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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 1 - Overview of the Guidebook." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 1 - Overview of the Guidebook." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 1 - Overview of the Guidebook." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 1 - Overview of the Guidebook." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 1 - Overview of the Guidebook." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 1 - Overview of the Guidebook." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
×
Page 7
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 1 - Overview of the Guidebook." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
×
Page 8
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 1 - Overview of the Guidebook." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
×
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

2The Need for Advanced Traveler Information Systems Without question, airports are important to local and national economic growth. While their primary function is within the air transportation system, airport users and operations interface with a broader and often multimodal transportation system. Airport users come from every walk of life and have both domestic and international origins. Providing effective and accessible ground transportation information and guidance to, from, and within an airport is a critical component of the airport’s total service to its customers. Information dissemination systems for airport ground access travelers vary greatly from airport to airport, and even among different ground access modes for any given airport or region. The information, standards, methodologies, presentation forms, and interoperability of these systems are often substantially different from airport to airport. This situation is not necessarily unexpected in that airports are independently developed entities and their transportation systems and surrounding local conditions vary widely. However, even with these differences, there is a basic foundation of the types of ground access information that are generally available to airport travelers regardless of airport facility. At most airports, and especially those in larger metropolitan areas, research has shown that there is significant opportunity to enhance the efficiency, safety, and convenience of traveler ground access information through the increased use of intelligent transportation systems (ITS) applications. In the broadest sense, ITS applications encompass a range of wireless and wired communications-based information and electronics technologies such as websites, hand- held devices, detection devices and sensors, closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras, kiosks, and dynamic message signs (DMS). There are several instances where airports have developed advanced tools and techniques for providing travelers with ground transportation informa- tion specific to their region. However, there is no common national or international format for presenting this information to the airport traveler, either on airport websites or via many ITS technologies that are commercially available today. As airports consider making new or expanded capital investments to improve traveler access and the customer experience, there is increasing interest to create a consistent format for quickly and effectively presenting information on viable ground access travel options and their status, particularly through the use of ITS technology. ACRP Report 4: Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation specifically recommended that a study be undertaken to create a standard approach to presenting ground access information on airport websites. As the ground access information important to airport travelers is often obtained from several sources, no single agency is typically responsible for the facilities and systems used in the entire airport traveler ground transportation trip. Therefore, obtaining comprehensive, coordinated, and real-time traveler information is often a difficult task involving multiple agencies and organizations. C h a p t e r 1 Overview of the Guidebook

Overview of the Guidebook 3 For safety, efficiency, and customer service reasons, integration of both static and real-time information critical to an airport traveler should be a goal of every commercial airport. These information needs exist across the traveler’s entire trip, both as a departing and arriving passenger. Presenting information on road conditions and travel times, roadway incidents, parking location and availability, public transit options and schedule status, alternative mode options, security, and flight details into a consistent and coordinated format will greatly improve the ground access experience for airport travelers. As with any technology-dependent deployment, airports should be prepared to monitor the fast-paced evolution of technology applications and determine how best to evolve their ITS to prevent obsolescence over time. Background As noted, the research team for ACRP Report 4: Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation, recommended that a study be undertaken to create a standard approach to presenting ground access information on airport websites. They concluded that while many US airports have developed major programs for providing ground access services, there is no common format for presenting these services to the public on airport websites and other electronic media such as ITS. The Airports Council International–North America has also identified a need for airports to work together to create a common set of procedures for presenting ground access information. ACRP Report 4 also noted that while many US airports have made, or are considering making, major capital investments to improve public mode access, no consistent format has been created for quickly and effectively presenting viable ground access travel options to the traveler. In addition, many metropolitan areas have or are developing advanced traveler information systems, but few of those systems have incorporated travel modes that are specific to the users of the airports. Optimally, the traveler who has become accustomed to the method of attaining ground access information in one US airport would quickly and efficiently be able to access similar information (e.g., roadway conditions, security wait times, parking availability, etc.) at an airport with which he/she was not familiar. An objective of ACRP Report 4’s proposed future research was to help the airport community develop a common web-based format for presenting all ground transportation options to the traveling public, particularly to the non-resident market. The research team concluded that if many of the large airports adopted a common format, the process of presenting ground trans- portation services to new travelers at an airport could become more efficient, and faster for the traveler. The team also felt that the adoption of a common framework for information presen- tation may reduce or eliminate the need for many airports to separately undertake the same market research and software development. The team’s recommended final product was a set of guidelines for presenting ground access services, and a working web-based prototype of such a system for possible adaptation for use at specific US airports. Finally, the ACRP Report 4 research team’s recommended approach was not to create any form of mandatory “standard” for the individual airports to adopt; rather it was to establish a common logic of information presentation that could be used as each individual airport updates its existing websites. Purpose of the Guidebook Travelers to and from airports, both resident and non-resident, need real-time information about the many segments of their ground access trip. Many airport travelers have already become accustomed to attaining useful travel information using advanced technology. The purpose of

