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Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information (2012)

Chapter: Chapter 4 - ITS and Strategies to Meet Airport Traveler Information Needs

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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - ITS and Strategies to Meet Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - ITS and Strategies to Meet Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - ITS and Strategies to Meet Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - ITS and Strategies to Meet Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - ITS and Strategies to Meet Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - ITS and Strategies to Meet Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - ITS and Strategies to Meet Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - ITS and Strategies to Meet Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - ITS and Strategies to Meet Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - ITS and Strategies to Meet Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - ITS and Strategies to Meet Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - ITS and Strategies to Meet Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - ITS and Strategies to Meet Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - ITS and Strategies to Meet Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - ITS and Strategies to Meet Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - ITS and Strategies to Meet Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - ITS and Strategies to Meet Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - ITS and Strategies to Meet Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - ITS and Strategies to Meet Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - ITS and Strategies to Meet Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - ITS and Strategies to Meet Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - ITS and Strategies to Meet Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - ITS and Strategies to Meet Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - ITS and Strategies to Meet Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - ITS and Strategies to Meet Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - ITS and Strategies to Meet Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - ITS and Strategies to Meet Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - ITS and Strategies to Meet Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - ITS and Strategies to Meet Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - ITS and Strategies to Meet Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - ITS and Strategies to Meet Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - ITS and Strategies to Meet Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - ITS and Strategies to Meet Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - ITS and Strategies to Meet Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - ITS and Strategies to Meet Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - ITS and Strategies to Meet Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - ITS and Strategies to Meet Airport Traveler Information Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

37 Overview of Intelligent Transportation Systems In the broadest sense, ITS applications encompass a diverse and rapidly changing range of wireless and wired communications-based information and electronics technologies. Although many metropolitan areas have developed and continue to develop and expand local and regional roadway and transit traveler information systems using ITS technology, few existing systems address ground access requirements specific to airport travelers or are coordinated effectively with current airport traveler information systems. Sometime in the 1980s it became evident that the United States would not be able to continue to “build” its way out of congestion. Simply adding lanes to an overburdened freeway was no longer an option in many parts of the country due to environmental and socioeconomic concerns. Subsequently, in 1989 the United States took a more unified approach to advancing technology to improve transportation systems when the notion of Intelligent Vehicle/Highway Systems (IVHS) was defined. Initially, IVHS was divided into four categories: advanced transportation management systems, advanced traveler information systems, advanced rural transportation systems, and commercial vehicle operations. Soon afterward, with the passage of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act, IVHS became an integral part of US transportation policy at the federal level. In 1994, two other categories were defined—advanced public transportation systems and advanced vehicle control systems—and IVHS was rebranded as ITS to better reflect the needs of all modes of transportation, not just roadway vehicles. The USDOT is charged with supporting the overall development of ITS through major initiatives, exploratory studies, and deployment. Today, ITS encompasses far more than the six original categories. The USDOT currently breaks ITS into two primary categories: intelligent infrastructure and intelligent vehicles. These two categories are further broken down into 16 ITS application areas as shown in Figure 14. Subsequently each of these 16 application areas is composed of numerous categories. C h a p t e r 4 ITS and Strategies to Meet Airport Traveler Information Needs Figure 14. Application areas of ITS.

38 Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent transportation Systems elements to Improve airport traveler access Information ITS should also be looked at from a systems perspective. The scope of ITS includes transportation centers, vehicles, field devices, users, and the various communication systems between them. At an airport, there are other information technology systems with which traditional ITS applications may need to be integrated, such as ground transportation, parking, and security systems. As illustrated in Figure 15, all of these systems should be addressed collectively and are defined in the National ITS Architecture. The compatibility of system components is being greatly improved through the use of ITS standards, which will make implementations by airports simpler and less expensive in the future. Standards define how ITS systems and components interconnect and exchange information with each other. Consistent and widespread use of ITS standards will permit data and information sharing among public agencies and private organizations (USDOT, Iteris, 2009). A typical intelligent transportation system involves the following components: • Transportation centers: A transportation center is essentially any combination of personnel and computers that is charged with monitoring and/or managing some aspect of a transportation system. A center can be as basic as a computer in an operations center, or as complex as a full-service transportation operations center that employs dozens of people responsible for monitoring a regional highway and transit network. Other examples of centers are toll admin- istration, transit management, fleet and freight management, and emergency management, to name just a few. • Vehicles: Different vehicle classes have different needs for technology to address. Much of the USDOT’s focus on vehicles is performed through the Connected Vehicles Research Program. Connected vehicles research combines the most recent advancements in wireless commu- nication, on-board sensors, computer processing, navigation, and infrastructure to enable vehicles to identify and respond to threats on the vehicle roadway. • Field devices: A wide range of field devices can be used to reduce congestion and improve safety and efficiency in a transportation system. Devices are found on streets (such as traffic signal controllers), on highways (dynamic message signs, video cameras), on toll ways (electronic toll collectors), in parking facilities (parking guidance and count systems), and at vehicle check- points (weigh-in-motion systems). • Travelers: Any person that uses the roadway system can be considered a traveler. And just as each center has a different need for data, so do users of the system. A daily commuter on his or her way to work does not require the same information as a shuttle bus driver on a fixed route. Likewise, a fire truck driver doesn’t need the same information that a delivery truck driver needs. • Communication systems: So much of ITS involve communication. Communication is the link between the other four aspects of ITS. Data or information can be transmitted over high- speed or low-speed networks. It can be transmitted over wires or wirelessly. It can be short range or long range. It can be between fixed points or moving points. In other words, there is not one single communication technology approach for ITS projects. Rather, the technology must match the needs and requirements of the system. As the concept of ITS continues to mature, it becomes more and more evident that ITS have become an integral part of all transportation systems regardless of whether they are older facilities in need of reconstruction or brand new, state-of-the-art facilities. This is not a singular trend in the United States, but rather is being seen via deployments across many countries. Many European nations, likewise faced with space limitations and other constraints, have moved rapidly into all aspects of ITS. In several areas, Europeans are leading the world in ITS applications and developments. Figure 15. Interconnectivity between ITS system components.

ItS and Strategies to Meet airport traveler Information Needs 39 The immediate future of ITS development and deployment will continue to be greatly influenced by federal legislation. The previous authorization bill (SAFETEA-LU) expired in 2009. Presently, funding is being maintained by authorization of interim expenditures. Concise History of Traveler Information Using ITS For as long as there have been vehicles on the roadway, a critical component of protecting the safety of both the system and the users has been communicating information to the driver. In the early days of the automobile, especially in the city, this communication generally consisted of supplying regulatory information via means such as manned intersections and traffic signals. As the decades passed and the transportation system continued to increase in size and complexity, methods such as dynamic message signs, highway advisory radios, radio broadcasts, newspapers, or TV were often used to communicate information, such as weather alerts, construction activity or a road closure (Athey Creek Consultants, 2009). These early attempts at providing additional information were an ideal supplement to the maps that most drivers carried in their glove compartments and which they used to plan any lengthy trips. The problem with these initial solutions is they were not very dynamic and had a hard time staying up to date with the latest activity on the roadway. Additionally, drivers had limited access to many of these means, such as TV or newspapers, while they were actually on the road. As time and technology progressed, attempts to provide additional information to travelers became more sophisticated. Through advances in technology and programs such as ITS, the dynamic message signs were tied into sensor systems and were able to report current information, such as weather, speeds, the location of incidents, detour routes, and even travel times. Using the unforeseen and rapid growth of the internet, transportation agencies launched traveler information websites. In the early stages, these websites reported current conditions, but each iteration of advances provided additional capability, such as pre-trip planning for the best routes, predicted travel times, camera snapshots or live streaming video, and more. The internet allowed agencies to develop websites that contained travel information relevant to the region or state. The combination of the growth in personal communications such as cell phones and the internet enabled this reach to be extended into the vehicle and allow drivers to get personalized information en route. Some websites even offered subscription-based text alerts to drivers on certain routes, to inform them of up-to-the-minute changes in conditions such as an incident or increasing delays. At the impetus of the federal government, most state agencies have also developed 511 systems, a free public telephone number to call to obtain the latest traveler informa- tion. Although specific implementations and available information differ, more than 33 states and metropolitan areas now offer 511 systems, covering over 50 percent of the US population (Athey Creek Consultants, 2009). Additionally, the increase in available information and technology gave birth to a new industry: the third-party information provider for traveler information. These services started with the use of GPS and static maps that provided in-vehicle directions and routing, based on the historical best path or shortest route. Many of these companies now have supplemented the historical information with real-time traffic information sent to their devices and subscribers, so routing recommendations are now based on current travel conditions. Many cell phones are now equipped with some form of GPS as a standard capability and private enterprises are utilizing these signals (stripped of identifying information) to greatly increase the number of data points that are covering the transportation system. As an example, Google adds real-time traffic conditions in additional locations almost weekly and has recently added incidents and road closures to the available data stream—all available (currently) for free. These private enterprise websites often have a larger, even national, focus on their traveler information. Google has also developed a data format,

