid applications) Social media sites (e.g., Facebook or Twitter) 511 traveler information phone number Websites NOT on mobile devices (e.g., laptop or desktop) Television Radio (AM, FM, or satellite) 6) Please rate the IMPORTANCE of each type of traveler information that you use for your travel goals. If a type is not available in your area, then please choose "N/A" or skip that option. 1= Not at all important --- 7 = Extremely important Public safety information (e.g., Amber alerts, Silver alerts, etc.) Special events Weather information (including smog alerts) Travel times Parking availability Roadwork/construction zones and road closures Alternate routes Live traffic cameras Traffic incidents 7) Please rate the ACCURACY of the following types of traveler information that you use. If you do not use a type, please choose "N/A" or skip that option. 1 = Not at all accurate --- 7 = Extremely accurate Roadwork/construction zones and road closures Live traffic cameras Travel times Weather information (including smog alerts) Parking availability Alternate routes Special events Traffic incidents Public safety information (e.g., Amber alerts, Silver alerts, etc.)

E-2 8) How often do you change (including delaying or cancelling) a trip based on traveler information before the trip has begun?  Less than 1 day a week  1 day a week  2-3 days a week  4 or more days a week 9) When preparing to leave for a trip, where do you typically look for information when deciding whether to change (including delaying or cancelling) the trip? Please check all that apply.  On-board devices (e.g., Garmin, TomTom, Onstar)  Radio (AM, FM, or satellite)  511 traveler information phone number  Social media sites (e.g., Facebook or Twitter)  Websites NOT on mobile devices (e.g., laptop or desktop)  Email, text alerts or phone call by subscription service  Television  Mobile "apps" (e.g., iPhone or Droid applications)  Websites through mobile devices  None--I never check information before a trip.  Other (please specify) 10) When preparing to leave for a trip, what information do you typically use when deciding whether to change (including delaying or cancelling) the trip? Please check all that apply.  Special events  Traffic incidents  Traffic cameras  Weather information (including smog alerts)  Parking availability  Travel times  Alternate routes  Roadwork/construction zones and road closures  Public safety information (e.g., Amber alerts, Silver alerts, etc.)  Visual observation of traffic conditions  None--I never check information before a trip.  Other (please specify) 11) How often do you change (including delaying or cancelling) a planned trip once the trip has begun?  Less than 1 day a week  1 day a week  2-3 days a week  4 or more days a week 12) What information source do you typically use when deciding to change (including delaying or cancelling) a planned trip once the trip has begun?  Electronic HIGHWAY message signs (only on major highways)  Electronic LOCAL ROADWAY message signs (only on local roads or surface streets)

E-3  Highway advisory radio (AM stations used only for providing bulletins to travelers along a highway)  511 traveler information phone number  Websites NOT on mobile devices (e.g., laptop or desktop)  Social media sites (e.g., Facebook or Twitter)  Websites through mobile devices  Email, text alerts or phone call by subscription service  Mobile "apps" (e.g., iPhone or Droid applications)  On-board devices (e.g., Garmin, TomTom, Onstar)  Television  Radio (AM, FM, or satellite)  None--I never change a trip once it has begun  Other (please specify) 13) What information do you typically use when deciding to change (including delaying or cancelling) a planned trip once the trip has begun?  Live traffic cameras  Traffic incidents  Travel times  Alternate routes  Parking availability  Roadwork/construction zones and road closures  Special events  Weather information (including smog alerts)  Public safety information (e.g., Amber alerts, Silver alerts, etc.)  Safety information (e.g., "Buckle Up," Signal When Changing Lanes," etc.)  Visual observation of traffic conditions  None--I never change a trip once it has begun  Other (please specify) 14). If you were in charge of your area's traveler information program, what would you suggest to improve the information currently available to drivers? Where would you like to find travel information, how would you like it provided to the traveler, and what information should be provided? - Open-Ended Response

F-1 A P P E N D I X F Supplemental Survey Questions 1) What city do you live in or near? Detroit metro area New York City metro area (including New Jersey suburbs) Orlando metro area Salt Lake City metro area San Francisco metro area Washington, D.C. metro area (including Maryland and Virginia suburbs) Other (please specify) 2) Have you taken a trip to or from WORK in the last 3 days? Yes No 3) How often do you typically change (including delaying or cancelling) a trip to or from WORK based on traveler information? This can happen either before a trip has begun or during a trip. Never 1-2 times a month 3-5 times a month 5 times a month 4) Have you changed a trip (including delaying or cancelling) to or from WORK based on traveler information in the last 3 days? Yes No 5) For the most recently changed WORK trip, were you a driver of a vehicle? passenger in a vehicle? traveler using public transportation (e.g., train, bus)? other (please specify) 6) Thinking about this most recent work trip ONLY, what sources of traveler information did you use when deciding to change (including delaying or cancelling)? Check all that apply.  511 traveler information phone number  Electronic HIGHWAY message signs (only on major highways)

F-2  Electronic LOCAL ROADWAY signs (only on local roads or surface streets)  Email, text alerts or phone call by subscription service  Highway advisory radio (AM stations used only for providing bulletins to travelers along the highway)  Mobile smartphone “apps” (e.g., iPhone or Droid-based applications)  On board devices (e.g., Garmin, TomTom, Onstar)  Radio (AM, FM, and satellite)  Social media (e.g., Twitter, Facebook) %  Television  Websites NOT on mobile devices (using a laptop or desktop)  Websites through mobile devices  Other (please specify) 7) Thinking about this most recent work trip ONLY, what types of traveler information did you use when deciding to change (including delaying or cancelling)? Check all that apply.  Alternate routes  Live traffic cameras  Parking availability  Public safety information (e.g., Amber alerts, Silver alerts)  Roadwork/construction zones and road closures  Safety information (e.g., “Buckle up,” “Signal when changing lanes”)  Special events  Traffic incidents  Travel times  Visual observation of traffic conditions  Weather information (including smog alerts)  Other (please specify) 8) Thinking about this most recent work trip ONLY, what sources of traveler information would you have liked when making your decision to change the trip? Note that even if some of these are not available in your area, we want to know what you would have liked to be available. Check all that apply.  511 traveler information phone number  Electronic HIGHWAY message signs (only on major highways)  Electronic LOCAL ROADWAY signs (only on local roads or surface streets)  Email, text alerts or phone call by subscription service  Highway advisory radio (AM stations used only for providing bulletins to travelers along the highway)  Mobile smartphone “apps” (e.g., iPhone or Droid-based applications)  On board devices (e.g., Garmin, TomTom, Onstar)  Radio (AM, FM, and satellite) Social media (e.g., Twitter, Facebook) Television  Websites NOT on mobile devices (using a laptop or desktop)  Websites through mobile devices  Other (please specify) 9) Thinking about this most recent work trip ONLY, what types of traveler information would you have liked when making your decision to change the trip? Note that even if some of these are not available in your area, we want to know what you would have liked to be available. Check all that apply.  Alternate routes

F-3  Live traffic cameras  Parking availability  Public safety information (e.g., Amber alerts, Silver alerts)  Roadwork/construction zones and road closures  Safety information (e.g., “Buckle up,” “Signal when changing lanes”)  Special events  Traffic incidents  Travel times  Visual observation of traffic conditions  Weather information (including smog alerts)  Other (please specify) 10) Thinking about typical work trips, what types of traveler information influences your decisions the most? Note that even if some of these are not available in your area, we want to know what would influence your decision. Check all that apply.  Alternate routes  Live traffic cameras  Parking availability  Public safety information (e.g., Amber alerts, Silver alerts)  Roadwork/construction zones and road closures  Safety information (e.g., “Buckle up,” “Signal when changing lanes”)  Special events  Traffic incidents  Travel times  Visual observation of traffic conditions  Weather information (including smog alerts)  Other (please specify) 11) Gender Male Female 12) Age < 18 18-29 30-44 45-60 > 60 13) Education Less than high school degree High school degree Some college Associate or bachelor degree Graduate degree

