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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Framework for Implementation." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Framework for Implementation." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Framework for Implementation." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Framework for Implementation." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Framework for Implementation." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Framework for Implementation." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Framework for Implementation." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Framework for Implementation." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Framework for Implementation." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Framework for Implementation." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Framework for Implementation." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Framework for Implementation." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Framework for Implementation." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Framework for Implementation." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Framework for Implementation." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Framework for Implementation." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Framework for Implementation." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Framework for Implementation." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22731.
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84 This chapter provides a basic framework for the implementation of ITS strategies and associated technologies by airports for airport ground access travelers. This framework is the link between the planning-level tasks such as the identification of ITS technologies that match the airport and user needs and the design tasks, which include the identification of project-specific details. The following key topics involved in project planning, design, and implementation are addressed in this chapter: • Systems engineering approach, • Identification of airport traveler information stakeholders, • Needs assessment and problem identification, • Incorporation of ITS into the Airport Master Plan, • System requirements, • Funding alternatives, • Procurement method, • Project phasing plan, • Integration planning, • Configuration management, • Design plans and specifications, and • Deployment and integration. Define Systems Engineering Approach Although ITS projects come in all sizes and have varying levels of complexity, they all use technology and frequently include the exchange of information, either within a system or between systems. Typically, the goals of ITS project managers include (1) meeting the user’s needs and (2) staying within the estimated cost and schedule. The systems engineering process focuses on defining customer needs and required functionality early in the project development cycle and validates that those needs have been met through the design, implementation, testing, and operations and maintenance phases of the project life cycle. Key systems engineering principles are: 1. Reach consensus with stakeholders up front on what the project should accomplish and how success will be measured. 2. Engage stakeholders in a systematic way through all stages of the project. 3. Clearly define the problem before implementing the solution. 4. Delay technology choices due to the rapid pace of technological innovation. 5. Manage the complexity of large systems by breaking them down into manageable subsystems. 6. Manage changes so that every change and its relationship to other items is tracked (this is commonly referred to as traceability). C h a p t e r 6 Framework for Implementation

Framework for Implementation 85 Many studies performed by the International Council of Systems Engineering have demonstrated that the use of the systems engineering process for project development helps ITS project managers reduce the risk of schedule and cost overruns and increase the likelihood that the implemented project will meet the user’s needs. Furthermore, the following associated benefits have been attributed to the use of systems engineering (FHWA and Caltrans, 2009): • Improved stakeholder participation, • More adaptable, resilient systems, • Verified functionality and fewer system defects, • Higher level of reuse from one project to the next, and • Better project documentation. The USDOT recognized the potential benefit of the systems engineering approach for ITS projects and thus requires a systems engineering analysis be performed for all ITS projects that use funds from the Highway Trust Fund, including the Mass Transit Account. This requirement was promulgated by the FHWA Federal Regulation 23 CFR 940.11. The Systems Engineering Guidebook for ITS (http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/cadiv/segb/index.htm) is an online tool that ITS practitioners can use to access information that will aid in applying systems engineering processes intelligently to ITS projects. The guidebook was co-sponsored by the FHWA and the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans). Identify Airport Traveler Information Stakeholders Stakeholders are those agencies or organizations who will own, operate, maintain, use, interface with, benefit from, or otherwise be affected by the project and/or implemented system. Although stakeholders will vary from airport to airport and based on the project to be implemented, Table 29 provides a list of generic ITS and airport stakeholders and should serve as a starting point for the identification of specific stakeholders relevant to an airport’s ground access transportation system. Stakeholders are typically identified and included in the project development process through outreach activities that may include meetings, workshops, interviews, and surveys. Coordination with regional transportation agencies and information service providers is important for successful ITS implementations because greater benefits can be achieved from a collaborative effort and information/data sharing. According to the Systems Engineering Guidebook for ITS, the following questions should be used as a checklist to ensure that the appropriate stakeholders have been represented and that ultimately the prioritized needs are clearly documented and agreed upon (FHWA and Caltrans, 2009). • Have all relevant stakeholders been represented? • Have all appropriate resources been utilized to elicit needs? • Have all collected needs and conclusions been reviewed with the stakeholders? • Is there an objective and justifiable approach for prioritizing needs? • Are conclusions and rationale well documented? • Have all stakeholders agreed that their needs are clearly and fairly represented? The larger the number of agencies or airport departments involved, the more risk there is for conflicting needs and incompatible operations. Consequently, the level of effort expended on needs assessment and prioritization typically grows as the number of agencies/departments involved increases. On the other hand, a single agency/department project based on well-defined and limited needs may not need extensive prioritizing of user needs.

