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Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information (2012)

Chapter: Chapter 5 - Matching Airport Traveler Information to ITS Strategies

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Page 74
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Matching Airport Traveler Information to ITS Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Matching Airport Traveler Information to ITS Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Matching Airport Traveler Information to ITS Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Matching Airport Traveler Information to ITS Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Matching Airport Traveler Information to ITS Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Matching Airport Traveler Information to ITS Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Matching Airport Traveler Information to ITS Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
×
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Page 81
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Matching Airport Traveler Information to ITS Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
×
Page 81
Page 82
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Matching Airport Traveler Information to ITS Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Page 83
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Matching Airport Traveler Information to ITS Strategies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Page 83

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

74 Airport Functional Areas and Associated Needs Traveler information as well as airport operational needs vary based on the different functional areas of the airport. The ground access travel environment for an airport traveler can be broken down into the following functional areas: • Access roadways, • Circulation roadways, • Terminal curbside, • Parking facilities, • Cell phone lot, • Rental car facilities, and • Transit stations. Table 21 identifies operational and traveler information needs that may be associated with the different functional areas of the airport. The identified needs are mapped to appropriate ITS information dissemination strategies in the next section of this guidebook. Matching Airport Needs with ITS Strategies This section of the guidebook provides information in a tabular format that will allow airport operators to identify appropriate information dissemination methods for each grouping of airport operational and traveler information needs. Tables 22 through 27 match information dissemination methods with traveler information needs and also stratify the general applicability of a particular method by airport size. It should be understood by the airport operator that certain strategies may be applicable to other airport sizes although a checkmark is not placed in the box. For example, a small airport in a heavily congested urban area may have substantially different operational and traveler information needs than a small airport in a sparsely populated area. The applicability of an ITS strategy to a particular airport size is based on general characteristics of the size category. Although most of the identified information dissemination methods are applicable for implementation on the airport proper, there are some methods that may be supplemented by the efforts of other agencies or third-party developers. When this is the case, a checkmark was placed in the “Non-Airport Provider” column of the table. For example, dynamic message signs may be used by state or municipal transportation agencies for the purpose of displaying travel, congestion, and roadway conditions on the access routes leading to the airport. And, they may similarly be used on airport circulation roadways for the purpose of displaying roadway conditions, construction information, parking information, and others. C h a p t e r 5 Matching Airport Traveler Information to ITS Strategies

Airport Functional Area Operational Needs Traveler Information Needs Access Roadways - Efficient and reliable routes to the airport - Roadway signage to airport from all major interstates and roadways - Increase operational efficiency - Viable alternative routes to airport in case of accidents, construction, or congestion - Maximize capacity of existing roadway - Data sharing with local transportation agencies - Reduce energy consumption - Decrease reliance on vehicular travel mode - Increase overall customer satisfaction - Location of the airport - Turn-by-turn directions to/from the airport - Real-time traffic conditions/delay/ travel times - Roadway weather conditions - Alternative route options - Alternative mode options Circulation Roadways - Reduce driver confusion and circulation - Minimize congestion at major decision points - Maximize capacity of existing roadway - Reduce congestion during peak times - Reduce energy consumption - Increase overall customer satisfaction - Location of airport destinations (e.g., passenger pick-up, cell phone lot, rental car facilities, etc.) - Terminal/airline location information - Advance warning of decision points - Parking-related information (e.g., products, lot/garage status— open/full, space availability, rates, etc.) Terminal Curbside - Minimize congestion during peak times - Increase efficiency of through movement - Maximize capacity of existing roadway - Minimize dwell times for vehicles waiting for arriving passengers - Multiple modes sharing the same area - Interaction between pedestrians and vehicles - Increase overall customer satisfaction - Location of passenger pick-up, drop- off, baggage claim - Terminal/airline information - Flight arrival status Parking Facilities - Reduce operating costs - Decrease circulation in lot/garage - Decrease underutilization of spaces - Ability to adjust parking rates on temporary basis - Ability to disseminate parking lot status to travelers - Reduce occurrence of illegally parked vehicles - Efficient shuttle service to/from terminal - Reduce customer frustration - Reduce customer delay - Provide adequate payment options and efficient processing - Maximize customer safety - Collect data - Increase overall customer satisfaction - Parking product options (e.g., short term, long term, economy, satellite, etc.) - Proximity of parking products to terminal - Pricing/payment information - Parking availability by product - Location of available parking spaces - Distance of parking facility to terminal - Location of terminal/shuttle stops - Shuttle schedules - Real-time arrival information for shuttle - Location of parked car (at trip conclusion) Cell Phone Lot - Decrease circulation on airport roadways - Reduce occurrence of illegally parked vehicles - Reduce customer frustration - Maximize customer safety - Increase overall customer satisfaction - Location of the cell phone lot - Flight arrival status with terminal/gate information - Baggage claim location/wait time(Refer to Table 25 for ITS technologies to meet the listed needs) (Refer to Table 24 for ITS technologies to meet the listed needs) (Refer to Table 23 for ITS technologies to meet the listed needs) (Refer to Table 22 for ITS technologies to meet the listed needs) (Refer to Table 22 for ITS technologies to meet the listed needs) Table 21. Airport functional areas and associated needs table. (continued on next page)