G-1 A P P E N D I X G Focus Group Summary: Overall • Everyone wants travel information that is clear, concise, and trustworthy – How often it is being updated – Where the information is coming from • Information that is trustworthy is the most important when making travel decisions – All of the focus groups felt that TV and radio are constantly being updated and find it to be a reliable source of information  Between TV and radio the majority felt that radio provided the best information because you were receiving the information while driving • Everyone has a radio, whereas not everyone has a Smartphone • Radio does not distract the driver, and does not break any distracted driving laws  The drawback to TV, is that you don’t have the information in the car with you and it can be out of date, by the time you start driving  Most individuals also relied on the internet for reliable traffic information • Google maps/MapQuest- for directions and alternate routes • Local newspapers or local news channels- for road closures and major incidents • Travel information that people don’t know where the information is coming from or how often the information is being updated they do not trust – Most people didn’t trust or use the highway advisory radio station  When most people tried the stations they felt the information was on a loop and not being updated  The radio stations did not provide a clear signal, everyone thought the radio stations were mostly “crackly” or “fuzzy” to hear • Highway traffic signs – People liked the signs, and thought the travel information was accurate – People liked when the sign had miles associated with travel time  e.g. 17 miles to exit x – travel time 20 minutes – Want to see more signs on the highways – Most people wanted signs before they merge on the highway, so they make better decisions about travel routes – Some people thought the signs were distracting and slowed traffic • All of the focus groups had concerns about travel information coming to their phones – Most people did not like to use their phone while driving – Most people did not want to receive texts while driving – Most people were concerned about state laws and using their phones while driving – In every state but California, people were not aware that 511 was a travel phone number they could call.  People were concerned about calling 511 because they didn’t want to use their phone while driving  Users of 511 seemed to like the system but wished it covered a broader area • Social Media and Apps – Very few people were using social media to receive travel information

G-2  The few people who used Twitter followed local news, they would only know traffic updates if it was a major traffic incident  Facebook users would see friends updates, occasionally on traffic but would not go to look for traffic information on the site – Most were not using their smart phones for travel information  Most were using the default “map” or “navigation” apps for directions or alternate routes  When people learned from the few who were using travel information apps they were excited and wanted to learn more • They liked the idea of receiving information that was specific and tailored to them • Concerns for travel apps, you need at least two people in the car to use the app • Older adults expressed concerns about apps and mentioned that apps are for “young people”  When looking for travel information everyone wanted the information to be accessible and to be relevant to them (local and targeted) • Overall people wanted to see a traffic map with easy to read information – Color maps, with green, red, and yellow easy to understand • Traffic congestion was a major concern – Where traffic congestion started and ended – What type of congestion  Normal rush hour congestion  Accident or road construction • What time the accident happened • When the accident was cleared • How many lanes are affected • They wanted to know travel times and alternate route travel times – Types of roads for alternate travel  Limited access highway, major arterial, minor arterial, or local roads • Almost everybody wanted to know weather conditions with traffic since it often plays a role in traffic delays • In some areas, displaying special event information that adversely affects roadways was viewed as vital (street closings, emergencies, etc.)

H-1 A P P E N D I X H Focus Group Summary: New York City (Teaneck, NJ) New York City metro area – Light Users Group – February 16, 2012 Introductions and responses to where they receive travel information • GPS; radio; smartphone; news; radio; looking out window, internet (hop stop) Sources of travel information • Radio – Most people like the radio because it gives you ahead’s up about what is going on. Listening to the radio is easy because you are already doing it, it gives you quick information and is not distracting when you are driving, like the phone. Most people feel nostalgic about the radio; the radio has always been around. Certain areas are talked about more than other areas on the radio. Most people think the radio relies on the public to call into the radio stations. – Most use it once they are in the car. Only a few people listen to the radio before they leave – Satellite radio doesn’t appear to update often. • TV/News – Instead of radio, most people will watch TV before they leave the house. They like when the news shows traffic cameras, especially during inclement weather. They also like the cameras because they can see exactly where the traffic incident is occurring. The news will also tell you what roads are blocked. The TV gives you more detail than the radio. • Apps – GPS is heavily used on the phones. People will check their phones before they leave, so they can judge the time they need to make the trip. – Waze – Interactive with other drivers near them. It works best if more than two people in the cars. It will constantly up date you if traffic stops and is updating in real-time. Does not like to use it by themselves in the car. They heard about it from word of mouth. – Trapster • Internet – Hopstops for travel – Google is used to identify the building they are going to, they like to see the street view option – Telamap – is great for speed limits. – Local county websites are used for looking at information on the Tappan Zee Bridge. The website is extremely accurate because you can see the street cameras. People aren’t using other DOT sites. • GPS

H-2 – They like if you make a mistake, it will still give you directions for the wrong turn. People said that you can get traffic information if you subscribe but most people aren’t paying for that service. They like that the GPS will update arrival time. • GPS/Navigation – Cars beep when you go over the speed limit; it is good to know when the speed limits changes. • Highway advisory radio – A few people have tuned in but the system is very mundane, the information is on a loop, and the station does not come in clear. They wished that the stations would update more often. • Highway message signs – The signs will say “accident ahead” most people feel that there is nothing you can do once you see the sign, you are committed to the road you are on, you must “tough it out”. The signs are helpful if you know the area. – Some signs will say use the alternate route, but the alternate route is still congested. – Some though that the signs are not accurate, especially when it says “7 minutes” to get across the bridge but in reality it takes “45 minutes”. – The signs were accurate when they listed road closures and construction. • 511 – No one in the group was familiar with it. • Local message signs – People have seen the signs and information would be posted about major events and list alternate routes. The signs are helpful and people will adjust their trip. • Social media – People will see it if their friends update. People have posted themselves that traffic is better. One person follows twitter for train information. – They find it accurate because people are on the ground and collecting the information. – It would be nice if there was a place that people could send in updates. • Brake lights in traffic – As soon as people see red lights and traffic they will change their patterns. • Emails or text alerts – People receive alerts for weather but not about roadways. • Public transportation – MTA Twitter is followed to look at train information. – Check the agencies websites for train times. – What type of information? • Parking – The app tells about parking and you can make a reservation at a parking lot and get a discount. – Best Parking app – it will highlight where on street parking is parking lots and it will give you the price of parking. You just need to enter an address. – People would find it very useful and they would use it if they aren’t using it yet. – People thought that app was useful, but for the most part it still comes down to timing. – Certain parts of the city this is more useful than other parts of the city. • Travel maps – Some of the people are visually oriented so they find the maps more useful, and like it communicate information. People like to see the maps so they can understand where they are going, more than just the turn by turn directions, they can be familiar with the area and then pick alternative routes. – Traffic cameras on the maps and congestion and camera’s not as helpful when you are sitting at home and before you enter traffic.

H-3 • Speed Cameras – It is nice to know where the cameras are located. • Road Closures – People are not aware how to find this information; they would like to have access to this information. • Emergency advisories – They would like to receive an alert stating that there is a major police presence; they don’t need to know the details but want to know something is going on. • Amber and Silver Alerts – Most people will pay attention to the information and are impressed on how well they work. • Traffic incidents – The group would like to know how many lanes are closed. The only time they see information is at night when nobody is on the bridge. • Travel time information – They like to see the travel time on the signs; people like to see the time and like to make a game out of it some have coined the game as “beat the time”. • Special event information – They find the information about special events on the radio. It would be helpful if this was on a smart phone app, so you can find out what streets are closed. – If you are new to the city and roads are closed most feel that people have to learn as they go, this is something that comes from experience. – They would like to see a text alert about events. • Weather – Weather channel and weather bug will give updates on road conditions. • Text alerts – There is a concern that they could get too many text alerts, they think an app would be more reasonable than text alerts. Too many texts could be bothersome. • Other – You have to know what time to leave; most people think that traffic is like a “game” that you have to beat. What is most accurate ? • You have to base travel on experience, they like the radio because it appears to be closest to real-time updates. They would trust most sources if they were giving real-time. • Radio is better, than an app because nothing is more frustrated when you lose a signal. What is the least accurate? • Websites - because they don’t take into account construction or accidents. The information is not real- time. What is the one piece of information that makes you change your trip ? • Special events, accident information, heat advisories when heading to the beach Overall value of traffic information? • Everyone felt that travel information is valuable because it lets you know why you are sitting in traffic. Knowing what is going reduces stress level of sitting in traffic.

H-4 What would be your ideal traffic information? • They want constancy, up-dates; local information e.g. when the local news stations are on the streets with bad weather such as snow; they would like an app with a news feed where you can start with you zip code and find out the information that you need. Most want local, but our concerns that the local information wouldn’t necessarily sink up nationally; they constantly want to be updated on what is going on; tailoring the information to where people are located; emergency information; sub categories with additional information, such as toll information, the information has to be current; the system should be voice activated; agencies should share information a seamless way to get information; some think every car should have a GPS that can receive alerts, but concerns about “big brother”. Final suggestions • Construction should be done at night.