4 Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent transportation Systems elements to Improve airport traveler access Information this guidebook is to inform airport operators of available ITS technologies and to provide them with useful guidance on how to evaluate, select, and effectively disseminate ground access information via ITS technologies that will best meet the needs of the airport user. The information provided in the guidebook is intended to serve as a resource to help airport operators assess their current situation and identify customer and/or operational needs regarding the provision of traveler information; evaluate and select ITS technologies to meet the identified needs; and then develop an implementation strategy that is feasible from a funding, coordination, and operational and maintenance perspective. Consistency in the format and approach of the dissemination of advanced traveler information in individual airports and across the airport industry will improve the airport traveler customer service experience. Many airports have developed advanced and highly sophisticated programs for providing travelers with ground access information, but there is little guidance or common format for presenting this information to the public, either on airport websites or via other electronic media. Although many metropolitan areas are developing advanced traveler information systems, few of these systems address ground access requirements specific to airport travelers. As airports consider making new or expanding existing capital investments to improve the public access experience, there is increasing interest in the potential for creating a consistent format for quickly and effectively presenting information on viable ground access travel options and their real-time status using ITS technology. This guidebook accomplishes the following key objectives: • It establishes the current state-of-the-practice in the delivery of airport ground access infor- mation to travelers by airports as well as by information providers external to the airport. • It provides guidance to airport operators for developing and implementing ITS solutions specific to their local/regional environment and operational needs. This guidance includes utilization of existing and emerging technologies for presenting useful information on all forms of ground transportation available to travelers to and from the airport. • It describes opportunities for airports to use the latest ITS technology to help travelers simply, efficiently, and interactively evaluate their airport ground transportation options. • It provides a complementary tool, in the form of a CD-ROM, that allows users to explore the information needs of various airport traveler market segments and the different technologies that can be used to provide that information. Methodology The research supporting the development of this guidebook consisted of gaining an under- standing of the current knowledge and practice pertaining to airport traveler characteristics and needs, ITS technologies available to airport travelers today, and the vision for future traveler information capabilities. Figure 1 provides an overview of the methodology, including the key work efforts associated with each phase of the guidebook development. In particular, the research performed under this project was scoped by the following questions: • What ground access traveler information is desired? • What systems are currently in use to provide that information? • What systems are planned for the future, both by airports and other agencies? • What is the state-of-the-practice in providing ground access information? • What is considered state-of-the-art, or the vision of the future, for ground access traveler information, and how can airports get there? • Is cost and benefit information available for providing ground access traveler information?