76 Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent transportation Systems elements to Improve airport traveler access Information Making a Business Case for ITS Projects Although the FAA business case development procedure is similar in many ways to the systems engineering project development process recommended by the FHWA for the deployment of all ITS projects, it is mentioned in this guidebook because many airport operators may be familiar with it and can compare its procedures with the systems engineering process described in Chapter 6. The FAA has documented a business case development rationale and procedure, which is available on its website in a document titled Business Case Analysis Guidelines, January 6, 2010. This document contains information on developing cost, benefit, risk, schedule, and economic analyses for a proposed project. The business case analysis is used to justify the resources and capital investment necessary to deploy a certain project, which is intended to ensure that the FAA receives the maximum value for the resources expended. The level of analysis required for the business case is based on FAA Acquisition Category (ACAT) levels. The more complex and costly a project is, the more detailed and complex analysis it will require. Essentially, the business case should be developed at a level that is commensurate with the scope of the proposed project and the risks involved. Most, if not all, deployments of the ITS strategies included in this guidebook would be considered small in scope, falling into ACAT level 5, and it is possible that the business case requirement would be waived by the FAA Acquisition Director. Airports should discuss with their FAA representatives whether the application of the business case analysis is necessary for a particular ITS project. Although a business case may not necessarily be required for all ITS deployments, a discussion of the business case requirements and a sample business case for an APMS is provided to Airport Functional Area Operational Needs Traveler Information Needs Rental Car Facilities - Reduce operating costs - Efficient shuttle service to/from terminal - Reduce congestion on airport roads - Increase customer satisfaction - Location of rental car shuttle or vehicle pick-up/drop-off area - Shuttle schedules - Real-time arrival information for shuttle - Location of vehicle drop-off areas - Time/distance of rental car facility to terminal Transit Stations (Refer to Table 27 for ITS technologies to meet the listed needs) (Refer to Table 26 for ITS technologies to meet the listed needs) - Increase transit usage - Improve schedule reliability - Minimize long walking distances - Minimize difficulty of vertical transitions - Provide adequate parking spaces (if park-and-ride services offered) - Maximize safety and security - Reduce delays at transfer points - Increase customer satisfaction - Location of transit station/boarding location - Fare/payment information - Transit destinations and departure times - Real-time arrival information - Next stop identification on vehicle - Elevator locations - Park-and-ride lot location and location of parking spaces Table 21. (Continued). (text continued on page 79)

Matching airport traveler Information to ItS Strategies 77 Airport Operational Need Grouping 1—Airport Access/Circulation Roadways • Increase operational efficiency/maximize capacity of access and circulation roadways • Reduce energy consumption • Reduce driver anxiety and uncertainty • Increase customer satisfaction • Reduce occurrence of illega lly parked vehicles • Reduce number of vehicles waiting at curbside for arriving passengers Maximize customer safety Information Dissemination Method Traveler Information Needs Applicability by FAA Category Designation Non- Airport Provider Large Medium Small Non- Hub Dynamic message signs - Real-time traffic conditions, delay, travel times, etc. - Roadway weather conditions - Location of airport destinations - Parking availability/pricing - Baggage claim status/wait time - Flight arrival status Kiosks - Real-time traffic conditions, delay, travel times, etc. - Roadway weather conditions Airport website - Location of the airport - Turn-by-turn directions to/from the airport - Real-time traffic conditions, delay, travel times, etc. - Roadway weather conditions - Location of airport destinations - Parking availability/pricing - Terminal/airline location information - Flight/gate status - Security wait time Traffic-monitoring websites - Real-time traffic conditions, delay, travel times, etc. - Roadway weather conditions - Alternative route options - Alternative mode options Email/text alerts - Real-time traffic conditions, delay, travel times, etc. - Parking availability - Flight/gate status - Security wait time Radio/TV - Real-time traffic conditions, delay, travel times, etc. - Roadway weather conditions - Alternative route options - Alternative mode options 511 systems - Real-time traffic conditions, delay, travel times, etc. - Roadway weather conditions - Alternative route options - Alternative mode options - Airport parking availability/pricing • Table 22. Airport Need Grouping 1—Airport access/circulation roadways.