86 Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent transportation Systems elements to Improve airport traveler access Information Stakeholder Group Description Passengers (Arriving, Departing) Airport passengers, both arriving and departing, have a variety of characteristics based on trip purpose, residential status, and mode choice that influence their need for reliable and timely ground access information. Meeters and Greeters Meeters and greeters are typically individuals who go to the airport for the purpose of assisting arriving or departing passengers with parking, check-in, baggage handling, or other requested services. Airport Employees Airport employees are users of the airport ground access system and support a myriad of services inside the airport. Some examples include airport operations and management, sky caps, baggage handlers, ticket agents, concession workers, security agents, pilots, and flight attendants, among others. Airport Management and Staff Airport management typically comprises the following major departments: operations (airside, landside, terminal), security, emergency services, IT, planning and design, maintenance, marketing, etc. Investors and Bondholders Airport investors or bondholders have an interest in the financial stability of the airport. Airport revenue bonds are used to construct or expand an airport. Typically, the bonds are secured by airport revenue generated from landing fees, fuel fees, and lease payments. Local, Regional, and Federal Government Surface transportation agencies such as the Federal Highway Administration, Federal Transit Administration, state department of transportation, metropolitan planning organization, and regional planning commission all play a role in ensuring that the access roadway network meets the needs of airport travelers. Public Transportation Service Providers Public transportation service providers range from municipal or regional transit agencies to demand-response operators that provide curb-to-curb transportation service to a variety of destinations, including airports. Transit agencies are generally independently managed non-profit public utilities that receive both federal and state funding. Private Transportation Service Providers Shared-ride vans, taxis, and limousines are privately owned, for-profit entities and all use the airport ground access transportation system. Information Service Providers Information service providers typically collect transportation data from a variety of sources, integrate the data, and disseminate the data through many types of distribution channels (i.e., internet, personal data assistants, kiosks, radio, and television). Parking Operators Airport parking operators may be either publicly or privately owned operations. Both on-airport and off-airport parking operators typically offer free shuttle service to the airport if the location of the parking facility is not within walking distance of the terminal. Rental Car Operators Rental car agencies typically have operations on airport property. If not located at the terminal in a consolidated facility, rental car operators offer shuttle service to and from the terminal. Public Safety Agencies Public safety agencies receive emergency calls and respond to incidents within their jurisdictional area. Emergency Management Agencies Emergency management agencies typically promote emergency preparedness and assist with the coordination of disaster response and recovery operations, during and after a disaster or major emergency. Local Television/Radio/Media Local media publicly broadcast information pertaining to travel conditions, incidents, special events, and other transportation- related news services to the traveling public. Table 29. Potential airport stakeholders for an ITS project.

Framework for Implementation 87 Assess Needs/Identify Problems To ensure that the deployed system will meet the needs of the project’s stakeholders, a needs assessment should be performed early on in the project development process and be re-visited throughout. The goal of involving all key stakeholders early on in the project planning is to elicit needs as well as constraints from a diverse range of sources. For example, a constraint may be that the type of DMS operating software currently in use can only control a certain model of DMS or a certain number of signs. It would be undesirable to run multiple operating software packages for control of a group of DMS that essentially serve the same purpose (i.e., provide parking status or overflow condition information). This constraint should be identified up front so that a plan can be developed for upgrading all signs to run off the same operating software. All airport departments with operational capabilities for dynamic signage should be involved in future projects to ensure that the additional signs are compatible with the existing sign control software and meet the needs of all users. During the needs assessment process is the time to document agreement on the direction of the project in order to prevent future contention among stakeholder groups (FHWA and Caltrans, 2009). Key questions to ask during the needs assessment phase: • What is wrong with the current situation? • What needs does the ITS project fill? • What existing infrastructure can be leveraged in the ITS project? • Have we clearly articulated the need? • Do all ITS project stakeholders have a common understanding of its goals and objectives? The needs and problems identified with the current situation should be thoroughly documented in the business case analysis. Refer to Table 28 for a sample business case analysis for an advanced parking management system. Incorporate ITS into the Airport Master Plan The long-range vision for ITS deployment for an airport should guide the investment in and implementation of ITS strategies over a multi-year planning horizon and should be based on user needs and operator goals for the system. The development of a long-range vision is important because it defines the purpose and expected outcomes for implementing ITS strategies and ensures continuity in the event of staff or leadership changes within the organization. In developing a long-range vision of ITS to incorporate into the Airport Master Plan, airports should consider implementing ITS technologies and strategies that will: • Align with airport sustainability initiatives for emissions reduction, • Improve management and operations of the ground access system, • Improve efficiency of airport personnel and equipment, • Improve airport traveler’s efficiency in accessing the airport, • Enhance airport traveler safety, • Be easily maintained and expanded, • Be interoperable with other ITS projects in the city/region/state, • Ensure a high level of customer service related to an airport traveler’s ground access needs, and • Ensure that airport traveler’s access to relevant ground access information remains timely and reliable for all modes of travel.