H-5 New York City metro area – Heavy Users Group – February 15, 2012 Introductions and responses to where they receive travel information • TOM-TOM, Google Maps, Mentioned spouse having a tracking device where you can look online at location, etc, radio-traffic on the 8’s, Sirius radio, channel 12 in past, phone apps Sources of travel information • Radio – One participant likes Sirius • TV/News – Mentioned specific station NJ 12 which they like because traffic and weather in a loop-“know before you go.” Can only access on certain providers (Optimum). This station did not have news. • Apps – Use for public transportation. NYEmbark, NYCMate are two public transportation apps. Also use WAZE-easiest to use, shows accidents. Also, radio station 1010 wins up to date. Mentioned not being able to use phone while driving defeats purpose of having an app. • Internet – Google maps-like using for directions. Like that it is an actual map. Feels it provides options. – MapQuest-not always reliable • GPS/Navigation – Have to update software which was a dislike. Like that GPS with cell phone automatically updates, Sounded like one person allows traffic info through GPS to be enabled but do not seem to like and cannot silence because want directions. • Highway advisory radio – Have tried to use it and have gotten signal but mostly can’t get a signal. Would expect to get the signal when you see the sign for the radio channel but can’t. Should test the system. • Highway message signs – Some people do not like using the exit number. Another participant likes that they can tell about special events day before, e.g. Giants or Jets game and finds it helpful for travel planning, e.g. leave early. Sometimes too late to make decision from sign. Thinks placement of sign is important. Also, feel not as updated as frequently as far as delays. Like knowing about repair work. Real time for signs that say 4 minutes to X highway was a question one participant asked. • 511 – One participant mentioned it is confusing, difficult to navigate. Only want to know specific locations not all of NJ. Used website. Have never called except for one person who mentioned calling and not liking. • Local message signs – One participant mentioned that they see them and are up to date pretty much but signs are usually off even if there is traffic. Mentioned route 3 specifically. • Social media – WAZE app is interactive, can use to send Twitter alerts. Feels WAZE is up to date compared to other sources but it’s on the phone so cannot check when moving. Up to date as far as what people are experiencing. Will use WAZE at a gas station, etc. not when moving.

H-6 • Emails or text alerts – Have used PATH alerts for public transportation, subscriber services. Thinks it’s helpful. Would like for specific routes e.g., 109, turnpike. • Public transportation – Apps for public transportation. Metro North, Path, etc. Two apps mentioned NYEmbark and NYCMate What type of information? • Alternate routes/modes o Might like a sign with that information but do feel that many alternates are not available. Gridlock alert days. • Construction o Would like to see alerts. Do not know about it earlier, it just converges on you. • Public safety information o Think blinking lights are more attention getting. • Amber and Silver Alerts o Would like to know definitions of alerts. Also, really have to know cars to be aware. Thinks you would need paper to write info down. Difficult to catch this information. • Special event information o Sports stadiums near each other. Like the signs because you can plan an alternate route. Websites tell about certain events. Need to know especially in NY. • Weather o Never know what roads are open. Some channels show you but not always accurate. Use TV and radio. For snow emergencies or weather emergencies can find out through emails, town telephone system, etc. Other • Mentioned color blindness and issue of app and websites using red/green. Like the idea of some vehicles allowing texts, emails through radio. Think that would be good if it did not affect driving. • Took a long time to find something helpful, spend lots of time looking online. • New to area may have to check newspaper. What would be your ideal traffic information? • Would like information consolidated. Would like it through radio and something like an app that can be set to a location.

I-1 A P P E N D I X I Focus Group Summary: Orlando Orlando - Light Users Group - March 7, 2012 Introductions and responses to where they receive travel information • Radio; news; highway sign; radio; watches traffic patterns when driving; radio and watches traffic patterns; GPS with traffic conditions; news and calls friends; radio; highway signs and GPS. Sources of traveler information • Radio – The radio will state there is an accident but it doesn’t tell you when the accident will be cleared up. Sometimes the radio speakers will speak to fast and you miss the information. • TV/News – People watch the camera on the news, when they want to know about traffic, that way they can check to see if the accident was cleared. They think the cameras on the TV give more accurate information than the radio. And they like the visual component of the cameras. TV is very reliable before you get in the car, not helpful once you get in the car, most switches to radio. – Some people will watch the new, and then call their spouses or children and let them know the conditions they saw on the news. • Text/email alerts – Orlando Sentinel traffic sends text messages about traffic information. The texts are sent to her phone daily about traffic information, just when there is an accident on the road. – Most thought texts were only useful if you had a car or device that would read the text message to you. – Florida Sun pass for toll roads will send emails, with nearby construction that will affect the toll roads. The one lady who receives the lady doesn’t know how she got signed up for the emails. – One person said and several people agreed that she “will not risk her life or anyone else’s to check her phone while driving”. – People try to avoid traffic on their daily commutes, they know where to go, and they don’t want to see traffic information all the time that doesn’t apply to their daily traffic. • Apps – One person in the group was using an app that works with the GPS it was very reliable when looking at traffic. – A few people in the group were using the default travel app on their phone; they are not using any extra features. – One person knew of a public transportation app, in Houston, that would alert you if the buses were running late.

I-2 – One person used their spouses phone and found it very accurate. A few people pointed out that it only works best when traveling with more than one person in the car. – TeleNav GPS – they found the app to be very reliable, a friend told them about the app. – Several people in the group noted that apps were for the “young”. – Beat the Traffic app – it will send you an alert, like a text message. The app doesn’t speak to you, which people were concerned about in the group. • GPS/Navigation – Most were using their GPS for turn by turn directions. One lady’s GPS information gives her traffic information; it gives traffic information in real time. Then she will take the alternate route that her GPS suggest. – People didn’t like that you had to pay to get road updates in the GPS. • Onboard devices – Lexus-link has real time traffic, one person has it but they have not used the traffic feature yet. He felt that he knew better than the car. Lexus-link, you can call hands free and the operator will download directions to the car or you can enter in the directions. The system will even make reservations for you. • Highway Signs – The highway signs are very reliable and allow you to get out of certain lanes. Even if they can’t take an alternate route, they can tell someone they will be late with the time delays. – Everyone thought the signs were large enough and easy to read. They felt the signs have become more reliable over the past few years. The signs scroll between two messages, they are easy to read – but they would like to see the same sign a little further down the road so they could read the sign again in case if they miss something that the sign says. They would not like to share the signs with the Amber alerts if it is taking away from traffic conditions. – They would like to see more signs in rural areas. – They would like to see the signs before you pass the exit and they would like to see more signs. – They would like to see the signs color coated, so you could understand the signs as you are driving quickly by them. – What is nice is that it will give you time per mile. So you know if traffic will be bad for the next mile or over the next ten miles. – Some signs are great about notifying people about traffic patterns. • Highway advisory Radio Stations – The station can be reliable when there is a major accident. The few people in the group found it useful, but they don’t use it often. – One person will check the advisory station when traveling out of state to see what is going on. – A few tried the station a couple of times but wouldn’t try it again. • 511 – One member of the group tried the 511 system but found it difficult to use when he was driving. It was not user friendly. – Several in the group saw the signs but have never called the system. – Most people in the group weren’t familiar with the system. • Local Highway Signs – No local road signs. – They would like to see them on “feeder” roads. • Construction signs – portable – Some felt that the signs gave accurate information, but not that useful. They thought the distance was too close to traffic events. • Social media – People will post that they are in traffic but they don’t seek out traffic on social media websites. – Most people will check face book at home, not checking it in the car.