Airport Need Grouping 3—Parking Facilities • Decrease underutilization of parking spaces • Decrease circulation in parking facilities • Disseminate parking facility status/rates • Reduce energy consumption • Reduce driver anxiety, uncertainty, and delay • Increase customer satisfaction • Reduce operating costs • Maximize customer safety • Collect data Information Dissemination Method Traveler Information Needs Applicability by FAA Category Designation Non- Airport Provider Large Medium Small Non- Hub Airport website - Parking product options (e.g., short term, long term, economy, etc.) - Location of parking products - Distance to terminal - Parking product status (e.g., open, full) - Rates ($/hour, $/day) Dynamic message signs - Parking product status (e.g., open, full) - Parking availability by product - Location of available spaces - Rates ($/hour, $/day) - Shuttle stops/real-time shuttle arrival info - Location of parked car - Real-time traffic conditions, delay, travel times, etc. - Roadway weather conditions Airport MUFID • In parking facility - Terminal/airline location information - Flight/gate status Kiosks - Location of parked vehicle - Real-time traffic conditions, delay, travel times, etc. - Roadway weather conditions 511 systems - Real-time traffic conditions, delay, travel times, etc. - Roadway weather conditions - Alternative route options - Alternative mode options Table 24. Airport Need Grouping 3—Parking facilities. Airport Need Grouping 2—Terminal Curbside • Minimize congestion during peak times • Increase efficiency of through movement • Maximize capacity of existing roadway • Minimize dwell times for vehicles waiting for arriving passengers • Multiple modes sharing the same area • Interaction between pedestrians and vehicles • Increase overall customer satisfaction Information Dissemination Method Traveler Information Needs Applicability by FAA Category Designation Non- Airport Provider Large Medium Small Non- Hub Airport website - Location of passenger pick-up, drop-off baggage claim - Terminal/airline information - Flight/gate status Dynamic message signs - Flight arrival status - Baggage claim wait time Airport MUFID - Terminal/airline location information - Flight/gate status Table 23. Airport Need Grouping 2—Terminal curbside.

Matching airport traveler Information to ItS Strategies 79 Airport Need Grouping 4—Cell Phone Lot • Decrease circulation on airport roadways • Reduce occurrence of illegally parked vehicles • Reduce customer frustration • Maximize customer safety • Increase overall customer satisfaction Information Dissemination Method Traveler Information Needs Applicability by FAA Category Designation Non- Airport Provider Large Medium Small Non- Hub Airport website - Location of the cell phone lot - Maximum allowable wait time in lot - Distance to terminal Airport MUFID - Flight arrival status with terminal/gate information - Baggage claim location/wait time Table 25. Airport Need Grouping 4—Cell phone lot. Airport Need Grouping 5—Rental Car Facilities • Increase customer satisfaction • Reduce driver anxiety, uncertainty, and delay • Efficient shuttle service to/from terminal Information Dissemination Method Traveler Information Needs Applicability by FAA Category Designation Non- Airport Provider Large Medium Small Non- Hub Airport website - Distance to terminal - Terminal/airline location information - Flight/gate status - Terminal/gate info - Real-time traffic conditions on regional roadway network - Roadway weather conditions Dynamic message signs • At rental car facility - Wait time for shuttle Airport MUFID • At rental car facility • On-board shuttle bus - Terminal/airline location information - Flight/gate status Kiosks • At rental car facility - Real-time traffic conditions, delay, travel times, etc. - Roadway weather conditions Table 26. Airport Need Grouping 5—Rental car facilities. demonstrate how such an analysis may be developed. Generally speaking, the business case should document all of the relevant facts of a project and include the following information: • Why is the project needed (issues and opportunities)? • What is the recommended solution(s)? • What are the risks, advantages, and disadvantages of the existing and proposed alternatives? • What will happen if the effort is not undertaken (the “do nothing” scenario)? • When will the solution be deployed? • How does the solution address the issues or opportunities (benefits)? • How much money, people, and time will be needed to deliver the solution and realize the benefits?