88 Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent transportation Systems elements to Improve airport traveler access Information Develop System Requirements System requirements must define the functions, performance, and environment of the system under development to a level that can then be built by a contractor. In addition to assisting in the identification and engagement of stakeholders, the airport project manager should also be involved in validating the requirements to ensure that the correct requirements are developed. The airport “owner” of the ITS should ensure that the following tasks are performed as part of the requirements development process: • Identify the specific functions that the ITS project will perform, • Define each function in detail, • Identify all system interfaces, • Define all system interfaces, • Assess ADA and accessibility requirements, • Define the required system performance in quantifiable terms, • Review all requirements with stakeholders, • Consider system availability requirements, • Assess reliability and maintainability requirements, • Identify which requirements must be validated with the customer(s), and • Consider the security needs of the system. Identify Funding Alternatives There are several federal programs that airports may consider when identifying a funding source for an ITS project. In addition to the sources described in this section, others may exist that should be evaluated, such as non-aviation agencies and programs, as well as private fund- ing and partnerships. Consideration should certainly not be limited to the sources listed in this guidebook. Airport Improvement Program The current Airport Improvement Program (AIP) was originally developed shortly after the end of World War II and known as the Federal-Aid Airport Program, authorized by the Fed- eral Airport Act of 1946. The goal of the program was to ensure that a system of airports was developed that would meet the nation’s needs. With the passage of the Airport and Airway Development Act of 1970, grants for airport planning and development were issued from two separate programs and funded through the Airport and Airway Trust Fund, which expired in September of 1981. The Airport and Airway Improvement Act of 1982 authorized the current program, which has most recently been amended with the passage of the Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act (Vision 100), which draws funds from the Airport and Airway Trust Fund (FAA, 2010a). The eligibility of airport ground access projects to be funded through the AIP often depends on the specifics of the project but guidance can be found in FAA Order 5100.38C, AIP Handbook, Paragraph 620.a. Additional guidance is included in the Federal Register Notice of February 10, 2004. It should be noted that longstanding FAA guidance on funding eligibility prohibits AIP (or Passenger Facility Charge) funding of ground access projects that are not located on airport property or on right-of-way owned or controlled by the airport or that are intended for the use of both airport and non-airport passengers, regardless of the benefit to the airport (FAA, 2004).

Framework for Implementation 89 Passenger Facility Charge Program The Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Program allows the collection of PFC fees up to $4.50 for every enplaned passenger at commercial airports controlled by public agencies. Airports use these fees to fund FAA-approved projects that enhance safety, security, or capacity; reduce noise; or increase air carrier competition (FAA, 2010c). Guidance included in the Federal Register Notice of February 10, 2004, on page 6369 states that typically the following objectives must be met by an airport ground access transportation project: Typically, public agencies propose that an airport ground access transportation project meets the objective of preservation or enhancement of capacity of the national air transportation system, in that airport passengers or air cargo customers may be afforded faster and/or more reliable access times to airports, thus reducing total trip times. The FAA uses reduced trip time as a rough gauge of capacity benefits as it means that the national air transportation system can accommodate the same number of people or amount of air cargo with less average delay, or alternatively, a larger number of people or a larger amount of air cargo at the same level of average delay (FAA, 2004). ITS projects have been proven to increase capacity without adding lanes to the transportation system. Although there is no evidence that airports have used this justification for installing ITS applications, it seems logical that one could make this argument supported by analysis of benefits achieved by similar ITS projects. Airport Revenue For airports that have received federal assistance, revenues generated by the airport may be used only for the capital or operating costs of (1) the airport; (2) the local airport system; or (3) other local facilities owned or operated by the airport owner or operator, and directly and substantially related to the air transportation of passengers or property (49 USC §47107(b), §47133). Guidance for the use of airport revenues on airport ground access transportation projects is provided in “Policies and Procedures Concerning the Use of Airport Revenue,” Section V.A.9 (64 FR, 7718-7719, February 16, 1999). The FAA’s final policy on use of airport revenue, issued in February 1999, affirms that airport revenue may be used for capital and operating costs of transit system and ground access facilities owned or operated by the airport and directly and substantially related to the air transportation of passengers or property. Determine Procurement Method NCHRP Report 560: Guide to Contracting ITS Projects provides guidance on the selection of appropriate contracting options for the design and implementation of an ITS project. Selecting the appropriate option depends on many variables, including the following: • Type and complexity of the required products, systems, and services; • Interdependence of project components and subsystems; • Inclusion of ITS components with roadway construction projects; • Use of varied and rapidly changing advanced technologies; • Need to pre-qualify consultants and/or contractors; • Constrained deployment schedule; • Magnitude of construction impacts on road users; and • Risk management factors associated with capital investments. ITS procurements often entail sophisticated combinations of hardware and software that are challenging to specify because they are tailored to the unique requirements of the procuring

