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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Assessing Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Assessing Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Page 32
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Assessing Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Page 33
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Assessing Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
×
Page 33
Page 34
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Assessing Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
×
Page 34
Page 35
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Assessing Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
×
Page 35
Page 36
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Assessing Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Page 36

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

30 Traveler Market Segments Each airport has unique characteristics and therefore unique traveler information needs. This chapter identifies the airport traveler market segments that exist at every airport and discusses their characteristics and information needs. An airport needs to understand the characteristics of its traveler market segments to best understand what information and information dissemination methods best serve their travel customers. For the purpose of this discussion, the term airport traveler will be used to describe any air traveler who travels to or from an airport by a mode other than air. The airport traveler market is regularly classified by both the trip purpose and residential status of the traveler. As shown in Figure 12, these two variables, when combined, result in four airport traveler mar- ket segments: resident business, resident non-business, non-resident business, non-resident non-business. Each market segment has a variety of characteristics that influence its choice of travel mode and associated ground access information needs. The following list provides some of the characteristics for each market segment (Leigh Fisher Associates, Coogan, M., and MarketSense Consulting, 2000): • Resident Business Trip – Most frequent users of the airport; – Developed pattern of access behavior based on repeated trips; C h a p t e r 3 Assessing Airport Traveler Information Needs Figure 12. Airport traveler market segments.

assessing airport traveler Information Needs 31 – Know the most efficient way of accessing the airport; – Trips are generally short in duration (0 to 3 nights); – Carry little luggage compared to non-business travelers; – Sensitive to access time reliability (even minor delays); – More likely to travel during peak arrival/departure times; – Transit may be used if convenient and reliable; and – More likely to use convenient and expensive airport parking. • Resident Non-Business Trip – Almost certain to be leaving from home to access the airport; – Generally travel in larger travel parties than business travelers; – May be elderly or traveling with small children; – Generally have more luggage than business travelers; – Generally have longer length of stay than business travelers; – More sensitive to access costs (due to travel party size); – More likely to need assistance with baggage handling; – Have some information about access to the airport; – May have a preferable method to access the airport; – More likely to travel during off-peak times; – Likely to be dropped off/picked up by friends, relatives, etc.; – May rely on airport-based shared-ride shuttle services; – May park at airport but in reduced-rate facilities; and – Candidates for transit if access location is convenient. • Non-Resident Business Trip – Destined for a place of business or hotel (begin trip same way); – Origins/destinations in city centers/near highways/airport; – Trips are generally short in duration (0 to 3 nights); – Carry little luggage compared to non-business travelers; – May require the flexibility of rental car/taxi; – Likely use the most efficient means of transport disregarding cost; and – May use transit if convenient, reliable, and expedient (no transfers). • Non-Resident Non-Business Trip – Least informed and unfamiliar with access options to the airport; – Generally travel in larger travel parties than business travelers; – May be elderly or traveling with small children; – Generally have more luggage than business travelers; – Generally have longer length of stay than business travelers; – More sensitive to access costs (due to travel party size); – More likely to need assistance with baggage handling; – More likely to travel during off-peak times; – Not likely to use the destination airport repeatedly; – Likely to stay in hotel or place of residence; – Use most readily available access option (taxi/shared van); – May be dropped off/picked up by friends, relatives, etc.; and – Less likely to use transit due to unfamiliarity with the region. Traveler Information Needs and Preferences To identify traveler information needs, a matrix was created where each traveler market segment was stratified by potential mode choice, trip segment (i.e., pre-trip, at trip commencement/ conclusion, and en route), and type of trip (i.e., arrival vs. departure).