80 Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent transportation Systems elements to Improve airport traveler access Information Airport Need Grouping 6—Transit Stations • Link the airport with the region it serves • Increase transit usage • Improve schedule reliability • Minimize walking distances • Minimize difficulty of vertical transitions • Provide adequate parking spaces (if park-and- ride services offered) • Maximize safety and security • Reduce delays at transfer points • Increase customer satisfaction Information Dissemination Method Traveler Information Needs Applicability by FAA Category Designation Large Medium Small Non- Hub Airport website - Real-time traffic conditions on regional roadway network - Roadway weather conditions - Travel mode options - Location of transit station/boarding location - Location of park-and-ride lot and available parking spaces - Distance from transit station to airport terminal - Fare/payment information - Transit destinations and departure times Dynamic message signs • On-board transit vehicle • At transit stations - Next stop identification on vehicle - Real-time arrival information - Wait time for shuttle (if needed to access airport terminal) Airport MUFID • On-board transit vehicle • At transit stations - Terminal/airline location information - Flight/gate status Kiosks - Fare/payment information - Transit destinations and departure times Non- Airport Provider Table 27. Airport Need Grouping 6—Transit stations. Table 28 provides an example of the section headings and type of information that may be included in a business case analysis for the deployment of an APMS at an airport. Note that, depending on airport-specific conditions, more detail may be warranted in some sections than is provided in Table 28.

Matching airport traveler Information to ItS Strategies 81 Table 28. Sample business case for advanced parking management system. Business Case Section Sample Analysis Executive Summary Executive-level staff may read only the Executive Summary. It is important to clearly demonstrate the existing problem, the benefits that will be achieved, and the estimated cost for the project. This proposed investment is for an advanced parking management system (APMS) for Sample Airport located in Any City, USA. These systems have been proven to increase the space utilization and efficiency of the parking facility, reduce congestion and vehicle emissions, improve customer satisfaction, and increase revenue. In an increasingly tech-savvy world, technology is and should be available as a tool for the airport traveler’s ground access trip. In addition to deployment of the traditional components of an APMS (e.g., vehicular sensors, dynamic message signs, etc.), functionality to “push” the real-time status and availability of the parking facilities to travelers via email alert, text message, and posts to airport-managed social media feeds will also be implemented. This information will be updated every 10 minutes during off- peak parking periods and every minute during peak periods. The system will initially be implemented in the Long Term Parking Garage (9,500 spaces) which will be accomplished in a 1-year period, with 6 months of design and 6 months of construction implementation. The total cost is estimated to be $4,705,000. Problem Statement Since parking is one of the largest revenue streams for the airport, the ease of parking facility use, availability of parking spaces, efficient space utilization, and ultimately customer satisfaction is of utmost importance. Problems with the current situation include: - An increase in passenger volumes has directly translated into an increased demand for the fixed number of garage parking spaces; - Inefficient space utilization; - Varying demand for parking spaces depending on seasonal trends and other variations; - Customers spend an excessive amount of time searching for a space; - Illegally parked vehicles; - Excessive vehicular circulation in garage; - Customer frustration and anxiety; and - Increasing number of off-airport parking options as well as mobile applications that make locating and reserving a space easier for travelers. Assumptions/ Constraints/ Conditions The following constraints and/or conditions currently exist at the airport: - Fixed number of garage parking spaces; - Limited available land on which to add additional parking capacity; - No communications infrastructure in existing garage, however a communications trunk line runs close to the garage; and - Need to implement NTCIP-compliant devices to ensure interoperability with future ITS devices. (continued on next page)