I-3 • Internet – People will go to the internet to check weather, so they can better plan their trip – Google and MapQuest – to check directions, they only check this when they are going out of town. – They would like to see traffic with the directions they are looking up to better plan their trips. • Public Transportation – No one is using public transportation. The public transportation is not good and reliable. What type of travel information? • Weather – Weather advisories will sometimes be posted on the highway signs. They want to know how the weather will affect road conditions. They would like to see more information about weather associated with traffic, especially in rural areas, where there is heavy fog and bush fires. They want the weather information up-to-date. – It would be nice to see signs that say “severe storms 2 miles ahead” because the weather patterns in Florida are not regular. – Concerns about pop up weather like Tornado’s – people would like an alert to know that there is a warning. • Special Events – The group wants to know more about road closures. Small signs such as sandwich boards, will remind people of events, but you have to be on certain roads to know about the events. – TV and newspaper will inform people but they acknowledge that some people don’t watch local news or read the newspaper. – They acknowledged that you can leave an event easily where there is a heavy police zone, but as soon as you get out of the zone it is hard to get around. • Construction – Street closures and how many lanes will be closed. They also want to know what time construction is happening so they can avoid the roads when construction is happening. It would be nice to plan ahead instead of being surprised by construction. • Travel times – They would want to know if all lanes are open. They like 10 miles, 15 minute it helpful because you can estimate your trip. You have to know the local roads to know which roads are congested to get the best travel times. • Alternate routes – Most people would prefer to drive out there way instead of being on stop and go roads. They would like to maybe see this information and internet site. – People felt they need to know the amount of time it will take the alternate routes. – They don’t like to take alternate routes that have many turns; they also will not take alternate routes if they don’t feel the neighborhood is safe. – They want to know how many lanes and what type of road is the alternate route. • Local road conditions – People need to know and understand when and how to make a left hand turn. • Tourist – Inform them of traffic on roads and what to expect on the roads. They should inform tourist of construction. Tourist should be given information on main toads about congestion, and what to expect when driving in the area. – Tourist drivers should get a sticker on their car that says “Tourist Driver”. • Traffic Incident

I-4 – They want to know what type of accident is it a hazmat or a fender bender. They want to know if traffic is moving and how many lanes are open. They also want to know how far the backup is. • Traffic Maps – They like that the maps show the location. People have concerns about how up-to-date the traffic maps. They like the ones on the news that are animated with the color dots. They like when it tells how long the traffic has been backed up. If you were in charge what would you do? • The system need to be real-time. Coordinate highways signs with apps. They need to have campaigns to let people aware of what systems are already out there, advertise more. Consider the fact that people do not have computers and apps and you have to make a system that is available to everyone. Most people thought that signs were the best solution to traffic, because you are getting information on the road that you are on. Signs are the best way to share information – bilingual signs are hard because what languages do you put up. It would be nice if your car could be tagged with language preference in car to send alerts, a custom app in the car that is user friendly. They would like a system that is voice activates. Suggestions to Orlando • Keep information current and reliable, more early warning, of signs at least 5 miles before an exit, more signs. Other Orlando • If the road is a toll road makes a major decision on which road they will take. • Highways signs are most reliable, when it comes to travel time. • It would be nice if you know traffic information as you travel outside of your area. People felt this information would have to be sent to cell phones or an onboard computer. • An app should be on your phone that will alert your to weather and traffic anywhere that you go. Even if it is a signal that will tell you to turn to the radio, like and emergency broadcast. • They would like the signs to show minimal information, but they would like to see more of them. • Long distance traffic will more likely check weather because that will dictate traffic congestions. • Most felt that the technology it out there to make traffic easier, they just need a clear and concise medium. • People will pay the tolls to avoid I4 – they don’t care how expensive it is worth it when travel is bad. • Computer systems that control the lights • Weather and time of day make a big difference in travel behavior. • Signs – will tell you about Amber Alerts. • Need more roads

I-5 Orlando - Heavy Users Group - March 6, 2012 Introductions and responses to where they receive travel information • News; prior knowledge; AM talk radio; overhead highway signs; overhead signs; internet sites such as MapQuest or Google maps; just sites in traffic; TV and radio Sources of traveler information • TV/ News – Several people in the group watched TV in the morning before they left for their trip. Most found that TV news travel information was reliable. They liked the fact that the TV news stations updated traffic every 10 minutes. – Some of the group felt that the major drawback of TV was that by the time you get in the car and start your trip, the accident you learned about on TV may already be cleared up. Some people thought that TV is a good source of information but they don’t have time to watch it in the morning. • Radio – Everyone in the group liked and uses the radio to receive travel information. Most people in the group thought that the radio was the most current source of travel information. They also liked that most stations update the traffic conditions every 10 minutes. One of the other reasons that people liked the radio is because people call in the accidents to the radio, so they know the information is current. People also found the radio easy to use when traveling to other cities. – What they don’t like about the radio is that people don’t call into the radio when the accident is clear. They also see a need for more information from the radio if a major accident just occurred. – A few people in the group have either tried or currently use FM Sirius Satellite Radio; they found the traffic radio station to be very accurate and up-to-date. They liked that you could set the radio station to the city you were in. • GPS/Navigation – For the few people who had traffic information on their GPS they said that the traffic information is reliable and nice to have. Most noted that older GPS models only provided turn by turn directions, not traffic conditions. – Most people are using GPS for turn by turn directions, and they don’t use their GPS for their daily commute, they only use it when traveling out of town. – Most thought that having traffic conditions on their GPS would be helpful. • Highway overhead signs – Overall the group likes the information received on the highway signs. They thought the information was easy to read, and significantly easier to read than the portable highway signs – The major dislikes of the signs are when they give range of “3-8 minutes” not very useful. It would more useful to give a more precise travel time. It would also be more useful to just list “no congestion” instead of a message that says “3-8 minutes”. – Some people were confused about messages on the signs, for instance several people did not know what a Silver Alert was. When the sign is blank they don’t know what to expect and wonder what a blank sign means. – People are not aware of problems because there aren’t enough signs especially when a road is closed because of bad accidents. Most people wanted to see more signs. • Local road signs – No local road signs in Orlando. • Highway advisory stations

I-6 – A few people in the group have used the AM advisory when they have traveled to other cities. – The major dislike of the advisory stations is that the information is robotic and on a loop, it makes you wonder how up to date it is. Everyone felt you aren’t going to get instantaneous information on the channel. – Most thought that AM stations do not seem to reach young adults, only older people tune in. Everyone thought that AM stations seem to be “crackly”. – Everyone felt other radio stations are better, because you also get other information such as news, while you are listening. • 511 – Nobody in the room has ever called the system; several people said they didn’t even know what it was for. – Most said they won’t use the system because they don’t like to use their cell phone while they are driving. • Phone Apps – Most people didn’t know that there were travel information apps. – People like the idea of an app because they can go to the information when they want it; most thought they would prefer an app instead of being texted all the time. • Internet – Most commonly used Websites:  Website for I-4 that is just for traffic for that road. Runs by the state, and is really up to date  MapQuest -most people preferred • Dislike lack of traffic information • Liked, when traveling in Las Vegas, that MapQuest updated congestion zones, but they never saw this feature in Orlando • On Star and other onboard systems – Nobody in the group is using OnStar or any other system, in their car. One person once used it in a rental car, but they didn’t see the system as something worth paying for. • Social Media – Nobody is using social media for traffic information. • Text messages or emails – Several people have heard about it, but they don’t know how to access text or email alerts about traffic. A few people in the group received breaking news emails. Occasionally a traffic email is sent, in the breaking news emails but it has to be a major traffic incident. – People would sign-up for, text message of email alerts if it was a free service. – One person, received severe weather texts for Tennessee, but they didn’t know how they were signed up for the service, they thought it would be nice if this included traffic information. – “Older adults don’t do text”, they try not to talk or text while they are driving. – One lady had an app, that doesn’t allow her to get text or phone calls while she is driving. She doesn’t know how she got it. • Public transportation – No one in the group was using public transportation. – What would you like to see in travel information? • Traffic cameras – Link cameras that are on highways and major roads and make them accessible to the public, so people can see real-time information.

I-7 – They would like to see this information in several mediums such as an app, feed the information into the car’s onboard computer, and/or add it to a website. It was noted that this could be distracting to the people in the car. • Traffic maps – Set app to the city that you are traveling through, but if you are familiar with the city with basic information, show information on a map that is easy to read. Several people thought this would work best if you are traveling with someone so it is less distracting. – Maps need county name information, especially for emergency information.  Example of tornado’s in Illinois in early March people didn’t know what county they were traveling through, and did not know when to take cover mentioned on CNN and one lady thought this was important information. • Major traffic Incidents – For major traffic incidents, like when the highway closed, there should be an emergency broadcast system. But this is only for severe traffic conditions, like when a highway is shut down. • Update on road changes – When there are updates in road changes, most of the group felt that the highway signs were very accurate. They also looked for information on road changes in the newspapers, especially on new traffic patterns. – Most people in the group did not like getting traffic information updates from the portable highway signs. Several people in the group did not pay attention to the potable signs. Most felt they did not give accurate information and that the signs were very hard to read. – One person in the group saw a portable sign that read “trek ahead caution zombies” people were pulling off to take pictures; at least the signs were amusing. • Weather – Hurricane related traffic information, everybody want to know what roads were closed, when tolls were lifted for evacuation, when both sides of the highways are used for evacuation out of the city, which local roads were not accessible, and which alternate routes they can use when a road it too congested. The major information for traffic information is the TV. – For an unexpected weather event, most thought that you have to find out the information from an AM/FM radio. • Parking – Nobody in the group saw a need for parking information. The only place where parking was an issue was downtown Orlando. • Special events – The most important information that people in the group wanted to know, was what time and when the event was happening. Radio is a good place to find out special event information. Everybody felt that it was hard not to know about major events if you lived in the area, because they are well advertised on TV and radio.  e.g., NBA All-star game - TV showed map of road closures, everybody felt that if they didn’t need to be at the event they would avoid the area and traffic. • Congestion – When there is traffic congestion everybody in the group wanted to know what type of congestion, expected time of opening of roads that were affected, and alternate routes. • Public safety – An alert should happen when there are felons that have escaped from prison. You can be more aware when you are driving. –