90 Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent transportation Systems elements to Improve airport traveler access Information agency and use components embodying technology that may have advanced substantially in the time between the development of the project concept and the project implementation. Because of these complexities and uncertainties, the low-bid contracting process that transportation agen- cies traditionally use to purchase capital improvements often is not the best approach for ITS procurements (Marshall & Tarnoff, 2006). If low bid is required due to the use of federal funds, consideration should be given to prequalifying the contractors prior to the low-bid process. The complexity of a project can have a significant impact on the selection of a procurement strategy. ITS projects can range in complexity from those that are relatively straightforward— as in adding field devices (e.g., CCTV, DMS, etc.) to an existing traffic management system— to those that are complex—such as the implementation of a new transportation management system including custom software applications. The procurement strategy for these two under- takings would be significantly different. Additionally, operations and maintenance planning need to be considered in many ITS projects prior to executing the final procurement plan. The four components of the procurement process—work distribution, method of award, form of the contract, and the contract type—are illustrated in Figure 28. Experience has shown that the ITS procurement method can have substantial influence on the ultimate success of the ITS installation. The procurement method determines how responsibilities are distributed and decisions are made, the qualifications of the contractor, the systems engineering process, and the controls available to the contracting agency. The procurement method, ideally selected to suit the characteristics of the procuring agency as well as those of the project, can make or break a project. The following guidelines may be helpful in selecting a procurement package based on project- specific characteristics (Marshall & Tarnoff, 2006): • Systems manager is preferred to design-build when a significant amount of new software development is required; • Design-build is preferred over systems manager only for major projects when significant amounts of field construction are involved and there is a desire to reduce implementation delays associated with having to administer multiple procurement contracts; • If a project includes both new software and field construction, consider splitting it into multiple contracts; • Low-bid contracting should be used only in the unlikely event that it is required by agency policy or if projects are limited to field construction and supply off-the-shelf equipment; and • Commodity procurement is applicable if an existing ITS package is available that does not require any modification to meet agency’s requirements. ACRP Report 21: A Guidebook for Selecting Airport Capital Project Delivery Methods discusses the pertinent factors and issues to consider when an airport is selecting a project delivery method Procurement Work Distribution Low-Bid Contractor Systems Manager Systems Integrator Design-Build Commodity Consultant Services Services Method of Award Low-Bid Negotiated Sole Source Best Value Contract Form Phased Task Order Purchase Order Contract Type Fixed Price Cost Reimbursable Incentive Time and Materials Figure 28. Four components of procurement.

Framework for Implementation 91 and should be referred to in combination with NCHRP Report 560 for more detailed information. Generally speaking, the factors that affect the selection of the appropriate project delivery method include the wide range in size, scope, and cost of airport projects; security issues; the need for the airport to remain in operation during construction; the complexity of airport systems; stakeholders; and types of funding. Table 30 lists options for procurement for ITS projects and includes comments as to when a particular procurement type may be the most appropriate. Develop Project Phasing Plan ITS projects by their very nature are meant to be integrated because of their complex mix of technology components; therefore, a phased implementation approach is typical. Project phasing should be guided by the criticality of the needs that will be met, the level of benefits to be Procurement Type Method of Award Contract Form Contract Type Commen ts Commodity Supplier Low - bid selection of pre - qualified packages Single phase or purchase order Fixed price Used for commercial - off - the - shelf ( COTS ) procurements Low - Bid Contractor with Design Low bid for contractor Phased or task order price for contractor I ncentives optional Consultant performs 100% of design. May provide additional services during implementation Use should be restricted to well - defined systems Contractors should be pre - qualified prior to bidding Systems Ma nager Quality - based selection (negotiated procurement) Phased or task order Fixed price, cost plus or time & materials Incentives optional Additional contracting burden placed on agency Field equipment procured by agency using low - bid process Design - B uild Contractor with Design Consultant Best - value selection (based on consideration of price and quality) Phased Usually fixed price , cost plus or time & materials Incentives optional Consultant provides 30% design Most applicable to systems with time constraints and requirement for continuity between the design and implementation Consultant Negotiated Phased or task order Fixed price , cost plus or time & materials Incentives optional Used for system design and many other consultant services Outso urcing Agency Activity Low bid may be based on rates Usually single phase Fixed price or time & materials Incentives optional Typical activities include maintenance, o perations, signal timing, etc. Outsourcing Agency Function Best value or low bid Si ngle phase Fixed price, cost plus or time & material contracts Incentives optional Typical functions include traveler information and toll collection. May be public - private partnership Difficult to define measures and outcomes Source: Marshall & Tarnoff (2006) Fixed Consultant Table 30. Procurement types for ITS projects.

92 Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent transportation Systems elements to Improve airport traveler access Information achieved through project implementation, available resources and funding, as well as necessary institutional and jurisdictional support. Furthermore, the scope of deployment of any phase of a project may be limited based on a lack of any one of these criteria. The following list presents the pros and cons of a phased implementation approach: • Pros – Makes early positive impact on system to benefit users, – Aids in public acceptance of the new system by demonstrating benefits over remaining existing systems, – Provides lessons learned for future phases, – More manageable from a financial and personnel perspective, and – Allows for customer feedback before future phases are deployed. • Cons – Limitations of the existing system, – Inconsistency in services provided between new and existing systems, – Rapid changes in technology, – Training must be provided multiple times, – Duration of design and construction process is longer with multiple phases, and – Implementation phasing may be unclear to users. To develop a phased implementation approach, a planning horizon consisting of a range of time is used. The planning horizon can consist of any range of time but is likely to be 10 to 20 years, which is then segmented into multiple implementation phases. The controlling factor when determining project phasing is typically funding. For example, projects that are implemented in the first phase are those that have the least risk, will provide tangible benefits, and already have funding secured. A project phasing plan should answer the following questions for each phase: • What will be deployed? • Where will it be deployed? • What operational capabilities will result? • What is the estimated deployment cost and schedule? • What agreements are needed? • Is funding available for design, construction, and operations and maintenance? Plan Integration This section describes the integration planning process. Integration is the process of combining hardware and software components and systems into one complete and functioning system. Systems integration is essential to the deployment success of ITS projects due to the large number of disparate elements with numerous data flows, communications protocols, and methods of physical connectivity. Integration planning should be initiated when the project is first defined and is driven by the system requirements, system interfaces, and any external interfaces to legacy systems with the end product being an integration plan. Airports will have multiple legacy systems administered by various agencies that must be evaluated and prioritized for integration into the ITS. “Legacy system” is a term used to describe an existing system that continues to function for the user’s needs, even though it is outdated and newer technology or more efficient methods are now available. Information from these legacy systems will most likely come in different electronic formats, and integration into the system will require some data manipulation and fusion. It is important to identify the source, owner, protocol, interface, size, bandwidth, version, and anything else available.