40 Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent transportation Systems elements to Improve airport traveler access Information known as the General Transit Feed Service (GTFS) for the exchange of transit information to provide real-time updates, which is currently utilized by more than 100 transit agencies. A critical concern, however, is that the growing abundance of information that can be accessed while in the vehicle actually distracts the driver and may lead to an increase in incidents and dangerous situations. The USDOT has recently launched a major initiative aimed at combating the distracted driving problem. Recent actions include a ban on texting while driving for commercial truck drivers (USDOT |NHTSA, 2009). This problem and actions to thwart it could have a significant impact on the future delivery mechanisms for traveler information, both for the highway user and the ground access airport traveler. Taken together, these services are known as advanced traveler information systems (ATIS), one component of the 16 application areas of ITS services as illustrated in Figure 14. ATIS has arguably become not only one of the most visible aspects of ITS, but also one of the most used aspects and is therefore a critical concern for continued improvement. Drivers report that they consult ATIS for four primary reasons (Lappin, 2000): • Saving time, • Avoiding congestion, • Reducing stress, and • Avoiding unsafe conditions. Resources for Additional Information on ITS There are many valuable internet resources where readers can obtain more detailed information on ITS and associated technology applications, including the following: • USDOT ITS Joint Program Office: http://www.its.dot.gov/ • USDOT Knowledge Resource Portal, Benefits and Costs Database: http://www.benefitcost.its. dot.gov/its/itsbcllwebpage.nsf/krhomepage • National ITS Architecture: http://www.iteris.com/itsarch/index.htm • Systems Engineering Guidebook for ITS: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/cadiv/segb/ • ITS America: http://www.itsa.org/ • ITS Europe (ERTICO): http://www.ertico.com/ • Sustainable Aviation Guidance Alliance: http://www.airportsustainability.org/ ITS Technologies for Disseminating Traveler Information This section provides an overview of the most readily deployed ITS strategies and their sup- porting technologies. Supporting technologies include the information systems that are needed, which essentially provide the interface and interaction between the data and the users of the data. Supporting technologies may include communications infrastructure, ITS field equipment, and the airport network equipment and management. Traveler information for highway users is typically divided into two categories: pre-trip information and en route information. The method of disseminating information depends on the category or part of the trip in which the traveler is involved. These methods include several tools to deliver the information, such as: • Airport websites, • Kiosks, • DMSs, • MUFIDs,

ItS and Strategies to Meet airport traveler Information Needs 41 • Smartphones, • Email/text alerts, • 511 systems, and • Radio (including HAR). A technology summary is provided at the end of this chapter for each of the dissemination methods in the previous list. The summaries include the following components: • Technology description—The description contains a brief overview of the technology’s typical uses and components. • Primary uses—The primary uses are listed for each technology as it relates to the dissemination of airport traveler information. • Functional requirements—Every technology-based system has certain “business needs” that it must satisfy, which are the mission-oriented objectives of the organization for which the system is built. The functional requirements define the functions that the system must have in order to satisfy the business needs (i.e., what must be done but not how it should be implemented). The National ITS Architecture provides a common framework for planning, defining, and integrating intelligent transportation systems and is an excellent resource for obtaining infor- mation on the functionality and inputs and outputs for a particular ITS technology. • Institutional/integration issues—Working as a regional team versus independent agencies is important for ITS because agencies can benefit from a collaborative effort to achieve their respective goals and objectives. Some common institutional issues associated with ITS projects are as follows (Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, 1994): – Financial risk/cost sharing among agencies or departments; – Acceptance of investment in ITS; – Funding for deployment as well as ongoing operations and maintenance (O&M); – Insufficient communication and coordination among stakeholders; – Resistance to change; – Insufficient resources (human, financial, technical, etc.); – Information sharing and security concerns; and – User perception and acceptance. • Data sharing/security considerations—Connecting with other regional information sources and distribution systems is a key component of ITS. Information sharing allows agencies to identify needed resources, provide the public with information upon which to base their travel choices, and enhance interagency coordination in a region to improve travel conditions (Birenbaum, 2009). Sharing transportation information occurs between agencies within a single jurisdiction and also across jurisdictions and is a common strategy that operators use to improve their transportation management capabilities (Bauer, Smith, & Armstrong, 2007). Like any information technology system, ITS are subject to security threats, tampering, and unauthorized use. The National ITS Architecture contains a variety of information on security areas and potential threats that may affect or threaten ITS. The documentation provided by the Architecture applies general security concepts to the specific functions and information flows of ITS technologies and applications. The Architecture breaks ITS security into four categories: – Information security, – ITS personnel security, – Operational security, and – Security management. • Benefits—The deployment of many ITS applications has proven to provide measurable benefits in terms of congestion reduction, decreased emissions, increases in transit ridership, safety, and economic productivity. However, there are a number of ITS applications whose benefits are difficult to measure quantitatively; namely, the effectiveness of delivering traveler information. Qualitative benefits are listed for each technology.

42 Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent transportation Systems elements to Improve airport traveler access Information • Unit costs—Unit construction/implementation cost ranges are provided for each technology. The following percentage breakdown can be expected for other project-related costs: – Engineering design—10 to 15 percent of construction cost, – System integration—20 to 35 percent of construction/implementation cost, – Construction engineering and inspection—15 to 20 percent of construction cost, – Contractor mobilization—5 to 7 percent of construction cost, – Traffic control—5 to 10 percent of construction cost, and – Other construction items—15 percent of construction cost. The cost for system integration may vary widely depending on the existing IT infrastructure and project-specific parameters. Also, traffic control will apply only if construction work is being accomplished adjacent to a roadway and lanes will need to be closed periodically to accommodate the installation. Table 8 illustrates how these percentages would be applied to a project involving the field installation of three dynamic message signs on airport circulation roadways. Keep in mind, the interactive CD that accompanies this guidebook also provides valuable visualizations and information specific to each technology type. It is acknowledged that an airport’s use of information technology, particularly items such as websites, are proprietary features used to support a number of airport-specific programs above and beyond traveler information, such as marketing. The visualizations on the CD are not intended as a design specification for traveler information displays or technologies. They are meant solely as an illustration of how various information components can be presented, utilized, and potentially combined. Technology Summary 1: Airport Website Description Most airports, regardless of size, have a website. The information across airport websites varies based on a number of factors, including airport size, geographic location, and access by transit modes, among others. The internet is a useful tool for airports to deliver key information regard- ing departures, arrivals, terminal/gate information, and airline/flight status. Most international airports allow users to search for information for a particular flight via the airport’s website using the flight number, the carrier, the arrival city, and/or the departure city. Once a flight has been selected, the scheduled and estimated arrival time, the gate number, the baggage claim area, and additional flight comments are displayed. Several airports, such as Brisbane Airport in Queensland, Australia (http://www.bne.com.au/to-from-airport), have information of this type available. LS = lumpsum Item Description Unit Quantity Unit Price Total Cost Electrical service connection each 3 $20,000.00 $60,000.00 Concrete footing each 6 $2,000.00 $12,000.00 Dynamic message sign (full matrix) each 3 $120,000.00 $360,000.00 Communications equipment and integration LS 1 – $160,000.00 Erosion control/seeding LS 1 – $3,500.00 Engineering design services (12%) LS 1 – $71,460.00 Mobilization (5%) LS 1 – $29,775.00 Traffic control (10%) $59,550.00 Other construction items (15%) $89,325.00 Estimated Total Project Cost = $845,610.00 Table 8. Unit cost breakdown for DMS installation.

ItS and Strategies to Meet airport traveler Information Needs 43 Primary Uses The primary types of ground access traveler information disseminated by airport websites include: • Directions to the airport; • Airport roads information; • Access route conditions and delays; • Regional traffic information; • Ground transportation providers and services; • Parking information, including location, availability, rates by type, and shuttle bus access information; • Flight/gate information; • Cell phone lot information; • Security wait time; • Passenger pick-up information; and • Location/wait time for baggage claim. Functional Requirements The functional requirements define the functions that the system must have and perform in order to satisfy the business needs of the organization implementing it. The following is a list of functional requirements for an airport website: 1. The website shall provide a user interface that intuitively guides users to the information they seek. 2. The website shall have a hierarchical menu. 3. The website shall provide a map-based user interface for the provision of real-time (or near real-time) information on access route conditions (including construction, incidents, congestion, travel speeds, delays, and roadway weather conditions) and/or a link to the local transportation agencies’ traveler information website. 4. The website shall provide real-time information on transit modes and/or provide a link to the transit provider’s website. 5. The website shall provide real-time information on parking facility status and availability. 6. The website shall provide real-time information on security wait times. 7. The website shall provide real-time information on flight and gate status. 8. The website shall provide static information on parking facility location and rates. 9. The website shall provide static information on cell phone lot location and amenities. 10. The website shall provide static information on the location of passenger pick-up and drop-off. 11. The website shall provide personalized services that push information to the user based on a pre-determined user profile. Information shall be pushed to the user via email, text, and voice alerts. 12. The website shall provide the capability to translate the information in multiple languages based on the user-selected preference. 13. The website shall be compliant with the Americans with Disabilities Act and be accessible by users with visual and hearing disabilities. 14. The website shall be scalable to allow for expansion/changes to meet future traveler infor- mation needs. Data Sharing/Security Considerations Data Sharing. Agreements must be in place between organizations that share real-time data with the airport. The Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) is one of a number of standards development organizations involved in the development of ITS standards. ITE has

44 Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent transportation Systems elements to Improve airport traveler access Information developed Traffic Management Data Dictionary (TMDD) standards to support center-to-center communications as part of the regional deployment of ITS in order for centers to cooperate in the management of a corridor, arterial, incident mitigation, etc. The TMDD provides the dialogs, message sets, data frames, and data elements to manage the shared use of devices and the regional sharing of data. The TMDD standards often reference elements of the National Transportation Communications for ITS Protocol (NTCIP) standards. Data Management and Integration. Data needs to be shared in a standard format. Conflicting data among various sources needs to be identified in order to provide consistent information to the user. System Integrity. The system should ensure that information is protected from unauthorized intentional or unintentional modifications. System Availability. The system should protect critical services in order to prevent degradation or denial of service to users. Single points of failure should be avoided through the use of redundant communications paths. Benefits • Increases transportation system efficiency and capacity. • Reduces energy consumption and environmental costs. • Reduces customer uncertainty and anxiety. • Improves customer service. Costs Capital costs for deployment of a traveler information website are listed in Table 9. These costs may vary dramatically depending on existing resources, infrastructure, and personnel capabilities. These costs are for adding a traveler information component to an existing airport website and do not provide for a complete redesign of a complex website. Technology Summary 2: Kiosks Description A kiosk that disseminates real-time travel information typically consists of a computer terminal located within a small booth or on a newspaper stand-type structure. Kiosks can have informa- tion on multiple travel modes and often include information on local points of interest, since historically a majority of the users of travel information kiosks are non-residents/tourists. Primary Uses A kiosk can be used to provide specific information to travelers at a specific location. The kiosk must be located so that it can be reached by the target audience to provide both static and real-time information. Types of information provided may include traffic information, road conditions, System Components Capital Unit Cost Annual O&M Cost Web/database server $8 12K $2 5K Web page design $25 50K $1 5K Initial configuration and testing $10 15K Software licenses $20 50K $15 25K Operation of website $10 15K Table 9. Costs for deployment of a traveler information website. Source: RSL Group of Coventry, UK

ItS and Strategies to Meet airport traveler Information Needs 45 transit information, parking information such as location of parked car, traveler services or special event information, and other information tailored to a traveler’s request or profile. They should be located where large numbers of people congregate or gather. The goal should be to reach a broad cross section of people. Kiosks may be used by people with varying levels of education, computer literacy, disabilities, and English-speaking ability. As shown in Figure 16, the Park Assist kiosk allows users to find the location of their parked car by entering in the license plate number. The kiosk then displays a map of the parking facility level and pinpoints the location of the parked car. Functional Requirements The functional requirements define the functions that the system must have and perform in order to satisfy the business needs of the organization implementing it. The following is Source: RSL Group of Coventry, UK Source: Park Assist Figure 16. Park Assist kiosks.

