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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP REPORT 70 TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2012 www.TRB.org Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information R. Marshall Elizer, Jr. Dowell Hoskins Squier Gresham, smith and Partners Nashville, TN Robert E. Brydia Curtis P. Beaty texas transPortation institute College Station, TX

AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans­ portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and inter­ national commerce. They are where the nation’s aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal respon­ sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Coopera­ tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near­term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon­ sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. It is modeled after the successful National Coopera­ tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research Pro­ gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, main­ tenance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100­Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International­North America (ACI­NA), the American Associa­ tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orga­ nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and respon­ sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by iden­ tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport pro­ fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels pre­ pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooper­ ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended end­users of the research: airport operating agencies, service providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other inter­ ested parties, and industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport­industry practitioners. ACRP REPORT 70 Project 10­08 ISSN 1935­9802 ISBN 978­0­309­25836­4 Library of Congress Control Number 2012941648 © 2012 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not­for­profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not­for­profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at http://www.national­academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under ACRP Project 10­08 by Gresham, Smith and Partners; Texas Transportation Institute; Big Sky Incorporated; and The Savant Group. R. Marshall Elizer, Jr., P.E., PTOE, Principal Transportation Engineer at Gresham, Smith and Partners, was the Project Director and Principal Investigator. The other authors of this report are Dowell Hoskins Squier, P.E., Transportation Engineer at Gresham, Smith and Partners; Robert Brydia, Research Scientist at Texas Transportation Institute; and Curtis Beaty, P.E., Associate Research Engineer at Texas Transportation Institute. CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 70 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Lawrence D. Goldstein, Senior Program Officer Anthony Avery, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Senior Editor ACRP PROJECT 10-08 PANEL Field of Operations Ronald V. Sherwood, Marietta, GA (Chair) Katharine Eagan Daley, Maryland Transit Administration, Baltimore, MD Stephanie F. Furfaro, Rapid 7, Boston, MA Matthew C. Johnson, Jacobsen/Daniels Associates, Ypsilanti, MI Peter David Lindsay, Port of Seattle, Seattle, WA Ted Melnik, Hill International, Inc., Phoenix, AZ Ralph Nicosia-Rusin, FAA Liaison Matthew J. Griffin, Airports Council International–North America Liaison Richard A. Cunard, TRB Liaison

ACRP Report 70 includes a guidebook with an accompanying interactive CD­ROM that provides descriptions, component details, and examples of how airport ground access information can be disseminated using various intelligent transportation systems (ITS) technologies. The guidebook contains tables to help airport operators determine the appli­ cability of certain ITS strategies based on airport operational needs and airport size. ITS needs of airports not only must address the size of the airport, but also must consider the nature of traveler demographics, levels of congestion on the surrounding roadway network, as well as other defining characteristics. The interactive CD that accompanies the guidebook helps the user to explore and evaluate the information needs of various airport traveler market segments and to identify ITS technologies that best meet the needs of the airport user. The CD also contains a decision support tool that allows users to identify appropriate methods of delivering airport traveler information based on airport traveler market seg­ ment. At the same time, the decision support tool helps airport management and staff rec­ ognize technologies and efforts they already use to disseminate traveler information so that constructive next steps can be suggested. This guidebook and accompanying CD were developed for a broad spectrum of users, including airport personnel (management, planning, information technology, operations, and public information staff) and project planners and designers who have responsibility for collecting and providing ground access information to airport travelers. Many airports have developed and applied sophisticated programs that provide travelers with ground access information; but, historically, there is little guidance or common format for presenting this information to the public, either on airport websites or via other electronic media. In addition, although many metropolitan areas have or are developing advanced traveler information systems, few of these systems are integrated with airports or address ground access requirements specific to airport travelers. The information provided in this guidebook and CD is intended to serve as a resource to help airport personnel assess their current situation and identify customer as well as operational needs that may be addressed through the provision of advanced traveler information technologies. This guidebook will also help airport personnel to evaluate and select ITS technologies to meet specific identified needs, and then develop an implementation strategy that is feasible from funding, coordina­ tion, and operational and maintenance perspectives. Based on the information and data collected throughout the course of this research, it is evident that a significant opportunity exists to enhance the efficiency, safety, and convenience of airport traveler access information through increased use of ITS technologies. Availability of data is not necessarily a significant hurdle in providing a comprehensive view of ground By Lawrence D. Goldstein Staff Officer Transportation Research Board F O R E W O R D

access information to the traveler. In fact, in many cases, the data exists; however, other considerations often stand in the path of integrating and sharing that information. These external considerations include security and institutional coordination issues, availability of time and money to build the systems, as well as a lack of understanding of how the system will benefit airport operations and its customers. Integration of both static and real­time information critical to an airport traveler is an emerging goal of every commercial airport. The need for this information can encompass a traveler’s entire trip, both as a departing and as an arriving passenger. Presenting information on access and egress road conditions and travel times, roadway incidents, parking loca­ tion and availability, public transit options and schedule status, alternative mode options, and security and flight information in a consistent and coordinated format will ultimately improve the ground access experience for airport travelers. Recognizing the nature of tech­ nology change, airports will also need to be prepared to monitor the fast­paced evolution of applications to determine how best to adjust their ITS traveler information systems to avoid rapid obsolescence. Confirmed by survey, there is already a substantial portion of air travelers who subscribe to airline emails and text alerts as well as those who consult online and mobile­web sources for information regarding travel to and from the airport; however, it is also apparent that there are significant gaps and variability in the type and extent of ITS applications presently available. The research team, led by Gresham, Smith and Partners, examined opportunities for expanding ITS applications through an extensive data collection process that encompassed a variety of methods targeted at a variety of audiences: surveys, phone interviews, focus groups, as well as website and document reviews. The increased desire of travelers to be able to access real­time information or for tech­ nology applications to “push” them the information they need is indicative of the increasing sophistication of both the traveler and the technologies they are using. Fast­paced technology shifts are significantly expanding the demand for traveler information services, and the increasing demand for services is demanding increased information technology. As a result, the fundamental trend is that travelers want more information, available across a wider range of applications and devices, which includes rich content such as video and graphics. This guidebook examines those needs, explores options, and presents an effective alternatives evaluation strategy.