Framework for Implementation 93 Custom software may be developed to ease the data integration effort, but it is expensive and time consuming to specify, develop, and monitor and will remain proprietary for the life of the system. Institutional integration involves cooperation and coordination between various agencies and jurisdictions to achieve seamless operations and interoperability. Information sharing and exchanges between systems require knowledge of the transmission protocol and data formats to ensure compatibility. Coordinating field device operations owned by different agencies requires defined procedures for submitting data requests and rules governing when such requests can be honored. While all interfaces involve good working relationships between agencies for data compatibility, agreements for procedure, operation, maintenance, and training may also be critical elements to optimizing the benefits of the architecture. Table 31 contains planning considerations related to ITS integration. Communications infrastructure makes data sharing, agency coordination, and system inte- gration possible. This type of infrastructure includes telephone networks (landline and mobile), cable television networks, internet (including high-speed data cables, routers, servers, and software used for these products), communication satellites, undersea cables, networks used for internal ITS Integration Planning Considerations Identify Existing Hardware - Who owns the hardware? - What is the current use? - Can it meet a functional requirement? - What are its constraints? - How does it communicate? - Where is it located? - Does it need to be integrated with the new system? Identify Existing Software - Who owns the software? - What is the current use? - Can it meet a functional requirement? - What are its constraints? - How does it communicate? - Does it need to be integrated with the new system? Identify New Hardware - Is the hardware replacement necessary? - Has the old hardware reached its end of life cycle? - Is the old hardware still supportable? - Is the new hardware backwards compatible with your system? - Do all units need to be replaced at the same time? - Is a maintenance capability available? - Will it add functionality? - Will it require new or additional software? - Is training available? - Can replacement be funded? Identify New Software - Is the software replacement necessary? - Has the old software reached its end of life cycle? - Is the old software still supportable? - Is the new software backwards compatible with your system? - Do all units need to be replaced at the same time? - Is support capability available? - Will it add functionality? - Will it require new or additional hardware? - Is training available? - Can replacement be funded? Table 31. ITS integration planning considerations.

94 Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent transportation Systems elements to Improve airport traveler access Information communication and monitoring, pneumatic tube mail distribution networks, GPS, and air traffic control centers. Safety and Security of the System This section describes the ongoing safety and security issues that airports must manage related to the integration and sharing of information between technology systems. The security of the system relates to the safety of the system in that any attempt to deny service, manipulate data, masquerade and gain access, or replay or repudiate actions or messages could result in harm to the system or users of the system. The physical security of the field devices located along airport roadways, in parking facilities, and at any other location needs to be addressed during the design of the system. Most traditional ITS have been deployed in less sensitive and tightly controlled areas such as freeways and urban roadways. Communications cables and wireless signals will pass from relatively uncontrolled areas to highly secure areas, presenting unique challenges in both design and maintenance. Decisions regarding equipment placement should consider security and ease of access for maintenance personnel. If the system is planned to be maintained by a permanent airport staff, then the location of equipment in controlled access areas may not be a problem. However, if contract maintenance is used, the need to escort and monitor maintenance personnel into controlled areas could be costly and cause delayed recovery of failed systems. The constant state of construction and deployment of upgrades at most airports must be considered in the design and maintenance of airport ITS. Communications systems must remain operable during construction. Designing a system with redundant communications paths may be one solution to limit the potential loss of communications to field elements caused by construction. Temporary or permanent wireless systems should be considered for additional restoration. Monitoring systems that include intrusion alarms, video monitoring, and access control should be part of any system deployed. Existing security systems should be evaluated to determine if they can accommodate the additional elements that are part of the ITS. Close coordination will be essential during the design phase to eliminate conflicts and disputes between airport departments. While the overall objective of any ITS is to provide and share information, airport systems are highly vulnerable to malicious attack. Basic network protection is necessary in any system and will include firewalls, passwords, and routing. The airport electronic security must go further and include encryption of electronic messages sent over wireless and wired com- munications channels. The level of security should match the perceived threat. Command and control software that automates notification of alarm system activity among various elements of the system should be a high priority during the identification of the functional requirements. This should occur in both the systems engineering and design process. Plan Configuration Management This section describes the philosophy behind and the importance of configuration management in any ITS. Simply stated, configuration management is the process by which changes, repairs, and upgrades to the system are handled and documented. It is extremely important that the system/ component documentation is complete to the extent that the system’s owner can use another qualified development team to upgrade and maintain the system independent of the initial development team. The purpose of configuration management is to keep the physical implementation of a system consistent with the design intent. Configuration management ensures that project documentation