46 Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent transportation Systems elements to Improve airport traveler access Information a list of functional requirements for a kiosk, compiled using the National ITS Architecture as a guide: 1. The public interface for travelers shall receive traffic information from a center and present it to the traveler upon request. 2. The public interface for travelers shall receive transit information from a center and present it to the traveler upon request. 3. The public interface for travelers shall receive Yellow Pages information (such as lodging, restaurants, theaters, bicycle facilities, and other tourist activities) from a center and present it to the traveler upon request. 4. The public interface for travelers shall receive event information from a center and present it to the traveler upon request. 5. The public interface for travelers shall receive evacuation information from a center and present it to the traveler. 6. The public interface for travelers shall receive wide-area alerts and present it to the traveler. 7. The public interface for travelers shall accept reservations for confirmed trip plans. 8. The public interface for travelers shall support payment for services, such as confirmed trip plans, confirmed Yellow Pages services, tolls, transit fares, parking lot charges, and advanced payment for tolls. 9. The public interface for travelers shall provide an interface through which credit identities and stored credit values may be collected from tags, traveler cards, or payment instruments used by travelers. 10. The public interface for travelers shall base requests from the traveler on the traveler’s current location or a specific location identified by the traveler, and filter the provided information accordingly. 11. The public interface for travelers shall provide digitized map data to act as the background to the information presented to the traveler. 12. The public interface for travelers shall support traveler input in audio or manual form. 13. The public interface for travelers shall present information to the traveler in audible or visual forms consistent with a kiosk, including those that are suitable for travelers with hearing or vision physical disabilities. 14. The public interface for travelers shall be able to store frequently requested data. Data Sharing/Security Considerations Data Sharing. Real-time traffic and transit information should be supplied through an automated process. If digitized map data is used as a background for the traveler information display, the system should obtain data updates as soon as they are available. Additionally, the kiosk should provide a secure payment interface through which credit card information can be entered and collected. Payments obtained from the kiosk may be used for parking facilities, transit fares as well as other traveler-related services. Kiosks would typically be part of an airport’s digital dynamic signage system and may be managed directly by the airport or by a contracted provider. Likewise, the system may operate over a dedicated network or may operate over the airport’s local area network. General Security Risks. Kiosks may become target areas for criminals trying to rob or harm unsuspecting travelers. Because of this security threat, the kiosk should include appropriate physical security measures including placement in well-lit areas and video and audio surveillance to secure the use of the equipment. System Confidentiality. The system should prevent the unauthorized disclosure of sensitive information (i.e., personal and financial data that may be input into the system). Transactions requiring sensitive information should be secured.

ItS and Strategies to Meet airport traveler Information Needs 47 System Integrity. The system should ensure that information is protected from unauthor- ized intentional or unintentional modifications. System Availability. The system should protect critical services in order to prevent degra- dation or denial of service to users. Single points of failure should be avoided through the use of redundant communications paths. Benefits • Reduces customer uncertainty and anxiety. • Provides access to real-time information to travelers with disabilities or without mobile access to the internet. • Improves customer service. Costs Capital costs for kiosks and related equipment are listed in Table 10. These costs may vary depending on the specific installation parameters. Costs for the communications infrastructure, electrical service connection, and external security measures are not included in the costs listed. Technology Summary 3: Dynamic Message Signs Description A dynamic message sign (DMS) is a sign that is capable of displaying more than one message (one of which might be a “blank” display) and can be changed manually, by remote control, or by automatic control. These signs are also frequently referred to as changeable message signs (CMS) or variable message signs (VMS). Primary Uses The primary function of a DMS is to alert and inform motorists of changing or temporary conditions along their travel path. Dynamic signs on major roads should be used only to convey messages that change on an hourly, daily, or weekly basis, such as: • Traffic conditions, roadway delays, and estimated travel times; • Construction or maintenance lane closures, detours, or speed reductions; and • Public service messages such as Amber alerts. In the airport ground access environment, DMSs may be used for: • Parking availability, • Parking fee schedules, • Lane status control at parking entry/exit plazas, • Alternative parking locations and routing, • Cell phone lot displays, • Security alerts, Kiosk System Components Capital Unit Cost Annual O&M Cost Kiosk (indoor) $10 15K $7 10K Kiosk (outdoor) $15 20K $7 10K Installation/start-up $2 5K Software $3.5 60K $2 5K Operations monitoring $45 60K Table 10. Costs for kiosks and related equipment.

48 Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent transportation Systems elements to Improve airport traveler access Information • Construction messages, • Terminal curbside conditions, and • Highlighting changes in roadway configurations or airport destinations. The roadway version of the DMS is merely a larger version of the same sign and technology utilized for pedestrian wayfinding within airport terminals and concourses. The signs can be dynamically changed from a remote location. The method for getting the message data to the actual sign can be via direct connection with a laptop or any number of methods via a remote computer [i.e., fiber optic cable, radio frequency (RF) link, and cellular transmission]. DMSs are capable of displaying single-color or full-color (red/green/blue) text and graphics. In some instances a majority of the information on a sign remains static, while only a portion of it is dynamic. This type of hybrid installation may be appropriate for airports that wish to display parking lot status or pricing information. Functional Requirements The functional requirements define the functions that the system must have and perform in order to satisfy the business needs of the organization implementing it. The following is a list of functional requirements for DMS, compiled using the National ITS Architecture as a guide: 1. The field element shall include, under center control, DMSs for dissemination of traffic and other information to drivers; the DMSs may either display variable text messages or have fixed format display(s) (e.g., vehicle restrictions or lane open/close). 2. The field element shall provide operational status for the DMS to the operations center. 3. The field element shall provide fault data for the DMS to the operations center for repair. 4. The operations center shall remotely control DMSs for dissemination of traffic and other information to drivers. 5. The operations center shall collect operational status for the DMS. 6. The operations center shall collect fault data for the DMS for repair. 7. The operations center shall distribute traffic data to maintenance and construction centers, transit centers, emergency management centers, and traveler information providers (if applicable). 8. The operations center shall distribute traffic data to the media; the capability to provide the information in both data stream and graphical display shall be supported (if applicable). 9. The operations center shall provide the capability for center personnel to control the nature of the data that is available to non-traffic operations centers and the media (if applicable). Integration Issues ITS Standards. Compatibility between ITS and components across public and private applications in roadway and transit transportation systems should be ensured. For the ITS technologies implemented at airports to interoperate seamlessly with the ITS for freeway, arterial or transit management, the use of ITS standards should be adopted. Use of ITS stan- dards ensures that components from different manufacturers will work together, without removing the incentive for designers and manufacturers to compete to provide products that are more efficient or offer more features. The NTCIP family of standards should be used for all DMS deployments. Systems Engineering. The systems engineering process focuses on defining user needs and required functionality early in the project development cycle and validates that those needs have been met through the design, implementation, testing, and operations and maintenance phases of the project life cycle. The systems engineering process should be used for all DMS deployments. Source for all photos: Daktronics, Inc.

ItS and Strategies to Meet airport traveler Information Needs 49 Existing Device Inventory. The airport should have a list of all equipment that is owned, operated, and maintained by the airport. To ensure that existing equipment will work with the new equipment, the following information is needed about the existing system: • Manufacturer/make/model, • Communications protocols, • Installation and test dates, • Warranty periods, • Spare parts inventory, • Operating system type/database language, • Software version, and • NTCIP compliance. Burn-In Period. A burn-in period should be provided prior to final acceptance of the device(s). It is during this period that the equipment is most likely to experience failures, which can then be corrected prior to final acceptance of the device(s). Security Considerations System Integrity. The system should ensure that information is protected from unauthorized intentional or unintentional modifications, which could affect the operation of the transportation system. For example, a Texas Department of Transportation portable DMS was hacked into by pranksters and the message “ZOMBIES AHEAD” was displayed. System Availability. The system should protect critical services in order to prevent degra- dation or denial of service to users. Single points of failure should be avoided through the use of redundant communications paths. Benefits • Increases transportation system efficiency and capacity. • Reduces energy consumption and environmental costs. • Reduces customer uncertainty and anxiety. Costs Capital costs for dynamic message signs are listed in Table 11. These costs may vary depending on the specific installation parameters. Costs for the communications infrastructure and electrical service connection are not included in the costs listed because they may vary significantly depending on site-specific conditions. Technology Summary 4: Multi-user Flight Information Displays Description A multi-user flight information display (MUFID) system is a method of visually dis - playing flight information to travelers in real time. The flight information displayed usually includes the airline name, city of origin or destination, expected arrival/departure time, gate DMS Type Capital Cost Annual O&M Cost Full matrix walk-in DMS for roadway installations $100 250K $3 7K Small, lane status DMS (open/closed) $2 5K $0.5K Parking Status Display (by structure level—per sign) $10 15K $0.5K Table 11. Costs for dynamic message signs.