1 Summary 2 Chapter 1 Overview of the Guidebook 2 The Need for Advanced Traveler Information Systems 3 Background 3 Purpose of the Guidebook 4 Methodology 6 Organization of the Guidebook 8 Relationship of Interactive CD to the Guidebook 8 Who Should Use This Guidebook and Interactive CD 9 Other ACRP Reports 10 Chapter 2 State-of-the-Practice in Airport Traveler Ground Access Information 10 Introduction 11 Review of Current Airport Websites 12 Airport Traveler Information Gap Analysis 14 Review of Airport Trip­Planning Tools 15 BWI Ground Access Information System (Baltimore, Maryland) 19 Schiphol Journey Planner (Amsterdam, the Netherlands) 19 Heathrow Route Planner (London, England) 19 Narita Airport Access Planner (Tokyo, Japan) 20 Beyond the Airport—Additional Sources of Traveler Information 21 Status of Worldwide Mobile Communications 24 Traffic Information 24 Weather Information 25 Parking Information 26 Flight Tracking/Status 27 Trip Itinerary Planning 27 Really Simple Syndication (RSS) Feeds 27 Social Media and Networking 28 Future—Connected Vehicle Technology 30 Chapter 3 Assessing Airport Traveler Information Needs 30 Traveler Market Segments 31 Traveler Information Needs and Preferences 32 Traveler Expectations 34 Additional Considerations 37 Chapter 4 ITS and Strategies to Meet Airport Traveler Information Needs 37 Overview of Intelligent Transportation Systems 39 Concise History of Traveler Information Using ITS 40 Resources for Additional Information on ITS C O N T E N T S

40 ITS Technologies for Disseminating Traveler Information 42 Technology Summary 1: Airport Website 44 Technology Summary 2: Kiosks 47 Technology Summary 3: Dynamic Message Signs 49 Technology Summary 4: Multi­user Flight Information Displays 51 Technology Summary 5: Smartphone 53 Technology Summary 6: Email/Text Alerts 55 Technology Summary 7: 511 Systems 57 Technology Summary 8: Radio (Including Highway Advisory Radio) 58 Combining Technologies into ITS Strategies 59 Advanced Parking Management System 63 Cell Phone Lots 65 Traveler Information and Incident Management 66 Considerations Related to ITS Deployment 66 Information Technology Accessibility 66 ITS Standards 68 Data/Resource Sharing 69 Benefits of ITS Applications 74 Chapter 5 Matching Airport Traveler Information to ITS Strategies 74 Airport Functional Areas and Associated Needs 74 Matching Airport Needs with ITS Strategies 76 Making a Business Case for ITS Projects 84 Chapter 6 Framework for Implementation 84 Define Systems Engineering Approach 85 Identify Airport Traveler Information Stakeholders 87 Assess Needs/Identify Problems 87 Incorporate ITS into the Airport Master Plan 88 Develop System Requirements 88 Identify Funding Alternatives 88 Airport Improvement Program 89 Passenger Facility Charge Program 89 Airport Revenue 89 Determine Procurement Method 91 Develop Project Phasing Plan 92 Plan Integration 94 Safety and Security of the System 94 Plan Configuration Management 95 Develop Design Plans and Specifications 96 Deploy and Integrate System 96 Perform Integration Activities 97 Verify System 97 Validate System 98 Provide Public Outreach/Education 98 Operations and Maintenance Considerations 99 Performance Measures 100 Maintenance Staffing 101 Funding for Ongoing Operations and Maintenance

102 Chapter 7 Implications and Suggestions for Further Research 102 Implications 103 Suggestions for Further Research A-1 Appendix A Bibliography B-1 Appendix B List of Acronyms C-1 Appendix C Airport Website Traveler Information Review D-1 Appendix D Interactive CD Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.

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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 70: Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information provides descriptions, component details, and examples of how airport ground access information can be disseminated using various intelligent transportation systems (ITS) technologies.

The guidebook contains tables to help airport operators determine the applicability of certain ITS strategies based on airport operational needs and airport size.

The printed version of the report includes an interactive CD-ROM designed to help explore and evaluate the information needs of various airport traveler market segments and to identify ITS technologies that best meet the needs of the airport user.

The CD-ROM also contains a decision support tool that allows users to identify appropriate methods of delivering airport traveler information based on the airport traveler market segment.

The CD-ROM is also available for download from TRB’s website as an ISO image. Links to the ISO image and instructions for burning a CD-ROM from an ISO image are provided below.

Help on Burning an .ISO CD-ROM Image

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CD-ROM Disclaimer - This software is offered as is, without warranty or promise of support of any kind either expressed or implied. Under no circumstance will the National Academy of Sciences or the Transportation Research Board (collectively "TRB") be liable for any loss or damage caused by the installation or operation of this product. TRB makes no representation or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, in fact or in law, including without limitation, the warranty of merchantability or the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, and shall not in any case be liable for any consequential or special damages.

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