Framework for Implementation 95 accurately describes and controls the functional and physical characteristics of the end product being developed, thereby establishing system integrity. It is extremely important that the system/ component documentation is complete to the extent that the system’s owner can use another qualified team to upgrade and maintain the system independent of the initial development team. The path to good configuration management starts with a configuration management plan, which establishes guidelines and a formal procedure for submitting configuration changes for approval. Some agencies appoint a single person who approves or rejects all proposed changes to the system. It is important to understand that configuration management is a process that is active throughout the entire life of the project, is scalable, and has many parts and pieces. Hardware, software, documentation, cable routing, IP address schemes, switch and router programming, serial addresses, and more need to be managed in detail. The equipment used in technology projects is constantly changing. During and after the initial deployment of a system, it is necessary to keep an up-to-date and accurate inventory of all devices. This includes hardware and firmware versions, serial numbers, model numbers, and documentation. It is not unusual for a manufacturer to make firmware or software changes that affect the operation of equipment or how it interfaces with central software systems. For example, video encoders at two CCTV locations can look the same and have the same model numbers but be significantly different due to firmware changes. The central software may need to know the firmware of the encoder at the CCTV location to be able to communicate and process the video. If a maintenance technician replaces an encoder with different firmware, then the system will not work, even though the device the technician installed does not have operational issues. Managing changes to system configurations is essential to minimize cost and schedule overruns on ITS projects. The following checklist, excerpted from A Guide to Configuration Management for Intelligent Transportation Systems (Mitretek Systems, 2002b), can be used as a guide in developing a configuration management plan: • Is there a documented configuration management process for this project? • Is the configuration management process integrated with the project plan and an integral part of the culture? • What classes of information does your project control? • What items are under control? • How is the decision to control them made? • Are all versions controlled? • Are configuration control tools used for status accounting and configuration identification tracking? • Are periodic reviews and audits in place to assess the effectiveness of the configuration management process? • Are all pieces of information shared by two or more organizations placed under configuration management? • Who on the project is responsible for change control of baseline and non-baseline items? • Do you have a configuration control board? If so, who are its members? • Do you have a process for controlling non-product software that is shared? • How does the developer make releases to the acquirer? • How does the acquirer take delivery of items from the developer? Develop Design Plans and Specifications For systems that require the implementation of equipment in the field, the development of engineering design plans and specifications is a critical final step in ensuring that the airport receives the system that it desires and that meets its needs. In general, the design plans should

96 Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent transportation Systems elements to Improve airport traveler access Information show the location of and type of equipment to be installed, its interface with existing systems, construction notes, and an estimate of the quantity and type of material to be installed. The technical specifications are developed to further define the materials and equipment to be installed. Although an airport will have a Master Spec containing various commonly used materials specifications, it is likely that any project involving ITS applications and technologies will require a custom-developed set of technical specifications. As with any materials specification, the ITS equipment spec should include, but not be limited to, the following sections: • Description, • Materials, • Manufacturer qualifications, • Construction requirements, • Acceptance testing, • Warranty, • Maintenance and support (if applicable), • Method of measurement, and • Basis of payment. In addition to design plans and specifications, projects may require systems integration ser- vices that include physical, logical, and operational network infrastructure design. These ser- vices may involve network integration plans for multiple software packages, network design and specification development, implementation plans to address the impact of the new system on existing operations, and documentation on how the system will be tested prior to being put into service. Deploy and Integrate System Perform Integration Activities Integration is an iterative process, which typically includes taking hardware and software components and forming them into complete subsystem elements, and then combining the subsystem elements into larger combined subsystems, and ultimately combining all of the sub- systems into a final system. Typically for ITS, this process involves communications system integration, field element integration, operations center integration, and subsequently full system integration, as illustrated in Figure 29. The following activities should be performed as part of the integration process: • Provide necessary training for personnel to execute the integration activities; • Provide appropriate documentation on each subsystem to be integrated; • Place components to be integrated under configuration control; • Prepare audit or review reports; Figure 29. System integration.