Key Work Efforts: 1. Literature review. 2. Review of existing airport website to establish current state-of-the-practice. 3. Synthesis of state-of-the-art for providing airport traveler information. Research Key Work Efforts: 1. Literature review. 2. Identify categories of travelers that use airport information. 3. Define airport traveler characteristics and information needs. 4. Stratify traveler characteristics and information needs by travel mode and trip segment. Airport Traveler Characteristics/ Information Needs Key Work Efforts: 1. Identify current practices in traveler information dissemination. 2. Examine institutional issues that facilitate or hinder the development of traveler information systems. 3. Identify state-of-the-practice in ITS for traveler information. ITS Applications/Practices that Deliver Traveler Information Key Work Efforts: 1. Create plan to collect a broad cross-section of data from a range of commercial airports, on- airport service providers, professional aviation organizations, and non-airport ITS organizations. 2. Collect data via web survey and phone interview. Data Collection Key Work Efforts: 1. Analyze all data and information collected. 2. Understand what the data tells us about information delivery, both current and future. 3. Identify information needs of travelers. 4. Identify gaps and general observations. Analyze and Synthesize Data Key Work Efforts: 1. Identify critical guidebook components. 2. Outline proposed content and components. 3. Develop wireframe mock-ups to demonstrate how the information interface in the interactive CD will work. Prepare Guidebook Outline/ Interactive CD Wireframes Key Work Efforts: 1. Develop strategy to evaluate the usability for two groups: (1) airport operators/other stakeholders and (2) travelers. 2. Develop evaluation plan addressing the usability evaluation needs of each group. Develop Strategy for Guidebook Usability Key Work Efforts: 1. Develop interactive CD in conjunction with the guidebook to provide: (1) functional mock- ups of the various traveler information output mechanisms and (2) a decision-support tool. Draft Guidebook/Interactive CD Key Work Efforts: 1. Evaluate guidebook/CD for completeness, accuracy, and usefulness of the content; organization of topics and ease of locating desired information; and presentation of topics, clarity of the text, graphics, and examples. 2. Revise the guidebook/CD based on results of this evaluation. Evaluate Guidebook/CD Usability Guidebook/CD Figure 1. Project methodology.

6 Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent transportation Systems elements to Improve airport traveler access Information The research included a comprehensive literature review, a review of existing operator practices to establish the current state-of-the-practice on airport websites, and the development of a synthesized list of ground access components that are considered state-of-the-art for providing airport traveler information. Telephone interviews with airport landside operators, on-airport service providers, professional aviation organizations, and non-airport ITS organizations were then used for the following purposes: • To validate the data collected in the literature and review of airport websites; • To determine if there were gaps in the research; • To determine future plans for expanding or enhancing traveler information; • To determine the anticipated implementation path that will be needed to deploy future ITS applications; • To identify desired components to be included in this guidebook; and lastly, • To validate that the guidebook and interactive CD as the selected information delivery method are appropriate and usable. This research effort formed the basis on which this guidebook was written and documented the following: • Current knowledge and practice related to delivery of ground access information to airport travelers; • Airport traveler characteristics and their information needs; • ITS technologies available to facilitate traveler information delivery; • Institutional issues that facilitate—or hinder—the development of effective traveler information systems; • Feedback from surveys of airport operators and others involved in airport planning, design, and operations; and • The difference between the state-of-the-practice and the state-of-the-art for providing ground access information. Organization of the Guidebook The chapters of this guidebook are organized in a manner that presents a number of logical, sequential steps to guide airport operators through an assessment of their traveler information needs and the determination of which ITS technologies and strategies will best enhance traveler information at their facility in a beneficial and cost-effective way. As identified in the Figure 2 flowchart, these steps guide the assessment process from the beginning overview of state-of-the-practice for traveler information dissemination in the airport industry, to the implementation of a traveler information system that best meets the needs of that particular airport. A series of intermediate steps are identified which guide the airport in assessing their own traveler information needs, followed by guidance in determining the ITS strategies and applications that best meet those needs. Once the desired technologies have been selected, the guide- book provides a framework for the necessary project planning, functional design, implementation, and operation and maintenance steps that are required for any successful ITS project. Additionally, Figure 2 provides a flexible format for navigating through the contents of the guidebook. The figure allows the reader to interactively select specific chapters or subsections that meet their immediate needs or allows them to proceed through the entire guidebook chapter by chapter to obtain comprehensive knowledge on the subject. The main chapter headings are located down the center of Figure 2, with interactive subsections listed to the right and left of the major chapters.

Overview of the Guidebook 7 Figure 2. ITS traveler information project implementation guidance.