32 Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent transportation Systems elements to Improve airport traveler access Information The following travel modes were included in the matrix: • Automobile drop-off/pick-up, • Automobile self-park, • Rental car, • Taxi, • Private car service, • Shared van (shuttle), • Local bus, • Charter bus, and • Rail transit. Although much of the information technology is the same for constructing traveler information systems specifically for airports, the information may be required at different points in the trip or to different travel segments. The airport traveler trip was broken down into four segments, as shown in Figure 13, in order to identify information needs and the technology applications that make sense to disseminate the information for each segment. These segments exist for both arriving and departing travelers. Chapter 2 identified various technologies or applications that can be used to provide airport traveler information. Table 7 summarizes the most applicable technology applications seg- mented by identified information need and trip segment. Additional evaluation factors such as geographic location, density of traveler trip ends, socioeconomics of the region, accessibility of an airport to different modal systems, climate, pricing, ability to use ITS technologies and the need to access real-time updates during travel were also considered and are described later in this chapter. Traveler Expectations A number of studies have been conducted to determine the expectations of drivers who use traveler information systems. While these studies have not focused on the airport traveler specifi- cally, the study results can be reasonably applied to the airport traveler market. Traveler expectations of these systems typically include the following (Athey Creek Consultants, 2009): • Accuracy, • Timeliness, • Reliability, • Convenience (ease of access and speed in obtaining information), and • Safety (of operation). However, drivers are not the only users of traveler information systems. Information must also be disseminated to users of alternative travel modes. It has been found that travelers increasingly like information systems that have the ability to “push” information to the user via email or text message, and due to this, these types of information dissemination methods are becoming more prevalent. Pre-Trip Planning Trip Commencement En-Route Trip Conclusion Figure 13. Airport traveler trip segments.

Table 7. Summary of airport traveler information needs and applicable technology applications.

34 Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent transportation Systems elements to Improve airport traveler access Information Additional Considerations Geographic Location According to ACRP Report 4: Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation, characteristics related to the geographic location of an airport that have an impact on mode choice and associated information needs are how densely clustered the airport market trip origins are (i.e., a downtown market that can be served by fixed route and schedule services), how dispersed the trip origins are (i.e., an exurban market that facilitates the formation of gathering locations for shared-ride services), or whether the airport location is more of a “middle market” (i.e., where clustering of trip origins is not dense enough to support the classic forms of fixed route or schedule service, where shorter trips are not conducive to long- headway park-and-ride solutions, and where shared-ride door-to-door services can succeed in attaining high levels of vehicle occupancy) (Coogan, M., MarketSense Consulting, and Jacobs Consultancy, 2008). Additionally, the geographic size of the airport’s market and proximity to competing airports, the location of and the densities of trip origins/destination, the efficiency of the regional transportation network, and the strength of the business market all have an impact on the type of ground access services that are best suited to an airport. Density of Traveler Trip Ends The measure of trip-end density is the combination of the number of ground access trips and their geographic location. Based on data collected in ACRP Report 4: Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation, approximately 60 to 80 percent of air traveler trip ends are generated from an area equaling not more than 10 percent of the total area associated with ground transportation trips to an airport. This observation suggests that a large proportion of all ground transportation trips to an airport are generated from a relatively small physical area (Coogan, M., MarketSense Consulting, and Jacobs Consultancy, 2008). There is existing data regarding the trip-end densities that are supportive of various forms of airport ground access services. Although it may be most desirable to provide fixed route and/or schedule services, they require a certain density of traveler trip ends to operate at reasonable headways. Similarly, if it is recognized that the majority of travelers access the airport via certain roadways, it may make sense, at a minimum, to provide real-time information on travel conditions for those roadways. Socioeconomics of the Region The socioeconomic factors that affect mode choice and associated information needs within a region include income levels, auto ownership, and English-speaking ability. In previous studies, high population density has been related to low daily vehicle travel, but it is not clear whether the low vehicle travel is due to density as opposed to other factors such as traffic congestion or poverty or transit availability. The mode choice decisions of airport travelers are somewhat different from those of typical residents or commuters within a single region. Additionally, the characteristics of any single travel mode vary by location (i.e., pricing, accessibility of mode, number of transfers, schedule, travel time reliability, etc.). According to a study on the disparity in IT access and use between natives and immigrants to the United States, immigrants are systematically excluded from access to and use of computers and the Internet (Hiroshi and Zavodny, 2006). Furthermore, immigrants from English-speaking regions are more likely than immigrants from non-English-speaking regions to have access and use IT, and likewise, a higher English ability is strongly correlated with higher internet access and usage rates.