50 Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent transportation Systems elements to Improve airport traveler access Information number, and status of the flight (i.e., boarding, departed, delayed, etc.). MUFIDs are typically placed throughout the airport terminal but may also be placed in cell phone lots, parking garages and lots, as well as transit stations and rental car facilities. Primary Uses The primary function of a MUFID is to provide real-time flight information to departing and arriving passengers as well as people picking up arriving passengers. Dynamic message signs are used for outdoor displays, while LCD or plasma displays are typically used inside the terminal. MUFIDs are typically used in these areas for the following reasons: • In and around the terminal—display real-time flight information throughout the terminal to provide departing and arriving passenger with flight and gate information. • Baggage claim—display flight and baggage pick-up location and status. • Cell phone lot—display flight arrival status so that drivers picking up arriving passengers know when to leave the cell phone lot to pick them up. Provision of this information in the cell phone lot reduces the occurrence of vehicles congregating at the passenger pick-up curbside as well as undue congestion on the airport circulation roadways. • Parking facilities—display flight information at shuttle stops in parking lots and garages. • Rental car return—display flight information at shuttle stop for rental car return. • Transit station—display flight information for travelers exiting transit mode and proceeding to airport. Functional Requirements The functional requirements define the functions that the system must have and perform in order to satisfy the business needs of the organization implementing it. The following is a list of functional requirements for MUFIDs: 1. The MUFID shall provide operational status to the operations center. 2. The MUFID shall provide fault data to the operations center for repair. 3. The operations center shall remotely control the MUFIDs for posting of emergency messages. 4. The operations center shall collect operational status for the MUFID. 5. The operations center shall collect fault data for the MUFID for repair. 6. The MUFID shall display flight information specific to an airport, including the airline name, city of origin or destination, expected arrival/departure time, gate number, status of the flight, and baggage claim carousel information. Security Considerations System Integrity. The system should ensure that information is protected from unauthorized intentional or unintentional modifications, which could affect the operation of the transportation system. System Availability. The system should protect critical services to prevent degradation or denial of service to users. Single points of failure should be avoided through the use of redundant communications paths. Benefits • Reduces customer uncertainty and anxiety. Source: Daktronics, Inc.

ItS and Strategies to Meet airport traveler Information Needs 51 Costs Capital costs for MUFIDs are listed in Table 12. These costs may vary depending on the specific installation parameters. Costs for the communications infrastructure and electrical service connection are not included in the costs listed. Technology Summary 5: Smartphone Description A smartphone is a cellular telephone that runs operating system software, which allows the user to install and run advanced applications that mobile telephones cannot. Smartphones provide the user with some level of computing ability as well as access to the internet. The applications that smartphones run are commonly referred to as “apps.” According to Gartner, a leader in information technology research and market share analysis, smartphones will become increasingly more affordable in the future due to providers offering tiered data plans to users, which will drive the total cost of ownership down. (Gartner Inc., 2010) Primary Uses Below is a list of the primary types of travel information accessed via a smartphone: • Flight/gate status, • Trip itinerary, • RSS feeds, • Access route conditions, • Weather information, • Check-in and security wait times, • Parking information, and • Transit information and status. Figure 17 presents screenshots of flight/gate status, trip itinerary, and directions to the airport as shown in the flight tracking application, FlightView. MUFID Capital Cost Annual O&M Cost LCD or plasma display—indoor (2.5’ × 4’) $2 5K $0.5 1K MUFID for cell phone lot (10’ × 20’) $250K $6K Table 12. Costs for multi-user flight information displays. Figure 17. Screenshots from FlightView.

52 Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent transportation Systems elements to Improve airport traveler access Information Functional Requirements The functional requirements define the functions that the system must have and perform in order to satisfy the business needs of the organization implementing it. The following is a list of functional requirements for providing travelers with information via a smartphone application, compiled using the National ITS Architecture as a guide: 1. The smartphone application shall receive traffic information from a center and present it to the traveler upon request. 2. The smartphone application shall receive transit information from a center and present it to the traveler upon request. 3. The smartphone application shall receive Yellow Pages information (such as lodging, restaurants, theaters, bicycle facilities, and other tourist activities) from a center and present it to the traveler upon request. 4. The smartphone application shall receive event information from a center and present it to the traveler upon request. 5. The smartphone application shall receive evacuation information from a center and present it to the traveler. 6. The smartphone application shall receive wide-area alerts and present it to the traveler. 7. The smartphone application shall accept reservations for confirmed trip plans. 8. The smartphone application shall support payment for services, such as confirmed trip plans, tolls, transit fares, parking lot charges, map updates, and advanced payment for tolls. 9. The smartphone application shall provide an interface through which credit identity, stored credit value, or traveler information may be collected from a traveler card being used by a traveler with a personal device. 10. The smartphone application shall base requests from the traveler on the traveler’s current location or a specific location identified by the traveler, and filter the provided information accordingly. 11. The smartphone application shall provide digitized map data to act as the background to the information presented to the traveler. 12. The smartphone application shall support traveler input via audio, keypad, or touch screen entry. 13. The smartphone application shall present information to the traveler in audible or visual forms consistent with a personal device and suitable for travelers with hearing and vision physical disabilities. 14. The smartphone application shall be able to store frequently requested or used data, including the traveler’s identity, home and work locations, etc. 15. The smartphone application shall receive travel alerts and present them to the traveler. Rel- evant alerts are provided based on pre-supplied trip characteristics and preferences. 16. The smartphone application shall accept personal preferences, recurring trip characteristics, and traveler alert subscription information from the traveler and send this information to a center to support customized traveler information services. Data Sharing/Security Considerations Data Sharing. Real-time traffic, transit, and other information should be supplied through an automated process. Formal policies and data sharing agreements should be developed and executed. System Integrity. The system should ensure that information is protected from unauthorized intentional or unintentional modifications. System Availability. The system should protect critical services to prevent degradation or denial of service to users. Single points of failure should be avoided through the use of redundant communications paths.

ItS and Strategies to Meet airport traveler Information Needs 53 Benefits • Increases transportation system efficiency and capacity. • Reduces energy consumption and environmental costs. • Reduces customer uncertainty and anxiety. • Provides user-friendly access to transportation information. Costs The airport may want to consider the development of a smartphone application as a requirement provided by one of the DMS project integration participants (e.g., an app could be developed in conjunction with a DMS project, with the intent that the app has some potential revenue generation through advertising by those groups shown as part of available services). Capital costs for development of a smartphone app are shown in Table 13; however, the real costs to the airport will be providing the data in a format that can be viewed by users. It should be noted that the cost may vary widely depending on the specific project parameters. For example, the cost for INRIX traffic data depends on the number of miles of roadway from which data is desired. For a typical urban area served by an airport, the annual data cost could be expected to be in the range of $15,000 to $25,000. Similarly, but far less expensive, FlightStats provides syndicated flight status information to airports based on either a term of service or transaction limit (i.e., the number of queries). The cost of the service is $500 for 365 days or 100,000 queries, whichever occurs first. There are also more customizable options available through contractual agreements. Technology Summary 6: Email/Text Alerts Description Electronic mail is a mechanism that is often employed to receive traveler information (see Figure 18). Many people sign up to get special alerts or notifications, and some traffic sites allow a user to customize those emails to a particular route and/or time of day. A shorter form of electronic mail, commonly known as text messaging or SMS, is also widely used to disseminate Smartphone App Capital Unit Cost Annual O&M Cost App development cost $30 75K $5 7K Data cost (i.e., flight data feeds, INRIX traffic data) – $15.5 31K Table 13. Costs associated with a smartphone app. Figure 18. Sample email alert from Newark Liberty International Airport.

54 Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent transportation Systems elements to Improve airport traveler access Information information, such as travel alerts. In the latest surveys of mobile phone use, only about 25 percent of all cell phone subscribers in the United States have smartphones, so SMS has the ability to reach a much larger audience than email alerts. Primary Uses The primary types of information disseminated by email/text alert include: • Flight/gate status and delays; • Access route conditions and delays; • Bridge/tunnel status and delays; • Transit status and delays; • Weather delays (exceeding a minimum threshold; e.g., 120 minutes); • Check-in/security wait times; and • Parking lot/garage status (i.e., full). Functional Requirements The functional requirements define the functions that the system must have and perform in order to satisfy the business needs of the organization implementing it. The following is a list of functional requirements for traveler information alerts, compiled using the National ITS Architecture as a guide: 1. The center shall accept traveler profiles that establish recurring trip characteristics including route, mode, and timeframe information. 2. The center shall accept traveler profiles that define alert thresholds that establish the severity and types of alerts that are provided to each traveler. 3. The center shall disseminate personalized traffic alerts reporting congestion, incidents, delays, detours, and road closures that may affect a current or planned trip. 4. The center shall disseminate personalized transit alerts reporting transit delays and service interruptions. 5. The center shall disseminate personalized parking alerts reporting parking availability and closures. 6. The center shall disseminate personalized road weather alerts reporting adverse road and weather conditions. 7. The center shall disseminate personalized multimodal transportation service alerts including ferry and air travel delays, port closures, and service interruptions. 8. The center shall disseminate personalized event alerts reporting special event impacts on the transportation system and provide information on alternative mode options. 9. The center shall provide an operator interface that supports monitoring and management of subscribers and the content and format of alert messages. Data Sharing/Security Considerations Data Sharing. Real-time and batch data sources will have different data sharing requirements. Some examples of real-time data sources include FAA information feeds as well as direct airport and airline data feeds. Batch data sources include Transportation Security Administration (TSA) security wait times, security, health, and consular information. System Integrity and Compliance. The system should ensure that information is protected from unauthorized intentional or unintentional modifications. The system should also ensure any mes- sage sent is in compliance with the Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Mar- keting (CAN-SPAM) Act of 2003. In the context of airport email alerts, the CAN-SPAM Act applies to routing information (i.e., the email may not contain false or misleading routing information).