8 Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent transportation Systems elements to Improve airport traveler access Information Relationship of Interactive CD to the Guidebook The interactive CD-ROM was developed to serve as a complementary tool to the guidebook. It is included in Appendix D and is available for download from TRB’s website (www.trb.org) on the ACRP Report 70 summary web page. The purpose of the CD is to allow users to explore the information needs of various airport traveler market segments and the different technologies that can be used to provide that information. The CD contains a user-friendly and interactive menu interface that allows the user to select one of two primary sections: Technologies Overview or Decision Support Tool. Both sections employ a browser interface, which allows users to make choices and navigate through items on the CD. For convenience, references to the guidebook are included where additional information and details on various items can be found. The Technologies Overview portion of the CD provides descriptions, details, and examples of how airport traveler information can be disseminated through various technologies. For some technologies it is relatively easy to provide basic traveler information and this is noted as “minimum” suggested information. In many cases for the same technology, it may be desirable to advance the tools in order to meet the “preferred” and “ultimate” information needs of the traveler. While standards and specifications are not provided on this CD, the source of the required data and any security considerations associated with the data are presented. Finally, a reference is provided to the guidebook chapter where more detail can be found for a particular technology. The Decision Support Tool allows users to identify appropriate methods of delivering airport traveler information based on the four market segments of airport users. At the same time, the Decision Support Tool allows airports to recognize technologies and efforts they already use to disseminate traveler information so that the next steps can be suggested. Links are then offered that allow airports to explore the appropriate technologies and data considerations that will provide the desired traveler information. The Decision Support Tool functions by asking a user which market segment they are interested in marketing to, presenting characteristics of that market, then allowing users to select what is currently being provided for traveler information dissemination in those specific areas. The Decision Support Tool then presents opportunities to increase or enhance the traveler information capabilities in a particular category, such as parking information. The research team is aware that an airport’s use of information technology, particularly items such as websites, are proprietary features used to support a number of airport-specific programs above and beyond traveler information, such as marketing. The visualizations on the CD are not intended as a design specification for traveler information displays or technologies. They are meant solely as an illustration of how various information components can be presented, utilized, and potentially, combined. The symbol of a CD and case, as shown here, has been placed throughout the guidebook informing the reader that the subject section closely aligns with examples and content contained on the interactive CD. Who Should Use This Guidebook and Interactive CD This guidebook was developed for use by a broad spectrum of users including airport personnel (management, planning, information technology, operations, and public information staff) and project planners and designers who have responsibility for collecting and/or providing ground access information to airport travelers. An airport career background is assumed for the guidebook user, and therefore certain topics regarding airport design, operations, and ground access are covered only at a general level.

Overview of the Guidebook 9 Other ACRP Reports The ACRP serves as one of the primary applied research programs that aids the airport industry in developing solutions to practically meet the demands placed on it. The ACRP produces a series of research reports, similar to this guidebook, for use by airport operators, airport consultants, local agencies, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and other interested parties to dis- seminate findings on important needs and issues within the industry. Specific ACRP research reports and projects that are associated with the topics covered in this guidebook include: • ACRP Report 4: Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation; • ACRP Report 10: Innovations for Airport Terminal Facilities; • ACRP Report 21: A Guidebook for Selecting Airport Capital Project Delivery Methods; • ACRP Report 24: Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies; • ACRP Report 25: Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook; • ACRP Report 40: Airport Curbside and Terminal Area Roadway Operations; and • ACRP Synthesis of Airport Practice 10: Airport Sustainability Practices.

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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 70: Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information provides descriptions, component details, and examples of how airport ground access information can be disseminated using various intelligent transportation systems (ITS) technologies.

The guidebook contains tables to help airport operators determine the applicability of certain ITS strategies based on airport operational needs and airport size.

The printed version of the report includes an interactive CD-ROM designed to help explore and evaluate the information needs of various airport traveler market segments and to identify ITS technologies that best meet the needs of the airport user.

The CD-ROM also contains a decision support tool that allows users to identify appropriate methods of delivering airport traveler information based on the airport traveler market segment.

The CD-ROM is also available for download from TRB’s website as an ISO image. Links to the ISO image and instructions for burning a CD-ROM from an ISO image are provided below.

Help on Burning an .ISO CD-ROM Image

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CD-ROM Disclaimer - This software is offered as is, without warranty or promise of support of any kind either expressed or implied. Under no circumstance will the National Academy of Sciences or the Transportation Research Board (collectively "TRB") be liable for any loss or damage caused by the installation or operation of this product. TRB makes no representation or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, in fact or in law, including without limitation, the warranty of merchantability or the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, and shall not in any case be liable for any consequential or special damages.

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