Framework for Implementation 97 • Establish integration testing procedures, which should include the following, at a minimum: – Verify data integrity, – Verify diagnostic messages, – Introduce potential failures and threats, – Evaluate performance under degraded conditions, – Verify diagnostic messages, and – Perform normal transaction tests; • Conduct subsystem integration testing; and • Integrate subsystems into final system. Verify System This section describes the system verification process, which is used to accept the system from the development/deployment team. This process may be performed by the airport or by a consultant hired to monitor and manage the installation under a Construction Engineering and Inspection contract. Having an engineering team experienced with ITS deployments and integration will free airport staff from this requirement and ensure the process is executed appropriately. Verification ensures that the system meets its functional requirements and matches the design and technical specifications. In this step, the system components are assembled into a working system to ensure that it fulfills all of its requirements. Assembling a puzzle is a nice, simple analogy for this step, but the challenge in an ITS project “puzzle” is that not all of the pieces are available at the same time; some will not fit together particularly well at first; and there will be pressure to change some of the pieces after they have already been assembled. The systems engineering approach provides a systematic process for integration and verification that addresses the chal- lenges and complexity of assembling ITS. Integration and verification are iterative processes in which the software and hardware components that make up the system are progressively combined into subsystems and verified against the requirements. This process continues until the entire system is integrated and verified against all of its requirements. Validate System This section describes the validation process, which ensures that the operational system meets the users’ needs and its intended purpose. For example, in the validation step, the owner may collect data for the purpose of a “before and after” study (if this is the case, data would also need to be collected prior to deployment). In an airport ITS deployment, the validation process tends to be more complex than a typical roadway system. This is the natural result of having multiple agencies relying on the effective performance of any system. For example, a parking system must meet the needs of the inbound and outbound traveler, shuttle services, airlines, maintenance units, fee collection units, and possibly others. In systems engineering a distinction is made between verification and validation. Verifica- tion confirms that a product meets its specified requirements. Validation confirms that the product fulfills its intended use. The majority of system verification can be performed before the system is deployed. Validation really cannot be completed until the system is in its opera- tional environment and is being used by the real users. For example, validation of a parking management system cannot be fully completed until the new system is in place and it can be determined how effectively it controls circulation and saves users time in locating a vacant parking space.

98 Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent transportation Systems elements to Improve airport traveler access Information The last thing that an owner wants to discover is that the wrong system was built just as it is becoming operational. This is why the systems engineering approach seeks to validate the products that lead up to the final operational system to maximize the chances of a successful system validation at the end of the project. Since validation activities are performed throughout the project development process, there should be few surprises during the final system validation. Provide Public Outreach/Education The following outline provides ideas for various information sharing/education activities for the purpose of making the public aware of new ITS and/or improved functionality of an exist- ing system. In order to maximize the benefits achieved, the public needs to understand how the system works and how to use it. The airport may do any combination of public outreach activities, including the following: • Hold a press conference (likely reserved for implementation of larger scale projects) – Invite representatives from local print, radio, and television outlets; • Develop a media kit (distribute media kit to all local print, radio and television outlets) – Press release, – Project fact sheet, – FAQs, – High-resolution images, and – Contact information for questions/follow-up; • Add content to the airport website (create dedicated section or add to appropriate existing section of website) – Project fact sheet, – FAQs, – Podcasts—utilize video to demonstrate new systems/processes, – Image gallery, and – Contact information; • Utilize existing digital network/distribute information via digital channels such as: – Email contact database, – Airport’s dedicated Facebook page, – Airport’s dedicated Twitter feed, and – Airport’s YouTube channel. Operations and Maintenance Considerations An often overlooked or underestimated item in planning for technology-based projects is the cost to operate and maintain the system after it is installed. Many airports likely have in-house IT, communications, and maintenance staff with the capability to maintain the new components installed as part of the ITS; however, resources need to be allocated appropriately so that existing staff can accommodate the new system in addition to their existing workload. If it is determined that the existing staff mix and technical skills represented is not adequate to handle the additional components installed, then a plan needs to be developed to acquire the necessary resources or identify adequate budget for contract support and maintenance services. The following should be considered when planning for the operations and maintenance of ITS: • Identify funding and policies supporting ongoing operations and maintenance; • Identify the aspects of the system needing operations or maintenance support; • Identify the manuals (user, administrator, and maintenance), configuration records, and procedures that are to be used in operation and maintenance; • Identify the personnel who will be responsible for operations and maintenance;

Framework for Implementation 99 • Identify initial and ongoing personnel training procedures, special skills, tools, and other resources; • Identify operations- and maintenance-related data to be collected and how it is to be processed and reported; and • Identify methods to be used to monitor the effectiveness of operations and maintenance. The level of operations and maintenance support the airport administration will need to provide will vary based on the maintenance method selected, the size of the system, and the normal operating hours of the airport. Compared to more traditional infrastructure improvement such as roadway projects, ITS improvements typically incur a greater proportion of their costs as continuing management, maintenance, and operations costs rather than up-front capital costs. ITS equipment also typically has a shorter anticipated useful life than many traditional infrastruc- ture improvements, and it must be replaced as it reaches obsolescence. Further complicating the operations and maintenance of ITS is the sharing of ITS equipment and resources across different departments and possibly multiple agencies. The airport administration should assess its capabilities and current staffing to arrive at a maintenance and operations concept that fits its situation. This assessment should be initiated during the project development process and finalized during system validation. Personnel resources needed for the operation of the system will depend on the design and level of automation included in the system. Information such as flight arrival and departure times are typically fully automated and received from other sources, but monitoring an advanced parking management system and cell phone lot will require active participation by a staff of operators. Following are some examples of how state and municipal transportation agencies have handled operations and maintenance responsibilities for their ITS: • The Tennessee Department of Transportation uses contract maintenance for its systems with a separate contracted consultant hired to monitor the maintenance contractor. The workload to administer the two contracts utilized existing staff. • The Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) established an in-house maintenance capability with some positions filled by contract labor and others by MDOT staff. This method required the purchase and maintenance of additional resources such as vehicles, test equipment, tools, safety gear, etc. • Some municipalities have added the ITS maintenance duties to existing traffic signal main- tenance groups. Typically, traffic signal maintenance shops have some of the equipment needed to support the operations and maintenance effort of ITS, such as bucket trucks and basic communications test equipment. Airports will also have support and test equipment in established maintenance functions. The ITS components that require routine and ongoing maintenance fall into one of three cat- egories: central control, field elements, and communications. Table 32 contains a list of compo- nents and should be used as a planning guide for determining the level of additional maintenance expertise that will be needed for ITS. The FHWA maintains a database with the projected average life expectancy for many types of ITS devices, which can be referred to for more information. Performance Measures Whether the maintenance activities are conducted by in-house personnel or contracted out, there are several measures of performance that can be used to determine the effectiveness of ITS maintenance. These performance measures include: • Mean time between failures—the average time between device failures, usually expressed in hours; • Mean time to repair—the average time to repair (or replace) a device, typically this includes the response time, expressed in hours;