82 Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent transportation Systems elements to Improve airport traveler access Information Business Case Section Sample Analysis Current State Description “As Is” During peak periods of parking demand, travelers may spend an unnecessarily long amount of time searching for a parking space (some customer complaints have indicated they have searched for up to 8 minutes for a space). This leads to circulation and traffic congestion in parking facilities, increased vehicular emissions, increased potential for vehicular and pedestrian conflicts, and customer frustration and anxiety. Travelers are increasingly relying on updates obtained from mobile applications and websites in order to more efficiently use transportation systems (i.e., transit, freeway/surface street, parking, etc.). The dissemination of real-time parking availability information by third-party providers is becoming more prevalent, and if airports do not provide this same level of customer service, then customers may be lost to off-airport parking facilities. If a traveler knows that he can quickly and efficiently access and use an off-airport facility and even reserve a space in advance but is unsure of the availability of on-airport parking, he may choose to use the option with the least number of uncertainties (i.e., the off-airport parking option). Savvy travelers know where to look in advance for the most economical, convenient, and reliable parking facility. The airport will continue to lose customers to off-airport facilities unless they upgrade the services that they provide to travelers. Future State Description “To Be” Travelers sign up to receive real-time parking status (i.e., open/full and/or number of available spaces) information in advance on the airport website or they download the mobile application. Parking status updates are pushed to travelers on a routine basis. Alternatively, travelers may access real-time parking status updates on the airport- managed social media feed pre-trip or en route to the airport. Armed with the proper information, travelers are able to decide where to park in advance of arriving on the airport property, thus reducing unnecessary circulation on airport roadways and in parking facilities. At the entrance to the parking facility, travelers read a dynamic message sign, which tells them which levels of the parking facility are open; once they arrive on the appropriate level, a series of dynamic message signs lead them to the aisle with available spaces. The driver then looks down the aisle and sees either a red or a green indication above each parking space. He locates a green indication, which indicates a vacant space, parks the car, and proceeds to the airport terminal for check-in. Alternatives Analysis/Metrics The primary alternative is to increase the capacity of the existing garage facility. The typical construction cost per garage parking space ranges from $14,000 to $20,000. So, a new garage or expansion that contains 1,000 spaces will cost somewhere between $14 million and $20 million. However, simply increasing the number of parking spaces will not solve the problem with vehicles unnecessarily circulating the facilities to find a vacant space. Furthermore, the spaces will not be utilized in a more efficient manner just because there are more of them. Life Cycle Cost Life cycle costing is important since the cost of operations and maintenance will vary through the life of the implementation. The major cost elements in the APMS are: - Ultrasonic sensors above each parking space; - Integration and operating software; - Dynamic signage; - Electronic payment systems; and - Electrical and communications service points. Equipment Cost = $3,325,000. Design and Engineering = $500,000. Construction Administration Services = $500,000. Annual O&M Cost = $380,000. Table 28. (Continued).

Matching airport traveler Information to ItS Strategies 83 Business Case Section Sample Analysis Benefits (quantitative/ qualitative) Often with traveler information it is difficult to quantify benefits because no supporting historical data or analysis has been performed. Additionally, there may be cases where the measure of the net benefits to the provider may be less than the net benefits to the public. Efficient access to the airport and its facilities is an important service that should be provided to travelers. APMS will reduce landside delay for travelers, meeter/greeters, and others using the airport parking facility. The following benefits were achieved at O.R. Tambo International Airport in South Africa after implementing an APMS: - Less time spent searching for a parking space (average time reduced from 8 to 2.5 minutes); - Reduced frustration and anxiety about missing a flight; - Lower vehicular emissions (70 percent reduction); - Improved safety due to fewer vehicles circulating parking facilities, resulting in fewer vehicular-pedestrian conflicts; - Lower operating costs, due to fewer employees monitoring the status of the parking facilities; - Increased space occupancy and associated increase in revenue—return on investment in 2 years due to 5-6 percent increase in revenue; - Fewer illegally parked vehicles; and - Improved user efficiency—fewer user delays. Schedule Design—6 months Construction—6 months Risk and Sensitivity There are a number of minor risks associated with this proposed project. They include the following: - Inability to meet design and construction schedule; - Cost overruns; - Communication failures; - System malfunctions; - Non-standard maintenance risk, including DMS and sensor maintenance; and - Ongoing operations responsibility for transmitting info to customers—may be automated process but staff will be required to oversee and monitor as well as solve customer service-related issues. Budget Impact The project requires an investment of $4,705,000. This will be funded through the existing airport capital budget. Table 28. (Continued).

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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 70: Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information provides descriptions, component details, and examples of how airport ground access information can be disseminated using various intelligent transportation systems (ITS) technologies.

The guidebook contains tables to help airport operators determine the applicability of certain ITS strategies based on airport operational needs and airport size.

The printed version of the report includes an interactive CD-ROM designed to help explore and evaluate the information needs of various airport traveler market segments and to identify ITS technologies that best meet the needs of the airport user.

The CD-ROM also contains a decision support tool that allows users to identify appropriate methods of delivering airport traveler information based on the airport traveler market segment.

The CD-ROM is also available for download from TRB’s website as an ISO image. Links to the ISO image and instructions for burning a CD-ROM from an ISO image are provided below.

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