assessing airport traveler Information Needs 35 Accessibility of Traveler Information for Persons with Disabilities Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 requires that individuals with disabilities, who are seeking information from a federal agency via electronic means or from information technology, have access to the information equal to that of users without disabilities. Section 508 applies in all circumstances unless an undue burden would be placed upon the agency to provide the infor- mation in an accessible manner. NCHRP Synthesis of Highway Practice 399: Real-Time Traveler Information Systems describes many of the challenges associated with the accessibility of traveler information for persons with permanent or temporary disabilities. The most common types of disabilities that prevent travelers from accessing information are: • Visual impairments, • Hearing or speech impairments, and • Language barriers. Visual impairments create many challenges for traveler information websites. It has become customary that travel information websites use maps with colored segments and symbols to display roadway travel conditions. To make these sites accessible for visually impaired users, an all-text option should be provided that allows for the information to be announced by a screen reader to the user. Hearing and/or speech impairments make the use of traveler information telephone systems challenging due to the use of automated systems. These systems typically do not work well with teletypewriter or text telephone (TTY) due to the interpretation that a delay in response is a hang-up or failure to select a menu option. To avoid this challenge, systems should provide a menu option at initiation of the call that allows users to indicate that they are using a TTY device. Additionally, language barriers may prevent users from using both websites and traveler informa- tion telephone systems. Furthermore, with the dramatic increase in smartphone use, the accessibility of mobile apps should also be considered. Although most apps are covered under the Web-based Intranet and Internet Information and Applications technical provisions of the Section 508 guidance, due to the small size of mobile devices, additional accessibility concerns may exist that are not cov- ered under existing technical provisions. Many resources and tools regarding Section 508 are available on the US Government’s website: www.section508.gov. Additionally, a blog hosted by the US General Services Administration provides a forum for discussion about Section 508 and its application. The blog can be accessed at the following web address: http://buyaccessible. net/blog/. Accessibility of the Airport to Different Modal Systems The accessibility of the airport to different modal systems can be related to a wide variety of factors, including the size of the airport, the surrounding population and population density, geographic location of the facility, and its distance or orientation from the central business district. Additionally, the employees of the airport as a market for public transportation systems may be a driving factor, as well as competition from other transportation services. Climate Precipitation is by far the most relevant weather variable when a traveler is selecting a mode by which to travel to/from the airport. Precipitation has an effect on the level of con- gestion of the roadway network and makes waiting for a transit vehicle less enjoyable (if a shelter is not provided), although it does not have much of an impact on rail transit time reliability. Climate conditions can also affect ground operations that can have significant impacts on delays.

36 Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent transportation Systems elements to Improve airport traveler access Information Distracted Driving Legislation Many types of air travel information are most beneficial if received in real-time (e.g., flight/ gate status, access route congestion, check-in/security wait times, parking availability, real-time arrival information for transit modes, etc.). With the prevalence of data-enabled mobile phones, this information is readily accessible in real time by the average traveler via websites or real-time text message alerts. However, as of March 2011, 30 states, the District of Columbia (DC), and Guam ban texting while driving, and 8 states, DC, and the Virgin Islands require the use of hands-free devices by motorists talking on phones (Governors Highway Safety Association). It seems that moving forward, any real-time alerts should have the ability to be sent via voice as well as text. It is yet to be determined how the USDOT’s Connected Vehicle Initiative and its associated research on human factors will affect the way that travelers access real-time information while en route.

Next: Chapter 4 - ITS and Strategies to Meet Airport Traveler Information Needs »
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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 70: Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information provides descriptions, component details, and examples of how airport ground access information can be disseminated using various intelligent transportation systems (ITS) technologies.

The guidebook contains tables to help airport operators determine the applicability of certain ITS strategies based on airport operational needs and airport size.

The printed version of the report includes an interactive CD-ROM designed to help explore and evaluate the information needs of various airport traveler market segments and to identify ITS technologies that best meet the needs of the airport user.

The CD-ROM also contains a decision support tool that allows users to identify appropriate methods of delivering airport traveler information based on the airport traveler market segment.

The CD-ROM is also available for download from TRB’s website as an ISO image. Links to the ISO image and instructions for burning a CD-ROM from an ISO image are provided below.

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CD-ROM Disclaimer - This software is offered as is, without warranty or promise of support of any kind either expressed or implied. Under no circumstance will the National Academy of Sciences or the Transportation Research Board (collectively "TRB") be liable for any loss or damage caused by the installation or operation of this product. TRB makes no representation or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, in fact or in law, including without limitation, the warranty of merchantability or the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, and shall not in any case be liable for any consequential or special damages.

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