I-8 Overall traffic information • Clear and concise information – What is going on – what type of traffic incident happened – What lanes and roads are affected • Real-time information of what is going on the road • Have information shared through a Bluetooth, if your car doesn’t have an onboard computer. • Most people in the group would pay for a travel app if they could find out information that is important to them: • They want to know - when there is traffic congestion, what type of congestion, expected time of opening, alternate routes, fuel, rest areas, construction, gas station prices, gas station locations in relationship to the highway (how far), nearby food, important weather information such as smoke and fog. Overall value of traffic information • Nice to have because it avoids the hassle, saves time, creates less aggravation, energy saver, let you avoid congestion, let’s you avoid construction, informs you of travel times • Some felt that information valued differently depending on where you are, local vs. non-local. When you are local you hear information more often on news and TV, whereas for non-local traffic you are less informed of the area and need to know more. Traffic information solutions • Most thought that the best solution is an app that can be “On Demand” so that the user can seek out the information that you want. • They liked the idea of an app because like the radio you have the choice to tune in or not. • When developing an app, most people in the group thought that you need to be considerate to different demographics and age groups. The system needs to be universal to keep everyone informed. If you were in charge, what would you do? • Set up big screen TV screens with travel information • Add highway signs to other major roads • App that you could access “On Demand” so you could extract information that you want – no wasting time listening to information that doesn’t pertain to you. • Voice interactive information system so you can be hands free in the car • They want additional information such as weather, construction, what is a good place to eat, a GPS like system that is either in the car that is interactive that is real-time information about your travel route and that is interactive about your route. • They liked travel maps –easy to view, like on the GPS • They also want to know if traffic is backed up how far it backed up. • It helps to remind people not to look at accidents, signs should say maintain speed, keep right, people need to be reminded to keep moving. Specific recommendation to Orlando • Integrate what you have and make it more available to everyone; most felt that technology is being wasted by not sharing it.

I-9 • They all wanted better signage and more signs further away from road, so people have more time to prepare and react to the signs. Other • Speed limit signs - the speed limit changes and you don’t know what the speed limit is or when it changes. • When you leave for work affect how badly traffic is. • Key to traffic is timing. • In Orlando, the roads have multiple names so it can be confusing on how to get around. • Apps don’t necessarily serve the entire population. The radio can’t give you all but it can give a good overview of the most important information – but people have to know where to go to get the information. Broadcast the radio stations on the signs over the freeway.

J-1 A P P E N D I X J Focus Group Summary: San Francisco Introductions and responses to where they receive travel information San Francisco - Light Users Group – February 29, 2012 • Highway signs; SF Navigator to look for traffic information, radio and online; online for traffic conditions; news; personal knowledge, retired so is flexible; news for local traffic, internet for out of town travel; 511 Sources of traveler information • 511 – Most people in the group were familiar with 511 on the phone or website. People felt that the 511 phone system had a “reassuring voice”. People who had used the system felt that the voice recognition on the system was very good. Everyone who used the system liked that the system gives you multiple routes. Everyone enjoyed the humor in the message “Exit was destroyed” the system said this after a tanker truck exploded on an exit ramp. – One of the major disappointments for the 511 system was limitations in the start trips and destinations. It only worked efficiently if you were starting or ending your trips on certain major roads. • Internet Websites – 511.org – people liked the pictures of the maps and they thought the colors were easy to understand and it was easy to zoom in and explore the map. They didn’t like that there were limited points on the maps, and at times not accurate. – SF navigation – likes the color maps – MapQuest – Google/Bing –likes the traffic maps, most thought the information varies on how reliable it was. Most the information on Google/Bing was always improving. • Highway overhead signs – Most people that that time to travel destination was very reliable, but not helpful when looking for alternate routes. Most people liked the signs and they didn’t think there were enough of signs. – A few people thought that signs can be confusing and not clear about the bridge. For example the bridge was only closed one way not both ways like the signs implied. – A lot of time the freeway signs give you information too late, most times you see the highway sign but it is too late you are already committed to the road you are on. Seeing the sign “makes you sad”, because it is too late to change your trip. • TV/News – Most people found the traffic reports on the news very reliable. Watching the news on TV in the morning is easy to use when you are getting ready in the morning.

J-2 • Smart phones – websites or apps – Several people in the group use default map app on their smart phone. Many people relied on Google maps for traffic information and thought the traffic updates were very good. – Most people don’t like using their phones when driving but most admit that they look at their phones if they are already sitting in traffic to see how bad traffic is. • On Star and other onboard systems – One person in the group was using Ford directions. They liked the fact that car will use Bluetooth in car and that the system will read you turn by turn directions – Onstar, people like that the system gives you directions • GPS/Navigation – Some people were using GPS systems with traffic layers. Most didn’t think the traffic information was in real-time. And the systems that they were using were not very reliable and spotty in certain areas. When traffic is bad, there are not a lot of alternate routes to take; people will take out printed directions as a back-up to their GPS. – Most people don’t use GPS on their daily commute because they understand and know the roads they are taking. • Emails and text messages – No one was using emails or text alerts, most people want to know who sends the information and how reliable the information is. • Social Media – A few people in the group have tweeted if they are in bad traffic. When traveling to major events, they will look at friends updates to monitor how bad traffic is. – No one is seeking out traffic information on social media. A few people follow local news channels on twitter and will occasionally see traffic information but they don’t seek out the traffic information. • Radio – Everyone likes radio as a decision making tool. They like stations that encourage listeners to call in and report the problems. A few people will switch to AM news stations when the traffic gets bad. – A dislike about the radio is that sometimes the information comes too quickly, you might miss the road that you are interested in. • Traffic cameras – Some felt that they were helpful in major accidents. • Highway advisory radio stations – Most people think the advisory radio station never works. A few people have said that they tune into the station when they travel to Lake Tahoe, through the mountains, they will mainly check to see if roads are closed or if they need to add chains. • Other – People will call their friends to let them know not to go certain ways, when they are in bad traffic. – Check traffic from back window at her house, because she can see the highway and if it delayed. • Public transportation – A few people call a 4 digit phone number to hear about bus times in Emeryville, and find the times to be very accurate. – They like apps for public buses. – Most people check for bus information before they travel. They will check to see if there are any delays. They will also look up bus schedules on the internet. If the travel time is wrong for the buses they will sometime drive because it is faster. – Most people will use public transportation if it is accessible to the event that they are going to. Most people thought that BART was very reliable; they thought the MUNI bus system was less reliable.

J-3 Information about the San Francisco Bay Bridge closure • The information was well advertised on the news, radio, highway signs, some even saw flyers posted at restaurants. • They wanted to know more about train information when the bridge was closed, some people knew that extra trains were running but did not know a lot of information about it. • When the bridge opened early they found out on the news and radio. What would you like to see in travel information? • Trip time – They like the highway signs with trip information. Most people like to see how long the trip should take. They also want to know if the traffic is heavy, or light especially if it is a road they don’t typically travel, just stating highway time to next road isn’t always helpful without extra information. • Public Transportation – Most people thought that it was just most important to know what buses or trains were delayed. • Traffic delays – People want to know what type of incident happened on the road, so they can adjust their trip. Most people like that 511 will tell you the incident on the road. • Special events – Most of the time there are signs that let you know if a game is going on or a scheduled sporting event. – With parades most people want to know what streets are closed. They also want to know a good centralized place to get the information. It would also be nice to know where critical mass is gathering so they can avoid it. • Parking – Most people would like to receive notifications of parking garages. – Some thought that parking meters notifications would be nice. They aren’t using the app but they are aware that they are out there or that they are going to be created. The apps that they are using have very little reliability. Most people have no faith that the parking apps would be accurate. • Construction zone – Most thought it would be nice for detours and alternate routes. They also want to know the length of the road closure. They also want to know how many lanes will be affected when there is construction. • Alternate routes – It is nice to see alternate travel routes on their IPhones, they like that the app will give you three different options – When looking for alternate routes they would like a system that would give you route A and B are busy you should take route C. It would nice to know fastest route. – Most people just want to know major places to avoid. – Most people want to see how long the backup is going to be. Most people felt that the sign is too late, especially when traveling though the tunnels. Once they see that there is a delay you are there and you have to commit to the road. • Weather – Weather is important information to have when traveling through the mountains.