100 Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent transportation Systems elements to Improve airport traveler access Information • System availability—the time that the system provides its designed functionality, expressed in hours. Typically, this excludes scheduled downtime due to maintenance or system admin- istration activities; and • System reliability—similar to system availability but expressed as the probability that the system will be available to perform as intended. Maintenance Staffing There are no established or accepted guidelines that agencies can utilize to specifically determine maintenance staffing levels by classification for the number and type of ITS devices that it owns and operates. The national examples indicate that, in general, one maintenance staff person can typically maintain anywhere from 100 to 200 ITS devices. Choice of technology can affect the size of the required maintenance staff. Agencies that end up with a variety of different technologies will complicate their maintenance activities. Developing an airport specification can mitigate this type of problem. Technology choices themselves can also reduce the overall need for maintenance activities. For example, some technologies have built-in diagnostic functions that can aid in troubleshooting. Another option that an airport may want to consider involves contracting with one or more firms for unit-price, open-ended maintenance support services. In this situation, an experienced contractor would be selected to be on call to the airport for emergency and peak needs when airport staff is unavailable or under-staffed for a particular project. The contract would establish fixed unit prices for labor, equipment, and materials, and it could have all-inclusive prices for performing standard maintenance activities such as control center hardware/software updates, bulb or LED replacements, replacing cameras and detectors, or even installing device poles and foundations. Regardless of the approach taken, the airport should consider bidding a “maintenance period” alternate in their major ITS projects that would provide for routine and/or Table 32. ITS maintenance components. Maintenance Category Sample ITS Components Central Control - Power supply, generators, batteries, and related equipment - Video displays - Internal communication networks - Computer hardware - Computer software - Control systems - Other COTS products - Media connections - Website Field Elements - Dynamic message signs - CCTV cameras - Vehicle detectors - Access control gates Communications - Fiber optic cable - Wireless infrastructure - Copper twisted pair - Coaxial cable - Ethernet switches - Terminal servers - Modems - Test equipment (optical time domain reflectometer, power meters)

Framework for Implementation 101 emergency response maintenance by contract forces. The type and level of maintenance activities, along with length of maintenance period, could be varied to provide options for the airport based on available funding. Funding for Ongoing Operations and Maintenance To ensure that the deployed ITS will continue to operate as intended and meet the needs of travelers on a continual basis, the airport must identify funding sources for day-to-day operations and maintenance of the system. Although most agencies would like to reduce O&M expenditures with the implementation of new systems, ITS and other technology-based systems often have high ongoing costs associated with them. The benefits of ITS deployments are only achieved through efficient operation of the systems, which must be identified when justifying funding for the O&M costs. The first year of operation of the ITS will not be a good indicator for what annual O&M costs will be due to product warranties. Over time, the O&M costs will tend to increase as equipment ages and/or more devices are added to an existing system. A range of O&M costs were presented in Chapter 4 associated with each ITS technology application. Since O&M costs can vary significantly depending on the specific installation parameters, a more detailed assessment should be made in the planning stages of the ITS project. This will allow airport planners to more appropriately determine the impact of the O&M for the ITS project on existing budgets.

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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 70: Guidebook for Implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems Elements to Improve Airport Traveler Access Information provides descriptions, component details, and examples of how airport ground access information can be disseminated using various intelligent transportation systems (ITS) technologies.

The guidebook contains tables to help airport operators determine the applicability of certain ITS strategies based on airport operational needs and airport size.

The printed version of the report includes an interactive CD-ROM designed to help explore and evaluate the information needs of various airport traveler market segments and to identify ITS technologies that best meet the needs of the airport user.

The CD-ROM also contains a decision support tool that allows users to identify appropriate methods of delivering airport traveler information based on the airport traveler market segment.

The CD-ROM is also available for download from TRB’s website as an ISO image. Links to the ISO image and instructions for burning a CD-ROM from an ISO image are provided below.

Help on Burning an .ISO CD-ROM Image

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CD-ROM Disclaimer - This software is offered as is, without warranty or promise of support of any kind either expressed or implied. Under no circumstance will the National Academy of Sciences or the Transportation Research Board (collectively "TRB") be liable for any loss or damage caused by the installation or operation of this product. TRB makes no representation or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, in fact or in law, including without limitation, the warranty of merchantability or the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, and shall not in any case be liable for any consequential or special damages.

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