ItS and Strategies to Meet airport traveler Information Needs 55 System Availability. The system should protect critical services to prevent degradation or denial of service to users. Single points of failure should be avoided through the use of redundant communications paths. Distracted Driving. There is currently a global effort to end distracted driving, which has led to legislation banning texting and handheld cell phone use in many areas. Simultaneously, email and text alerts have gained popularity as a method of distributing real-time information on travel conditions to travelers. While these alerts will still be a viable method of disseminat- ing information to non-drivers, alternatives need to be explored for communicating real-time travel information to drivers without compromising their safety. One such method would be to communicate messages to travelers via an automated voice message service. Benefits • Increases transportation system efficiency and capacity. • Reduces energy consumption and environmental costs. • Reduces customer uncertainty and anxiety. • Improves customer service. Costs Capital costs for providing text message/email alert services vary significantly depending on whether the service is housed internal to the airport communications system or whether the service is provided by a third party. These costs may vary depending on availability of existing personnel to facilitate the service or whether a new position is created. The costs listed in Table 14 include the hardware and software needed to facilitate the service as well as an operator to develop and disseminate the alerts. Technology Summary 7: 511 Systems Description 511 is a three-digit travel information telephone number designated by the Federal Commu- nications Commission that is available to states and local jurisdictions in the United States. The information contained in 511 systems is also posted on websites (e.g., www.511.org—San Francisco Bay Area). 511 systems typically provide information on traffic conditions and ground and public transportation in metropolitan areas and major airports. Traffic conditions may also include park- ing availability and rates, as well as detours, roadway conditions, and lane closures. Systems should be updated every few minutes, although not all systems provide updates in such a timely manner. 511 systems are currently deployed in a majority of the U.S. states and major metropolitan areas but have not been deployed in at least 12 states as of December 10, 2010. Primary Uses The primary use of 511 systems is to obtain the following information: • Traffic conditions for a specific route, • Regional traffic conditions, • Transit information and status, System Components Capital Unit Cost Annual O&M Cost Automated notification service $15 20K $40 50K Table 14. Costs for providing text message/email alert services.

56 Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent transportation Systems elements to Improve airport traveler access Information • Parking information, and • Trip planning. Functional Requirements The functional requirements define the functions that the system must have and perform in order to satisfy the business needs of the organization implementing it. The following is a list of functional requirements for providing travelers with information via 511 systems, compiled using the National ITS Architecture as a guide: 1. The 511 system shall provide the capability to process voice-formatted requests for traveler information from a traveler telephone information system and to return the information in the requested format. 2. The 511 system shall provide the capability to process dual-tone multi-frequency-based requests (touch-tone) for traveler information from a traveler telephone information system. 3. The 511 system shall provide the capability to process traveler information requests from a traveler telephone information system. 4. The 511 system shall provide information on traffic conditions in the requested voice format and for the requested location. 5. The 511 system shall provide work zone and roadway maintenance information in the requested voice format and for the requested location. 6. The 511 system shall provide roadway environment conditions information in the requested voice format and for the requested location. 7. The 511 system shall provide weather and event information in the requested voice format and for the requested location. 8. The 511 system shall provide transit service information in the requested voice format and for the requested location. 9. The 511 system shall provide Yellow Pages services information in the requested voice format and for the requested location. 10. The 511 system shall provide current ferry and rail schedule and airport status information in the requested voice format and for the requested location. 11. The 511 system shall provide the capability to support both specific caller requests as well as bulk upload of regional traveler information. 12. The 511 system shall receive and forward region-specific wide-area alert and advisory infor- mation to the traveler telephone information system, including major emergencies such as a natural or man-made disaster, civil emergency, child abductions, severe weather watches and warnings, military activities, and law enforcement warnings. Data Sharing/Security Considerations Data Sharing. Real-time traffic, transit, and other information should be supplied to the system through an automated process. System Integrity. The system should ensure that information is protected from unauthorized intentional or unintentional modifications. System Availability. The system should protect critical services in order to prevent degradation or denial of service to users. Single points of failure should be avoided through the use of redundant communications paths. Benefits • Increases transportation system efficiency and capacity. • Reduces energy consumption and environmental costs. • Reduces customer uncertainty and anxiety. • Provides user-friendly access to transportation information.

ItS and Strategies to Meet airport traveler Information Needs 57 Costs Airport travel information could be integrated into an existing regional 511 system with little cost to the airport aside from costs associated with formatting and sharing data. The cost range listed in Table 15 is for a scenario where an airport would develop its own 511 system that would provide airport travel information for a single metropolitan area. Technology Summary 8: Radio (Including Highway Advisory Radio) Description Many FM and AM radio stations in larger urban and metropolitan areas provide some form of traffic information during the morning and afternoon/evening peak travel periods. These traffic updates often center on informing people of new and clearing incidents and their effect on travel conditions. Some radio stations will also announce the current average speed on sections of roadways or average travel times between two points based on current travel conditions. A few also provide alternative route recommendations when non-recurring congestion is encountered. When inclement weather affects traffic, radio stations always attempt to provide the status of roadway surface conditions. Advisories to avoid certain areas due to ice, flooding, low visibility, etc., may be issued. The growth of satellite radio, a paid service, also increases the options for dissemination of traveler information. More than 20 US cities are covered by current systems and additional ones are forthcoming. Europe is also developing satellite radio systems. Primary Uses The primary use of radio/HAR is to obtain the following traveler information: • Traffic conditions for a specific route, • Location of incidents and expected delays, • Travel speeds and travel times, • Roadway weather conditions, • Regional traffic conditions, • Curbside conditions, • Optimal locations for passenger pick-up/drop-off, • Parking availability, and • Cell phone lot location and space availability. Functional Requirements The functional requirements define the functions that the system must have and perform in order to satisfy the business needs of the organization implementing it. The following is a list of functional requirements for providing travelers with information via radio/HAR systems, compiled using the National ITS Architecture as a guide: 1. The center shall disseminate traffic and highway condition information to travelers, including incident information, detours and road closures, event information, recommended routes, and current speeds on specific routes. 511 System Components Capital Unit Cost Annual O&M Cost 511 system for an airport $200 500K Varies based on call volume Table 15. Costs for a 511 system.

58 Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent transportation Systems elements to Improve airport traveler access Information 2. The center shall disseminate maintenance and construction information to travelers, including scheduled maintenance and construction work activities and work zone activities. 3. The center shall disseminate transit routes and schedules, transit transfer options, transit fares, and real-time schedule adherence information to travelers. 4. The center shall disseminate parking information to travelers, including location, availability, and fees. 5. The center shall disseminate toll fee information to travelers. 6. The center shall disseminate weather information to travelers. 7. The center shall disseminate event information to travelers. 8. The center shall disseminate air quality information to travelers. 9. The center shall provide the capability to support requests from the media for traffic and incident data. 10. The center shall provide the capability for a system operator to control the type and update frequency of broadcast traveler information. Benefits • Increases transportation system efficiency and capacity. • Reduces energy consumption and environmental costs. • Reduces customer uncertainty and anxiety. • Provides user-friendly access to transportation information. Costs HAR costs are shown in Table 16. Combining Technologies into ITS Strategies In the airport environment for disseminating traveler information, strategies made up of a combination of ITS technologies and applications often work together to provide a desired service. The combination of multiple technologies allows for scalable systems and phased implementations. For example, an advanced parking management system (APMS) comprises multiple technologies, including dynamic message signs, space occupancy detectors, vehicle counters, space occupancy indicators, website displays, MUFIDS, email/text alerts, and operating software. At the most elementary level, an APMS may indicate parking facility status (e.g., open or full) but nothing else. Although the status provides drivers with information as to whether to pull into the lot or garage and hunt for a space or to continue to an alternative parking facility, it does not solve the problem of drivers circulating around the garage or lot in search of available spaces. More advanced systems provide drivers with directional guidance that allows them to efficiently access an available space, which saves them the time and frustration often associated with locating an available parking space. Similarly, a cell phone lot may provide real-time flight arrival information to meeter/greeters through the use of MUFIDs located in a designated parking facility. Due to their ability to reduce traffic congestion and the potential for vehicle-pedestrian conflicts on terminal curbsides, some HAR System Components Capital Unit Cost Annual O&M Cost Highway advisory radio system $50 60K $1.5 3K per HAR Highway advisory sign w/flashing beacons $15 25K $0.2 0.5 per sign Table 16. Costs for highway advisory radio systems.