J-4 Which system is most reliable? • Most people felt that TV Local News, 511, Radio, and Online 511were the most reliable. What travel information is annoying? • When you hear there is a traffic incident but once you get to the spot on the road it is cleared out. No one ever reports when the incident is cleared. What disappointments to you have with travel information? • People dislike that on the radio you have no control over the information you get. Missing data on some towns in the 511 area, the scope isn’t wide enough. Inaccurate times and inaccurate routes on GPS, GPS isn’t up to date in new developments. If you were in charge, what would you do? • They like to see maps online because they are in more control in travel information that pertains to them, they would like to see more of this. They would also like to see speed limits on maps that they are looking at online. They would also like to see HOV lane information. They want to see what type of accident it is, for example a tractor trailer takes longer to clean up and they would like to know how long the cleanup will take. Visual comments to the traffic conditions are very helpful. People also like traffic cameras, but no one is seeking them out. • They want to know how backed up each freeway on ramp is; where to park for free, when meters run out, where tow away zones are, and how much the ticket is going to be; extreme weather; estimated time travel would be useful, real-time would be better. Average time would be good too; Gas prices, where to find cheap gas; Streets with timed light changes, because they are the streets that you want to be on during rush hour; crime statistics for an area traveling thought, something like Microsoft’s recently announced walking navigation system that allows users to avoid high-crime neighborhoods. • For public transportation they want to see bus and train times at stops on a running ticker and have it at every stop. Concerns on travel information • Everybody wants to know how accurate the travel information is. Most feel that false information is worse than no information. Other • Internet is the easiest information to need. The color maps are very clear. They would like to see if the line is red it would be nice to why it is red. • Most information is easy to understand it has been dumbed down, and it is just limited. • Most people want clear and concise signs. A few people suggested a rating system of the signs, maybe in color, so it is easy to understand what traffic conditions are and how long travel time should take. Overall value of traffic information • Time, peace of mind, avoid stop and go traffic, avoid frustration, safety issue – avoid accidents

J-5 Specific recommendations to San Francisco • San Francisco has limited routes • Barrier to using apps, is the monthly service to provider. • People compare different websites, especially in the city where there are often one way streets • People already know the alternate routes because they have lived there so long. • San Francisco doesn’t have many alternate routes.

J-6 San Francisco - Heavy Users Group – February 28, 2012 Introductions and responses to where they receive travel information • GPS used to changed travel information; Friend texted information; Looks at traffic patterns on internet; Received information from signs about weather; Internet before they leave home and GPS; Watches traffic patterns; Checks 511 voice activated system Sources of traveler information • 511 – Some of the group is using 511; everyone who is using the system said that is very reliable. People like 511.org as well because it has links to everything. – The people that are using 511, learned about the phone number from signs on the road. – For the rest of the group that is not using 511 they don’t think about using it, and they prefer other systems. • Internet – Most people in the group that checked the internet for travel information checked more than one internet site. – Most people liked to look up travel information on the internet because most sites give alternate routes, they can choose a route that does not have tolls, and they can look up restaurants and other points of interest on the maps. Another major positive is that websites like Google give an option for walkable routes – Most commonly used Websites:  511.org - Likes that it links to everything  Google Maps (used on occasion but not often by most) -Good because it gives alternate routes and people liked that you can drag the route, so you can pick your own roads  SF Chronicle –online newspaper  Other local TV or news web pages  MapQuest  BART – for public transportation  “Muni” – website for public transportation  Buses are equipped with GPS -even though the buses should give you real time information it doesn’t work well and is not very accurate • TV/News – Most people liked getting travel information from the news because it is detailed and can give you specific travel information. – The major dislike of travel information from the TV is that it is hard to get accurate information by the time you leave. • Radio – A lot of people in the group used radio as a decision making tool, everybody that used the radio thought that it was a very reliable source to receive travel information. • GPS/ Navigation – People mainly use their GPS for turn by turn directions; they find it accurate and very reliable. They like that the GPS will give an option of three different routes to take and the fact the GPS speaks to you.

J-7 – The major issue with the GPS systems is that they are hard to keep up to date, San Francisco has a lot of one way streets, and the GPS is not always current. Several people in the group thought that you should back up the GPS with paper maps. They thought the paper maps were kept more current and provided a good detailed map to use. Most printed out directions or carried a paper map in case there GPS doesn’t work (especially when traveling near the mountains). – Most people felt that their smart phones, either Android or IPhone, had a more reliable GPS than the portable units that they place in their cars • Apps – For the people in the groups that had smart phones, many of them have not loaded additional apps on their phones; they use the app that was provided, which is typically called navigation. – DriveSafe.ly is a free app that reads text messages through your Bluetooth, one person in the group is using this. – Everyone thought that voice commands are key to using phones when driving. – A few people are aware of public transportation apps, but nobody was using them. • Social Media – No one is looking for travel information on social media. A few said that if a friend posts something on traffic they will acknowledge it but they will not actively look for information there. • Text/Email Alerts – A few people in the group received text alerts. The people who received the text alerts found them to be very reliable. – The information from the text alerts came from San Mateo County Sheriff’s office; it is also limited information for San Mateo County information. The San Mateo county alerts can come from either a text message or via email, and the service is free. One lady knew from a friend the other lady knew because her niece works in the sheriff’s office. The service is not widely known. The service does not update often, but when it is updated it is very reliable. • Highway overhead signs – Most people felt that highway travel signs are very accurate and reliable source of information. – The major dislikes of the highway travel signs are that once you see the signs in most areas it is too late to change your travel decision, and for the most part in San Francisco there aren’t very many alternate routes to choose from. Most people felt that traffic slows down when the sign has information because people are slowing down to read the sign. • On Star and other onboard systems – A few people in the group were using OnStar; they liked it because it was nice to talk someone to find alternate routes. • Public transportation – Public transportation is often unreliable in the city. Better transportation information is needed. What would you like to see in travel information? • Parking – Most people thought that parking in the city was a problem. Some people had turned to an app to find parking spaces, which seems reliable. The app listed garages and told you how many spaces were left. They learned about the app in the San Francisco Chronicle. – In general, most people wanted to know where they could find free parking and when streets became tow away zones. • Special Events – Watching TV and reading the newspaper was the best way to learn about special events.

J-8 – Most people in the group wanted more information on events, like a list of events in advance that were happening on a weekend. They also wanted to know the date and time, the main routes to event, alternate routes around the event, and traffic the day of the event with routes and alternate routes • Additional information – People would like see information about the surrounding counties to San Francisco, because most travel isn’t limited to the city or surrounding suburbs. • Big alerts such as the Bay Bridge closure – Billboards had the notice, highway signs had the notice, TV, radio the information was everywhere. And it was given weeks in advance. Everyone in the group knew this event was going to happen and was prepared for it. • Traffic congestion – “Traffic congestion is just something you have to deal with”. For most places there are limited alternate routes. Everyone felt that if you want to avoid congestion leave earlier. – Everyone liked that the traffic congestion colors were consistent on all the maps that they looked at. It made it easy to understand. Overall traffic information • There is a lot of information already out there. • We already receive too much traffic information. What gives you the most piece of mind before you travel? • Most people felt that the travel information didn’t give them much peace of mind. Before they begin a trip most people prefer to map out the route to make their travel decisions. Everyone felt that it is just best to leave early. If you were in charge, what would you do? • It would be nice to have free apps, where you don’t have to pay for the extra add ons. That is the one thing they did not like about current navigation systems, or certain apps. Everyone felt this information should be free • Everyone wanted to see more accurate clear time of accidents; they understand that it takes time they just want to know how much time. Most people felt that by the time people find out about the accident they are already committed to the route. • In emergencies they want to hear alerts on their phones, to learn about which routes are accessible. They felt this information is useful on the phone since they always have their phone with them. • Most people felt that Apps and texts are dangerous to use when driving. • People want more up-to-date information; More consistency in information, a one stop shop of information; display destination and time, to show traffic patterns; have free data sent to phones. What is the most credible source of information that you are receiving? • Signs credible when on highway; Google, changes with time, which is reliable; 511, very accurate whenever it is called

J-9 Confusing information • Streets not updated in maps where they are making travel decisions. Also, signs can be confusing, when the information is not clear, e.g. when you can make a left turn during rush hour. Convenient sources of information • Radio and GPS are most convenient driving. Internet and news before you leave for your trip. Receiving travel information • Many people thought that receiving travel information saves time and creates less stress. • A few felt that all of the travel information makes you worry more. What did you look at before you came to the focus group? • Some people entered the address in the phone and allowed an extra few minutes • Some took public transportation because it was convenient and they didn’t have to worry about parking • Check times of trains and buses before they left so they knew when to leave, checked on internet before they left. Specific recommendation to San Francisco • People just know that there are certain times to travel then other times • Most of travel information is intuitive to the city • Traffic is an everyday problem, best to just double your time • San Francisco does not push public transportation, and public transportation doesn’t connect, and very expensive, and not frequent • Most of the group doesn’t travel far on their daily commute.

K-1 A P P E N D I X K Focus Group Summary: Washington DC Metro (Rockville, MD) Rockville - Light Users Group – February 8, 2012 Introductions and responses to where they receive travel information • Radio or news on TV; alerts to phone, radio and signs; GPS – with traffic; TV or overhead signs; Phone and Sirius radio and Montgomery county dispatch information; Radio; Just knowing the roads and the road conditions Sources of traveler information • Radio – They like that traffic conditions are updated every 10 minutes so you can channel surf the radio and come back when you want traffic information. They like that you also get news updates with the radio. You are able to get a lot of information in a short amount of time. – Sirius radio – updates traffic on the “3’s” so you know when to tune in. Sirius will give you an alert to know that traffic is happening so you know to switch to the traffic station. – They dislike, when the radio just says the exit number and not the name of the road. • Overhead signs – They want to see reliable information; they would also like to post information about what is going on the road. Some people thought that the traffic signs slow down traffic. It can also be had to see when the sun is at certain angles. The signs can be distracting. People who see the boards everyday like that the signs are accurate and have become accustomed to viewing them. People who see the signs every day do change their routes based on information they see from the sign. – The amount of information that is currently on the signs is the right amount. • Local road signs – There aren’t any local signs around Montgomery County. – They would like to see them because any information can be useful. • Highway Advisory Radio – They dislike that the information is on the loop, and the information isn’t clear. Most people felt the information was old. People felt it was hard to tune into and once you found the station it was very grainy and hard to hear. Most people have tried to use it. – They would like to see the information on an FM radio station. • GPS/Navigation – People like that the GPS talks to you to give you information. People prefer the information because they can seek it out and find it when they want it. – People like it when the GPS gives you different routes.

K-2 – People acknowledge that the best way to keep you updated is to constantly update your GPS. Some people get messages that they have to update their GPS. You have to pay to get either lifetime updates – Internet – MapQuest – to get an idea of the route – GoogleMaps for directions – Bay Bridge website for bridge information • TV/News – Most people check the news in the morning before they leave. It won’t influence the decision making for most people but it provides good information. – OnDemand on TV – you can look to see traffic and weather. This service is on both Comcast and Verizon. The people who use this found it very accurate. – Apps – TellaMap – gives good information – found out the information from her husband. – GoogleMaps or the default map on their phones is what is primarily used. – A few people weren’t aware that their phones had GPS • Text/emails – Montgomery county alert sends out emails that alert about traffic. The one person using it found out from their wife. • Social Media – No one is seeking out traffic information on social media. The only information they see about traffic is if a friend posts something. • 511 – No one was aware of 511; a few have seen the signs. One person called it once never called it again, they thought it was confusing but they called years ago. They wanted to know how often the system was updated. – Concerns about it being cancelled, the weather number that they used to check is no longer in service – They would like to see a traffic phone number. Cautious about phone systems because most people thought that you shouldn’t use your phone while driving. What type of information? • Alternate routes – It is hard to find out alternate routes; unless you have a GPS. • Parking availability – They want to have a sign that would let them know how many parking spots are available, or before they pull into a garage, how many spots are left. – They also want to know when they can’t park in certain areas, because they might get towed or ticketed. • Construction – When construction starts and when it is going to end. Construction during the day is confusing; it should be done at night. – TV access channels would be a good place to find this information. Or display this information on an alert across all TV channels, to get people’s attention that don’t watch the news. It would also be good to find this on a website. They also need more information that is real-time. – It would be nice to know where there will be lane closures, not only for construction but also for things like tree trimming, and inform people what the alternate routes are. – They would like to see this information on a website like montgomerycounty.gov. • Alerts

K-3 – People liked them on the signs because they know they should stay alert. What people would like to see? • They are concerned if the apps are free or if they have to pay for them. • They want information that is easy to use and is simple. You need to adjust to all levels not all people are computer friendly. • They want information that is important to where they are traveling to, if they are not traveling to certain areas, they don’t want to know about it. • They like to see colors on map, they are easy to use. Red, yellow, and green are easy to understand. • They want a graphic organization, where they can search for the information that they need. • They want a free app. • People would like an alert either to the radio or to the phone (which they can’t use in MD) to let them know when traffic is bad. • People would like to filter what information they don’t need. Some systems already let you choose which information you want to receive. • Several concerns about how to access the text while diving, some people don’t look at their phone when they are driving because it is distracting. Some people responded that you do text to Bluetooth so the texts will be read to them as the solution. What are you looking for when the weather is bad? – Most people know to leave early, and they just assume that the traffic will be bad. Most people won’t look for information if it is a short trip. Emergency • They would like to have a plan of action of where they can go to get information. They would like an app for emergency situation, so people didn’t cluster on one road. • Homeland Security should provide an app with safety information, alternate routes, congestion, and emergency evacuation routes. – Example of earthquake that happened last summer: People didn’t know where to go for information. It would be nice to have information sent to their phones – people did note that the earthquake the phones systems did jam.Texts would be the best way to get the information. Where would you want information if you were from out of town? • People would rely on radio, and GPS. Most credible source of information • Radio was what most people felt was credible, followed by GPS, TV, road signs Most confusing • Some people thought that TV has confusing information, and not as accurate.

K-4 Once you have started your trip • Radio and traffic alerts, and highway signs. Before your trip • People watch TV to learn about traffic. What is the most beneficial piece of information? • Radio has the best explanation, because it often tells you what is happening. Like what type of accident or when events are happening or ending. Overall value of traffic information • Making informed decision; better judgment of time; real-time information is most important; knowing patterns of the area; how long it will take you; knowing traffic patterns. Other • Traffic camera’s cause problems because people slow down when they see them. • Time of day will make the most important decision when it comes to traffic. • There was some confusion in the group about what defined a smartphone.

K-5 Rockville - Heavy Users Group - October 2011 Sources of traveler information • Radio – Trusted when caller phones in, felt information more up to the minute and most people can access. – Cons were that may not know stations for certain locations and have to pay for satellite radio or similar services. Also, the information only provided at certain times, e.g. WTOP traffic on the 8’s. • Websites – Mentioned using Verizon Fios, able to see 20 incidents at a time. One participant mentioned looking for location to make decision Pros were that you could trust websites for route planning, especially in local area. – MapQuest/Microsoft Streets and Trips  Find a good suggestion maybe about an exit one had not thought to take previously  Sometimes MapQuest will take you on longer route  Like the side notes that tell you if you’ve seen X then you’ve gone too far – Cons to websites were if you look at information before leaving house it could change by the time you get to a certain route. Felt that it may be useful if leaving to go somewhere in the middle of the day. Do not seem to have as much trust for planning alternate routes when route planning, e.g., feel that others will be getting the same information and then alternate will be backed up. Less trust of websites if out of local area. Also, they were concerned about lack of access, e.g., everyone does not have computer access. • Websites on Phone – Cons are that it is the same as being on the computer, cannot look at information unless a passenger is in the vehicle, have to constantly look at it. Also, lack of access. • Phone Apps – Mentioned several phone apps that have been used. Like that phone apps provide information via voice. – TeleNAV  Really good data  Tends to be five minutes to a half mile behind traffic  When app says “red” it is really slow  One participant said “Like to see if I can get past the red before the traffic really breaks”  Same participant said about app “Pretty good, works up and down the East Coast accurately” – Beat the Traffic  Info about location of accidents • Uses icons to provide info about incidents/accidents • Red icon  Can click on it and get exact location  Provides alternate routes  Provides exact location  One participant liked that it lets you choose the best thing for you by providing a specific address not just the area  Free or can get a premium version  One participant felt it was a benefit over text alerts, such as Montgomery County Alerts because it provides specific locations but one still have to decide what the choices are for them – MotionX  Info about accidents, i.e. 5 miles down the road there is an accident