ItS and Strategies to Meet airport traveler Information Needs 59 airports are offering additional amenities within the cell phone lot in order to entice drivers to remain in the lot until their party is ready for pick-up. Transportation management centers exist in almost every major metropolitan area for the purpose of freeway and arterial management. These operations centers are typically run by state and local transportation agencies and include the capability to collect and process data and images related to the prevailing travel conditions via a network of CCTV cameras and sensors. These centers are most frequently used for incident management and coordination and for dissemination of traffic conditions to the media, other agencies, and the public. This section provides descriptions for three of the more large-scale ITS strategies applicable to the airport environment, including APMSs, cell phone lots, and traveler information and incident management services. However, it should be noted that a range of ITS applications may be implemented that have the ability to improve safety and efficiency and achieve the airport’s customer service objectives related to the provision of ground access information. Advanced Parking Management System One area of considerable focus for airport operators is the dissemination of real-time parking information. This information is typically provided through the use of dynamic signage and guidance systems within parking facilities to assist drivers in finding available parking spaces. The basic concept is that a series of sensors count vehicles as they enter and exit specified areas of a parking facility. These in/out counts are compared against the known number of parking spaces within each area whereby the number of vehicles parked in each zone can be calculated. As areas become full, this information is conveyed to drivers via dynamic signs and in-pavement markers so that they can bypass the full areas and proceed to areas with available parking. The areas can be defined at the macro level (i.e., the entire parking facility) or at the micro level (i.e., individual parking spaces) (Croft, 2001). In the 2009 Airport Sign Managers Survey (Gresham, Smith and Partners and Texas Transporta- tion Institute, 2009), 55 percent of airports responding indicate they use some form of electronic car counting. Some airports display this information to the public, while other airports use the car count information internally to make operational decisions such as to place cones or barricades to block off areas of a parking facility. Figure 19 shows a roadway sign providing information as to the availability of parking in each parking facility at O.R. Tambo International Airport in South Africa. The information is provided prior to the decision point where the driver must commit to a specific parking facility. Figures 20 through 22 show the progression of signs used to guide drivers to an available parking space. Figures 20 and 21 show that a series of dynamic signs are used to indicate which levels and zones have available parking. Sensors located above each parking space, shown in Figure 22, use red and green indicator lights to inform drivers if a particular space is occupied or not. Advanced parking management systems are gaining popularity at airports; collective guidance has been provided by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) regarding the strategy and is included in a publication entitled Advanced Parking Management Systems: A Cross-Cutting Study—Taking the Stress Out of Parking (FHWA, 2007). This document is informative in the topics of describing the state-of-the-practice, recommendations for planning APMS, and other implementation items. The guidebook generally discusses signage but does not provide specific details regarding sign content, form, or placement. In fact, specifics and recommendations on signage associated with APMS are often suggested by vendors providing the APMS.

60 Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent transportation Systems elements to Improve airport traveler access Information Source: Intelligent Devices, Inc. Figure 19. Parking availability by facility type, O.R. Tambo International Airport. Source: Intelligent Devices, Inc. Figure 20. Parking availability by level, O.R. Tambo International Airport. Source: Intelligent Devices, Inc. Figure 21. Parking availability by zone, O.R. Tambo International Airport.

ItS and Strategies to Meet airport traveler Information Needs 61 The primary function of an APMS is to provide parkers with real-time parking availability information, so that they can find an available space in a timely manner. This leads to better space utilization, less circulation in parking facilities, and better overall customer service. The primary information components of an APMS are: • Parking facility status (e.g., open/closed), • Parking availability by level or row (number of spaces), • Guidance to the location of available spaces, and • Finding the location of the parked vehicle. As with the individual ITS technologies, there are system integration and security concerns associated with an APMS, especially for systems that collect personal and financial data through payment processing. And, although these systems are typically not mission critical, system integrity and availability are important. System malfunction or degradation of ser- vice may cause undue stress and frustration for parkers and ultimately leads to customer dissatisfaction. Several screenshots from sample APMS operating software, provided by Intelligent Devices, Inc., are shown in Figures 23 through 25. The figures illustrate the capability for parking operators to remotely monitor the status of individual parking spaces, messages that are displayed on dynamic signage, and statistics related to parking usage during a specific time period as well as operational status of the equipment (i.e., good, communications failure, sensor failure). As an example, BWI airport currently has approximately 13,000 spaces under control of an APMS. A 2003 customer satisfaction survey indicated that 81 percent of the BWI travelers surveyed thought that parking was easier at BWI compared to other airports they frequent and 68 percent agreed that parking was faster. Advanced parking management systems have been proven to reduce circulation in parking facilities, increase space occupancy and associated revenue, reduce energy consumption and environmental costs, as well as reduce customer uncertainty and anxiety. Advanced parking management systems vary significantly in cost depending on a number of deployment variables: • Type and level of accuracy of the information provided, • Degree of complexity in installation of the sensors, • Integration and operating software, Source: Intelligent Devices, Inc. Figure 22. Sensor status of parking spaces, O.R. Tambo International Airport.

Source: Intelligent Devices, Inc. Figure 23. Screenshot showing space occupancy status, O.R. Tambo International Airport. Source: Intelligent Devices, Inc. Figure 24. Screenshot showing dynamic message sign status, O.R. Tambo International Airport. 62 Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent transportation Systems elements to Improve airport traveler access Information

ItS and Strategies to Meet airport traveler Information Needs 63 • Availability of communications infrastructure, • Availability of electrical service connections, and • Amount of new wayfinding and dynamic signage required to convey the information. A range of capital cost per parking space for a parking and guidance system that leads a driver to an available space is listed in Table 17. The costs vary significantly depending on the specific services provided and site-specific installation parameters. ACRP Report 24: Guidebook for Evaluating Airport Parking Strategies and Supporting Technologies provides detailed cost information in Appendix A for the various elements involved in the deploy- ment of an APMS. Cell Phone Lots With the proliferation of mobile phones over the past decade, the concept of just-in-time delivery has progressed to just-in-time passenger pick-up at airports. Now that people are able to receive real-time information on a flight’s arrival status, the need to guess when a flight might land and to find a parking place to wait until it does arrive is dissipating. Airports have developed special areas for people to wait short periods of time in their vehicles until Source: Intelligent Devices, Inc. Figure 25. Screenshot showing APMS statistics, O.R. Tambo International Airport. Advanced Parking Management System Capital Cost Annual O&M Cost Installation and O&M cost per parking space $250 850 $100 300 Table 17. Costs for an advanced parking management system.

64 Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent transportation Systems elements to Improve airport traveler access Information Cell Phone Lot Capital Cost Annual O&M Cost Installation cost of lot per parking space $7 12K TBD MUFID (20’ × 10’ display) $250K $6K Table 18. Costs for a cell phone lot. Source: Daktronics, Inc. Figure 26. MUFID in cell phone lot, St. Louis International. their family, friends, or business associates contact them via cell phone to pick them up at the terminal curbside. In the 2009 survey (Gresham, Smith and Partners and Texas Transportation Institute, 2009), more than 74 percent of the airports indicated they provide some form of cell phone parking lots. Because of their popularity and ability to decongest terminal curbsides, some airports are providing dedicated information and amenities within the cell phone waiting areas. Flight information display boards, free wireless internet, vending machines, and restrooms are the more common items. Figure 26 is an example of a MUFID in the cell phone lot at St. Louis International Airport, which provided real-time information to patrons. This encourages people to stay in the cell phone lot and not circle the airport or congest terminal curbsides. Additional information that is not displayed in Figure 26 but would be useful to people picking up passengers is whether the plane is taxiing or has reached the gate as well as baggage claim wait times. Cell phone lots can vary significantly in cost depending on a number of deployment variables: • Size of lot; • Amount of demolition, earthwork, and grading needed to convert land to parking lot; • Amenities provided (Wi-Fi, refreshments, restrooms, etc.); • Number and size of MUFIDs installed; • Availability of communications infrastructure; • Availability of electrical service connections; and • Additional personnel required to monitor the lot. A capital cost range for a cell phone lot is listed in Table 18. The costs vary depending on the specific installation parameters listed earlier.

ItS and Strategies to Meet airport traveler Information Needs 65 Traveler Information and Incident Management Although travelers can commonly access information regarding congestion and delays for the freeway portion of their trip and sometimes the arterial network, they are often uncertain as to how long activities will take once on airport property such as parking, returning a rental car, rid- ing a shuttle to the terminal, checking bags, and getting through security—all in time to catch a flight. The same uncertainties also exist for a traveler arriving at an airport and needing information to plan their departing trip to off-airport destinations. All of these areas for uncertainty provide opportunities for airports to provide valuable information to travelers. As a major destination and commerce hub, airports have a role as a critical part of regional surface transportation networks. Just as many municipalities have done to address their traffic management needs, airports could essentially establish what is known as a “transportation management center” (TMC) to observe and actively address traffic issues on airport roadways and terminal curbsides. Through a series of sensors, cameras, radio advisories, dynamic message signs, and other traveler information outlets, airports could efficiently identify and mitigate incidents that may cause travel delays for air travelers arriving and departing the airport. In addition, a TMC could provide a means to observe the overall impact of traffic detours, construction closures, and temporary maintenance operations that occur on a frequent basis at airports. DMS located along the airport roadways/curbside could inform motorists of parking rates and availability, alternative parking locations and routing, security alerts, check-in or security wait times, construction messages, and terminal curbside conditions. Additionally, a HAR system could be used to disseminate similar information via a radio broadcast. It is possible that airport traffic management centers and municipal/regional traffic control centers could share the data and information gathered at their respective locations. This concept would provide an integrated, all-encompassing source of traffic information so that the traveler is not forced to identify the “boundaries” between traffic control centers and then attempt to switch to the appropriate provider. Theoretically, the concept is straightforward. The execution of such an arrangement is made difficult by several institutional issues that are discussed later in this report. Figure 27 shows the monitoring capabilities of the regional traffic management center located in Memphis, Tennessee. A capital cost range for traveler information and incident management equipment is listed in Table 19. The costs vary depending on the specific installation parameters. Source: Gresham, Smith and Partners Figure 27. Traffic management center, Memphis, TN.

66 Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent transportation Systems elements to Improve airport traveler access Information Considerations Related to ITS Deployment In addition to identifying and selecting ITS technologies that meet airport traveler needs (including the needs of disabled travelers), airports should also consider deploying technolo- gies that meet current ITS standards to ensure interoperability of devices across partnering organizations and phased deployments. A formal data sharing policy should also be developed that addresses sharing airport ITS data with both public and private entities. Benefits and costs should also be considered, specifically the ongoing operations and maintenance costs associated with deploying technology-based systems. Information Technology Accessibility It is important that individuals with disabilities have equal access to airport services. Individuals with disabilities may have impairments that limit their ability to use information technology or ITS and/or components. These impairments may include low or limited vision, blindness, hearing loss or deafness, and/or limited or no ability to reach, touch, or manipulate devices. There are a number of existing accessibility regulations in the United States—such as the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the Air Carrier Access Act (ACAA)—as well as state regulations related to information technology use, including the Illinois Information Technology Accessibility Act (IITAA). The purpose of the IITAA is to ensure that information and electronic technology developed, purchased, or provided by the State of Illinois is accessible to individuals with disabilities. The applicable types of equipment and technology include software applications; electronic information; equipment used to create, store, display, or manipulate data, video, and multimedia; kiosks; and telecommunications devices; as well as copiers, printers, and computers. Furthermore, on September 19, 2011, in an ongoing effort to implement the ACAA, the USDOT announced a proposed regulation that would require airlines to make their websites and airport kiosks accessible to travelers with disabilities. Within a 2-year period, airline websites would be obligated to meet the requirements of the Website Content Accessibility Guidelines. Existing airport kiosks would not be required to meet the rule; however, any kiosks ordered 60 days after the rule takes effect would be required to meet the accessibility requirements contained in the ADA. ITS Standards The USDOT has facilitated significant progress in ITS standards that are fundamental to the establishment of an open ITS environment. Standards facilitate deployment of interoper- Traffic Management Center Capital Cost Annual O&M Cost Video wall (similar to Figure 27) $1.2M $30 40K Video wall (4 cubes/operating software) $30 40K $30 40K CCTV camera $8 15K $1 2K Video sharing equipment $5 15K $1 2K Radar detector $2 5K $0.5 1K TMC central software $50 250K TBD Full matrix DMS (roadway) $50 150K $2 5K Table 19. Costs for traveler information and incident management equipment.

ItS and Strategies to Meet airport traveler Information Needs 67 able systems at local, regional, and national levels without impeding innovation as technology advances and new approaches evolve (USDOT, 2009b). Through the ITS Standards Program (http://www.standards.its.dot.gov/), the USDOT has facilitated significant progress in compat- ibility between ITS and components across public and private applications in roadway and transit transportation systems. This level of compatibility has not yet been achieved across airport traveler information systems. In order for the ITS technologies implemented on airports to interoperate seamlessly with the ITS for freeway, arterial, or transit management, the use of established ITS standards should be adopted. The use of ITS standards gives airport and transportation agencies confi- dence that components from different manufacturers will work together, without removing the incentive for designers and manufacturers to compete to provide products that are more efficient or offer more features. Although stand-alone ITS applications can create benefits, the integration of ITS devices and center-based systems results in the greatest efficiencies and improves mobility and safety, especially in area-wide or regional traveler information systems. ITS standards are an important element in the integration of advanced technologies and facilitate interoperability between systems, allowing for the efficient exchange of data as well as accommodating future equipment replacement, systems upgrades, and expansions (USDOT|RITA, 2010). The NTCIP family of standards defines protocols and profiles that are open, consensus-based data communications standards. Like all ITS standards, interoperability and interchangeability are two goals of the NTCIP standards. NTCIP provides communications standards for two categories of ITS communications: center to field (C2F) and center to center (C2C). C2F communications occur between a center system and control of multiple field devices that are managed by the center (e.g., a traffic management system that controls CCTV cameras, DMS, and HAR transmitters on roadways). On the other hand, C2C communications involve messages sent between two or more systems or computers (e.g., a transit system that reports schedule adherence exceptions to a transit customer information system and to a regional traveler information system in real time). C2C communications can occur between computers in the same room, by adjacent agencies, or in different jurisdictions or states (AASHTO, ITE, NEMA, 2009). The following list provides examples of C2F and C2C applications: • C2F Applications – Dynamic message signs; – Traffic signals; – Field masters (closed loop systems); – Data collection and monitoring devices such as traffic counter, traffic classifiers, and weigh- in-motion stations; – On-board sensors and controllers; – Environmental sensors; – Ramp meters; – Vehicle detectors; – CCTV cameras (camera control only); and – Video switches. • C2C Applications – Traffic management (freeway/surface street, urban/rural); – Transit management; – Incident management; – Emergency management; – Parking management; – Traveler information (all modes);

68 Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent transportation Systems elements to Improve airport traveler access Information – Commercial vehicle operations regulation; and – Any mix of these. Data/Resource Sharing Connecting with other regional information sources and distribution systems is a key component of ITS. Information sharing allows agencies to identify needed resources, provide the public with information upon which to base their travel choices, and enhance interagency coordination in a region to improve travel conditions (Birenbaum, 2009). Information sharing is critical for an appropriate response to problems because the efforts can have direct correlations to public safety and mobility. The primary issue involved with data integration is the diversity of database formats that lead to inconsistencies, inaccuracies, and duplication. Security and accessibility issues are also often a concern. Data quality standards must be established to ensure accuracy, consistency of reporting data, terminology used, and completeness and to accommodate the differences inherent among various data sets. Means of data exchange among these disparate data sources must also be established to assure usability, accuracy, and security of the data. Issues associated with the administration of the database should be addressed at the beginning of the project to ensure adequate mechanisms and resources are available for administrative tasks following development of the database. Data ownership is a term used to describe both the possession of and responsibility for infor- mation. Several issues that must be considered when making decisions regarding data ownership include paradigm of ownership, data hoarding, data ownership policies, balance of obligations, and technology. Paradigm of ownership refers to the complexity of ownership issues by identifying the range of possible examples used to claim data ownership. There are several parties that may lay claim to ownership of data, such as the creator, the consumer, the compiler, the funder, or the purchaser/licenser. Data ownership policies should be set in place in order to preserve the integrity of the data and should be used in many scenarios, including agreements between an academic institution and industry (public/private sector), agreements between an academic institution and researcher staff, collaboration between research colleagues, and agreements between authors and journals (Office of Research Integrity, 2010). The USDOT’s ITS Joint Program Office routinely develops a report, Intelligent Transportation Systems Benefits, Costs, Deployment, and Lessons Learned, that presents information on deployed ITS with the goal of supporting informed decision making with regards to the deployment of ITS. One of the key lessons learned from a policy and planning perspective from the most recent report update (2008) is to develop a formal data sharing policy for ITS data. Items to be included in a data sharing policy may include but certainly not be limited to the following (USDOT |RITA, 2008): • Type of data to be shared; • Fees or costs borne by the private sector associated with access or dissemination of the shared data; • Sharing of third-party (privately generated) data with the airport and protection of its value; • Control over video images; • Requirements that third-party entities use the airport ITS data to provide information to travelers; • Acknowledgment of the airport as the source of the data; • Technical requirements for access (e.g., communication system); • Allowable advertising; • In-kind services provided by third-party entities who obtain data from the airport;

ItS and Strategies to Meet airport traveler Information Needs 69 • Training on use of the data; • Intellectual property rights; • Standardization of data format; • Monitoring usage of traveler information services; • Liability for data quality and availability; and • Sharing of third-party entity revenue with airport in exchange for data. Typically, data and/or resource sharing agreements between agencies are in the form of a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA). A MOA describes the specific roles and responsibilities of each party involved in order for their mutual goals to be accomplished. Oftentimes, the resources shared and/or data exchanged between agencies involve benefits that may not be equal to both parties. However, since valuable benefits are provided to the end user of the system, agencies may accept that the benefits they gain are not equal to the partnering agency. The following list provides examples of the type of information that may be included in an MOA for data and resources shared between agencies. The list is neither comprehensive nor all-encompassing of the items to be included in the legal agreement but simply serves to provide a starting point from which airports can then have a MOA developed specific to their situation. • C2C connectivity—A C2C network typically facilitates data sharing between agencies. The agencies will be connected via some sort of communications infrastructure (e.g., fiber optic cable, wireless communications, leased lines, etc.). In this section of the MOA, it should be stated that each agency is responsible for operating the equipment in its ownership in order to maintain the C2C connection. C2C connectivity may require additional communications equipment in the control center of each agency, so adequate room should be available in the respective equipment rooms to accommodate the necessary equipment. • ITS field equipment (e.g., DMS, CCTV cameras)—Video images may be shared between agencies for the purpose of incident management or providing traveler information. The owning agency may allow another agency that is party to the MOA to have operational control of the CCTV cameras (i.e., use the pan, tilt, and zoom capabilities). The own- ing agency will maintain an override capability should their needs necessitate operational control. Similarly, agencies may agree to share DMS for the purpose of displaying messages for traffic conditions, incident information, and safety information that may be beneficial to both parties. The owning agency should provide an approved message library so that only approved messages are displayed on the signs. Priority levels may be assigned to messages so it is clear which agency should be allowed to post a message if both wish to post on the same sign. • ITS resources—The MOA should document the specific details related to the equipment to be shared (i.e., type, number, and location). • Compensation—Since the premise of the agreement is for the sharing of data and/or resources, both parties typically agree that neither will charge the other for the use of the resources/data contained in the agreement. • Additional sections in the MOA may include, but shall not be limited to, revocation, guarantees, maintenance and limitation of damages, sovereign immunity, term and termination, assignment, copyright, third-party beneficiary, and liability. Benefits of ITS Applications The deployment of many ITS applications has proven to provide measurable benefits in terms of congestion reduction, increases in transit ridership, safety, and economic productivity. However, there are a number of ITS applications whose benefits are difficult to measure quantitatively; namely, the effectiveness of delivering traveler information.