K-6  Traffic updates every half hour – Cons to phone apps are lack of access as everyone does not have a Smartphone. Also, some are fee based, e.g., Motion X • Social Media – Participants thought Twitter could be “ok” if source was not a friend, i.e. source was DOT – Cons to social media included being less trusting of other people’s opinions. One participant said “opinions on how bad things are…are so different.” Felt that the news would give more exact feedback. Felt that a caller on the radio mentioning a specific traffic incident more trustworthy than social media. Also, lack of access to social media mediums, e.g. smartphone or computer. • Text messages or emails – Signed up to local info, e.g. Montgomery County, MD alerts. Thinks that the local alerts are pretty good. Like that you get information the entire day. – One con is that people felt you should not get text alerts when you are not traveling, i.e., 5am • Highway Advisory Radio – One participant felt it could be a useful source because you do not have to play with a cell phone to use. Participant also said “idea that it is in your car would be more immediate – Cons were that it is hard to access clearly, fades in and out and can be days behind. • 511 – One participant has tried system on New Jersey turnpike, Punch numbers while driving. Group not aware of system in MD • GPS/Navigation – Like that some systems, i.e. TOMTOM provide speed info and alerts – Cons to GPS are that you need to program info into it and it does not provide all the features that an app can provide. • Highway overhead signs – Like that they are pretty accurate, e.g., Felt that for Dulles Toll Rd., sign more up to date than website. Also, pay attention to them, e.g., bright. – Felt that there are not enough signs. What would you like to see in travel information? • Congestion/Incidents – Would use another route if 270 was blocked. One participant feels that the radio usually knows where the nasty ones are. One participant felt that the issue is that it usually takes a while to get the information, confirm the info and disseminate the info with this info source (radio). • Traffic Cameras/Hot Spots – Feel that they are a good info source when working. One participant mentioned website with cameras for information about Bay Bridge- like that you can pick section of the road. Use Traffic.Com and Fox 5 News or NBC 4. • Construction – Areas to avoid. The Beat the Traffic shows an icon of construction cone indicates area where construction is and can click on it and get address where it is occurring. • Route planning – Decisions about delay times. Mentioned that it may be easier to deal with a 10-15 minute delay than to change routes altogether. Overall- Information Sources • Some suggested one source/integrated source

K-7 – Source would need to be credible with a lot of info  “One of the key things would be collecting the data so it is accurate” – Want a source that is “seamless, easy and inexpensive” – “Just like cell phone companies they merge to make things better, come together to make things better” – One participant preferred single radio station throughout each state that would change as you got to the next state via the signal  Likened to watch changing when you fly – Want multiple sources so one can pick and choose which one is accurate – Something more ongoing, i.e. constantly cycling through the information  Local radio only updates on the 8’s Information Type- • “More, faster, better” • Customization of information types – Want to know about specific route applicable to them • Want to see information about special events especially if traveling from another city to one not as familiar with – Could be a bulletin/sign  Would need to be close to an alternate so close enough to make a route decision – Something possibly as part of traffic app  Add an icon  Use zip code

L-1 A P P E N D I X L Results (combined): Detroit/Salt Lake City Metro Areas

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M-1 A P P E N D I X M Results (combined): NYC (Teaneak,NJ)/Orlando/San Francisco/Washington, DC (Rockville, MD) Metro Areas

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N-1 A P P E N D I X N Supplemental Survey Results (6 Cities Combined) Supplemental survey (6 cities) 72 respondents who have changed a trip in the last 3 days.

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O-1 A P P E N D I X O : Features, Guidance, and Future Facilitation of an Effective TI Program (1) Features of effective TI Program (2) Guidance on assessing TI effect on trip behavior (3) How agencies can facilitate TI in future • Emphasis on providing information that allows traveling public to make better travel decisions • Real-time information is provided concerning transportation system status including non-recurrent events (e.g., incidents and roadwork) and planned events (e.g., roadwork and special events) o Roadwork/Construction Zones o Weather Information o Special Events o Parking Availability o Travel times o Travel reliability o Traffic incidents o Roadway CCTV video o Roadway condition status • A wide array of information dissemination methods are used o Dynamic message signs o Highway Advisory Radio (if implemented correctly) o 511 System o Desktop/laptop/mobile websites o Social media o Mobile apps o Onboard devices (OEM & other) o Commercial media (radio and TV) • TI programs incorporate ongoing evaluation techniques o Traveler surveys • Assessing the use and impact of a TI system goes beyond call volumes and web page hits. It is necessary to gather qualitative information tailored to an area. • A combination of low-cost methods is necessary and optimal for understanding the complex nature of responses to TI systems. o “Toolbox” approach (in order):  Focus groups targeting certain travelers; tested and developed on populations of interest; moderator’s guide; recording  Traveler logs—pilot testing, focus on travel behavior; look for shifts in planned route, pre-trip and en-route behavior, outcomes, and perceived benefits  Targeted surveys (including web-based)—deployed with off-the-shelf software; cognitive interviewing and item development; target relevant census tracts and corridors; recruitment from mail-outs and survey panels  Interviews—question path piloted and constructed based on survey and focus group questions  Use available data where Readily Attainable • Make agency data accessible to developers, media outlets, universities, and others without severe bureaucratic navigation o Design agency databases/systems such that data is accessible • Actively support provision of agency data/information to private sector to support additional dissemination mechanisms (e.g., in- vehicle devices) • Consider use of new data sources (e.g., third party probe data) to supplement agency data sources for supporting TI as well as other operations and planning functions • Program funding to support ongoing TI evaluation work • Conduct and sponsor research to develop effective techniques to quantify operational impacts of TI programs • Support a wide range of distribution mechanisms/opportunities • Incorporate into TI Program a focus on the customers experience/use of TI – actively manage and evaluate TI content from traveler use perspective • Stay abreast and make continued use of social network and new technologies to make TI consumable for travelers • Improve the reliability, timeliness, and quality of existing agency disseminations resources (e.g., highway advisory radio, DMS, etc.) • Partner with neighboring agencies to fuse data from multiple sources to provide the best, most complete information to the traveler. Looking Farther into the Future

O-2 (1) Features of effective TI Program (2) Guidance on assessing TI effect on trip behavior (3) How agencies can facilitate TI in future o Web statistics o 511 Call statistics o E-mail/web forms o Traveler Focus Groups, Interviews, and Logs • TI content is evaluated for effectiveness including: o Information timeliness, accuracy, availability, and accessibility o Decision-making  Departure time  Destination choice  Mode choice  Pre-trip and en- route route choice • TI is assessed for its impact on transportation system performance using a variety of measures: o Vehicle-hours of delay o Person-hours of delay o Travel time o Speed o Throughput o Travel time index o Planning time index o Buffer index o Duration of congestion o Cost benefit or ROI • TI should align with demands of the public: o Targeted, local, relevant to the consumer o Easy to access and use o Source/medium should be accessible while on the road, and match the prevailing laws o Clear, concise, trustworthy information that is accurate and reliable o Special event or emergency information that can drastically affect routes is vital o Use of technologies that are widely available to everyone and easily implemented (e.g., radio) possible—traffic and congestion data, usage data already being collected • In order to develop a profile of TI effects on trip behavior and TI usage in an area, the following should be collected (via combination of methods): o Traveler type (e.g., commuters, elderly, frequency of TI use, technology use) o Information type (e.g., travel time, congestion levels, incident information, weather) o Information source or media used (e.g., mobile apps, websites, radio, TV, highway signs) o Temporal information need (e.g., pre-trip, near trip, en- route) o Traveler perception of quality, accuracy, reliability, availability o Information comprehension o Effect on travel behavior o Likeability/satisfaction o Frequency of use o Traveler perception of risk (e.g., distraction of mobile devices) • Integrated multisource and multimodal data on a regional level • Intuitive, location and mode option specific information • Anticipation of traveler’s specific information needs based on location, time of day, typical individual historical travel patterns • Improved agency operations with robust and comprehensive • Real-time user updates • Develop information to be disseminated through an in-vehicle device or docked smartphone that incorporates a wide variety of real-time traveler information

Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems Get This Book
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TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Web-Only Document 192: Deployment, Use, and Effect of Real-Time Traveler Information Systems explores the deployment, use, and effect of real-time traveler information (TI) systems.

The report examines transportation agency dissemination practices, assesses traveler perception and use of TI systems, and offers best practices on ways to implement TI systems.

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