70 Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent transportation Systems elements to Improve airport traveler access Information The value that an airport will receive by investing in the deployment of ITS technologies for the purpose of meeting airport travelers’ information needs, reducing their stress associated with getting to and from the airport in a timely manner, and ultimately reaching their gate more efficiently/faster is not something that can be easily measured. Generally speaking, the only way to measure customer satisfaction is through surveys. As a starting point, an effective traveler information system should have the following char- acteristics (Mitretek Systems and TransCore, 1998): • Provide information that is timely, accurate, reliable, relevant to making travel decisions, and marketable; • Provide information for the entire region. This requires the participation of public agencies across jurisdictional boundaries; • Operate with efficient, well-trained staffs; • Be integrated easily with other ITS—emergency management, freeway management, traffic signal control, and transit management—to obtain adequate traveler information; • Be easy to use and easy to access by the traveling public; • Be easy to maintain (with in-house or contract resources) and not require excessive costs and time to operate. Ideally, traveler information components need to be interoperable between different manufacturers and vendors. This reduces maintenance costs and provides added flexibility in repairing equipment faults and malfunctions, finding spare parts, and developing system upgrade paths; and • Provide services that are affordable to end users. The USDOT’s ITS Joint Program Office develops a report, Intelligent Transportation Systems Benefits, Costs, Deployment, and Lessons Learned, that presents information on deployed ITS with the goal of supporting informed decision making with regards to the deployment of ITS. The ITS technologies for disseminating traveler information included in the report are a critical component of the USDOT’s Congestion Initiative, as outlined in the May 2006 document National Strategy to Reduce Congestion on America’s Transportation Network. The initiative stresses the importance of implementing operational and technological improvements to traveler information in order to reduce congestion. Based on a 6-year long survey of the 78 largest metropolitan areas in the United States, the most popular medium for distributing traveler information is the internet with email as the second most popular. Benefits of traveler information systems have been identified to include the following (USDOT |RITA, 2008): • Drivers who use route-specific travel time information as opposed to area-wide traffic advisories can improve on-time performance by 5 to 13 percent; • Travel information services are in very high demand during severe weather events, emergencies, or other special events; • Customer satisfaction with regional 511 telephone system deployments range from 68 to 92 percent; and • Network traffic distribution is enhanced, which improves effective capacity and reduces fuel consumption and emissions. Travel Time Reliability The goal of providing travelers with advanced information either pre-trip or en route is to improve travel time reliability (i.e., reduce the variation in travel times on an hour-to-hour or day-to-day basis). Traffic congestion caused by weather events, incidents, or other factors greatly affect delay that travelers incur, but how can travelers estimate the impacts of such delays, especially the unexpected ones? The FHWA has sponsored extensive research that indicates that commuters plan their trip based on the worst travel days, not the average day.

ItS and Strategies to Meet airport traveler Information Needs 71 As an example, a commuter route in Seattle, Washington, has a travel time of 12 minutes with no congestion on the route, a travel time of 18 minutes on a typical weekday, and a travel time of about 25 minutes with a combination of weather and incident delays. If commuters were to plan their routes based on the average travel time, they would be early half the time and late half the time (Cambridge Systematics, 2005). The importance of having accurate travel time estimates is even more pronounced when travelers have extremely time-sensitive trips (e.g., to catch a flight). The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) is leading the effort of collecting and using archived travel time data to provide travel time reliability information to travelers. The WSDOT website provides travelers with a “95% Reliable Travel Times Commute Calculator.” The calculator provides travelers with 95th percentile travel times for user-selected routes, which means that the times should be reliable 95 percent of the time. While providing 95 percent reliability sounds good, this often results in over-estimation of travel time, because the user is essentially receiving travel time data for the “worst case” travel time scenario. Further research is needed to determine an airport traveler’s threshold for delay. Sustainability Airport sustainability, as with any sustainable practice of the global transportation system, encompasses a variety of applications ranging from planning and design to buildings and operating facilities. According to an FAA Memorandum dated May 27, 2010, there are three core principles: • Protecting the environment; • Maintaining high and stable levels of economic growth; and • Social progress that recognizes all stakeholders’ needs. In 2009 the FAA established a Pilot Sustainability Planning Program. Requirements of the program include the development of either a stand-alone Sustainable Management Plan or incorporation of sustainability initiatives into the Airport Master Plan. The goal of the program is to help the FAA develop guidance in the area of sustainability. ACRP Synthesis of Airport Practice 10: Airport Sustainability Practices contains useful information to airports with regards to sustainable initiatives that will meet the needs of all stakeholders, including passengers, employees, airlines, and residents of neighboring areas. In the area of air quality, there are increasingly stringent federal regulations for industrial air pollution sources, including vehicular emissions. More specifically, more than 25 percent of US commercial airports are located in air quality non-attainment areas. To meet federal regulations, airports must show that their growth conforms to air quality initiatives for the region and that programs will be established to offset increases in air pollution (Berry, Gillhespy, & Rogers, 2008). The deployment of ITS technologies and applications are a viable and proven approach to reduce vehicular congestion and associated emissions and should be included in an airport’s sustainability master planning. Examples of applications that should be included are cell phone lots, advanced parking management systems, and other methods of providing advanced traveler information such as roadway DMSs, which in the end will result in less congestion on airport roadways and parking garages and will have a significant impact on reduction of airport emissions. Benefits Estimation For an airport to justify an investment in ITS technologies, the benefits associated with the implementation should be quantifiable. The FAA Investment Planning and Analysis Office

72 Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent transportation Systems elements to Improve airport traveler access Information provides documentation on estimating benefits to support FAA investment decisions in FAA Guidelines for Benefits Estimation. The FAA benefits estimation has the following guiding principles (FAA, 2010b): 1. There must be a documentable cause and effect (temporal) relationship between the investment and the benefits. 2. Economic benefits must be achievable in monetary terms by specific entities. 3. The implementation must be checked for potential “negative benefits” (costs, performance degradation, etc.) that might result from the investment. For example, a project that increases terminal capacity also may have the potential of increasing the likelihood of a collision, particularly if it involves some technical risk. 4. Benefits involving integration between multiple programs must be considered. 5. Any impact caused by dependency on other programs must be considered. 6. The documentation should include a complete description of the benefit estimation method- ologies, the computations, and the data used. 7. Documentation, data bases, and models should be retained for future use. Electronic versions should be archived so they don’t disappear with departing staff or contractors. 8. Plans for post-implementation assessment of the actual benefits should be included in the assessment and should be implemented after the project is operational. Table 20 provides a list of potential benefits that can be attributed to the ITS application areas of advanced traveler information, cell phone lots, and advanced parking management systems. Associated performance measures are also provided to guide the airport in deter- mining how each benefit may be quantified. As part of an ITS implementation, the airport should ensure that the performance of the “before” situation is well documented. For example, before a cell phone lot is constructed, the airport should perform traffic volume counts on airport circulation roadways in order to document the reduced number of vehicles circling during peak passenger pick-up times. These counts are performed by temporarily installing a tube counter across the roadway, which counts each vehicle that passes a point within a 24-hour period. The typical data collection cost for a 24-hour tube count is $500–600 per count location. It will be more difficult to quantify the benefits accrued through greater customer satisfaction. These benefits are generally documented through customer satisfaction surveys or in the reduced number and/or type of complaints that the airport is receiving. More information on the benefits and costs of ITS implementations can be found on the USDOT’s ITS Joint Program Office website: http://www.benefitcost.its.dot.gov/its/itsbcllwebpage. nsf/krhomepage.

ItS and Strategies to Meet airport traveler Information Needs 73 ITS Application Area Benefit Performance Measures Advanced Traveler Information Increase transportation system efficiency and capacity Traffic flows/volumes Volume-to-capacity ratio Vehicle hours of delay Queue lengths Average vehicle occupancy Use of transit and high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) modes Intermodal transfer time Infrastructure operating costs Vehicle operating costs Enhance mobility Number of trips taken Individual travel time Travel time variability Travel cost Vehicle miles traveled Exposure to crashes and incidents Reduce energy consumption and environmental costs Emissions Fuel consumption Vehicle fuel efficiency Improve safety Number of crashes Number of incidents Number of injuries/fatalities Incident response times Medical/insurance costs Increase economic productivity Travel time savings Operating cost savings Manpower savings Vehicle maintenance/depreciation Information-gathering costs Integration of transportation systems Cell Phone Lot Increase transportation system efficiency and capacity Traffic flows/volumes Volume-to-capacity ratio Vehicle hours of delay Queue lengths Infrastructure operating costs Vehicle operating costs Reduce energy consumption and environmental costs Emissions Fuel consumption Improve safety Number of illegally parked vehicles Congestion at curbside Improve customer service Fuel consumption Customer anxiety/stress Advanced Parking Management System Reduce circulation in lots and garages Traffic flows/volumes Infrastructure operating costs Vehicle operating costs Reduce energy consumption and environmental costs Emissions Fuel consumption Increase space occupancy and revenue Vacancy rate Revenue Improve customer service Average time to find parking spot Customer frustration/stress Source: Kristof, Lowry, & Rutherford (2005) Table 20. ITS benefits and performance measures.

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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 70: Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information provides descriptions, component details, and examples of how airport ground access information can be disseminated using various intelligent transportation systems (ITS) technologies.

The guidebook contains tables to help airport operators determine the applicability of certain ITS strategies based on airport operational needs and airport size.

The printed version of the report includes an interactive CD-ROM designed to help explore and evaluate the information needs of various airport traveler market segments and to identify ITS technologies that best meet the needs of the airport user.

The CD-ROM also contains a decision support tool that allows users to identify appropriate methods of delivering airport traveler information based on the airport traveler market segment.

The CD-ROM is also available for download from TRB’s website as an ISO image. Links to the ISO image and instructions for burning a CD-ROM from an ISO image are provided below.

Help on Burning an .ISO CD-ROM Image

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(Warning: This is a large file and may take some time to download using a high-speed connection.)

CD-ROM Disclaimer - This software is offered as is, without warranty or promise of support of any kind either expressed or implied. Under no circumstance will the National Academy of Sciences or the Transportation Research Board (collectively "TRB") be liable for any loss or damage caused by the installation or operation of this product. TRB makes no representation or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, in fact or in law, including without limitation, the warranty of merchantability or the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, and shall not in any case be liable for any consequential or special damages.

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