National Academies Press: OpenBook
Page i
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Role of Human Factors in Preventing Cargo Tank Truck Rollovers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22741.
×
Page R1
Page ii
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Role of Human Factors in Preventing Cargo Tank Truck Rollovers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22741.
×
Page R2
Page iii
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Role of Human Factors in Preventing Cargo Tank Truck Rollovers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22741.
×
Page R3
Page iv
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Role of Human Factors in Preventing Cargo Tank Truck Rollovers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22741.
×
Page R4
Page v
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Role of Human Factors in Preventing Cargo Tank Truck Rollovers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22741.
×
Page R5
Page vi
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Role of Human Factors in Preventing Cargo Tank Truck Rollovers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22741.
×
Page R6
Page vii
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Role of Human Factors in Preventing Cargo Tank Truck Rollovers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22741.
×
Page R7
Page viii
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Role of Human Factors in Preventing Cargo Tank Truck Rollovers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22741.
×
Page R8

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

H A Z A R D O U S M A T E R I A L S C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M HMCRP REPORT 7 Role of Human Factors in Preventing Cargo Tank Truck Rollovers Douglas B. Pape S. Robert Fredman Battelle MeMorial institute Columbus, OH Daniel C. Murray Micah Lueck aMerican transportation research institute St. Paul, MN Mark D. Abkowitz VanderBilt uniVersity Nashville, TN and James Fleming Martinez, CA Subscriber Categories Motor Carriers • Safety and Human Factors TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2012 www.TRB.org Research sponsored by the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM The safety, security, and environmental concerns associated with transportation of hazardous materials are growing in number and complexity. Hazardous materials are substances that are flammable, explosive, or toxic or that, if released, produce effects that would threaten human safety, health, the environment, or property. Hazardous materials are moved throughout the country by all modes of freight transportation, including ships, trucks, trains, airplanes, and pipelines. The private sector and a diverse mix of government agencies at all levels are responsible for controlling the transport of hazardous materials and for ensuring that hazardous cargoes move without incident. This shared goal has spurred the creation of several venues for organizations with related interests to work together in preventing and responding to hazardous materials incidents. The freight transportation and chemical industries; government regulatory and enforcement agencies at the federal and state levels; and local emergency planners and responders routinely share information, resources, and expertise. Nevertheless, there has been a long- standing gap in the system for conducting hazardous materials safety and security research. Industry organizations and government agencies have their own research programs to support their mission needs. Collaborative research to address shared problems takes place occasionally, but mostly occurs on an ad hoc basis. Acknowledging this gap in 2004, the U.S. DOT Office of Hazardous Materials Safety, the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, the Federal Railroad Administration, and the U.S. Coast Guard pooled their resources for a study. Under the auspices of the Transportation Research Board (TRB), the National Research Council of the National Academies appointed a committee to examine the feasibility of creating a cooperative research program for hazardous materials transportation, similar in concept to the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and the Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). The committee concluded, in TRB Special Report 283: Cooperative Research for Hazardous Materials Transportation: Defining the Need, Converging on Solutions, that the need for cooperative research in this field is significant and growing, and the committee recommended establishing an ongoing program of cooperative research. In 2005, based in part on the findings of that report, the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU) authorized the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) to contract with the National Academy of Sciences to conduct the Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program (HMCRP). The HMCRP is intended to complement other U.S. DOT research programs as a stakeholder-driven, problem-solving program, researching real-world, day-to-day operational issues with near- to mid- term time frames. Published reports of the HAZARDOUS MATERIALS COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America HMCRP REPORT 7 Project HM-13 ISSN 2150-4849 ISBN: 978-0-309-25837-1 Library of Congress Control Number 2012941851 © 2012 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, RITA, or PHMSA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not- for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the sponsors of the Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors gratefully acknowledge the valuable time and honest observations given them by the many individuals who were interviewed. As they were promised anonymity, they cannot be thanked personally here. The team wishes to express its thanks to the individuals at the state DOTs and contractors for their cooperation and to Mr. Paul Bomgardner of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration and Mr. John Conley of the National Tank Truck Carriers, Inc. Mr. Chris Stephens of VicRoads (Victoria, Australia) generously provided substantive, concrete discus- sion of its Heavy Vehicle Rollover Prevention Program, how the program was developed, and what set it apart from other rollover prevention programs. VicRoads provided the Heavy Vehicle Rollover Prevention Kit for use in the trial and also provided a number of DVDs, which were distributed to carriers for their own use. CRP STAFF FOR HMCRP REPORT 7 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs William C. Rogers, Senior Program Officer Charlotte Thomas, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Andréa Briere, Editor HMCRP PROJECT 13 PANEL John L. Conley, National Tank Truck Carriers, Inc., Arlington, VA (Chair) Michael S. Bronzini, Mount Juliet, TN Austin Marshall, University of Texas - El Paso, El Paso, TX Steven L. Niswander, Groendyke Transport Inc., Enid, OK Becky J. Perlaky, Kenan Advantage Group, North Canton, OH Scott L. Turner, SL Turner Consulting, Blairstown, NJ Barbara Windsor, Hahn Transportation, Inc., New Market, MD Bryan Yielding, Heil Trailer International, Athens, TN Paul Bomgardner, FMCSA Liaison George R. Famini, TSA Liaison Suzanne Rach, FMCSA Liaison Richard C. Bornhorst, US Coast Guard Liaison Ann Purdue, TRB Liaison

F O R E W O R D HMCRP Report 7: Role of Human Factors in Preventing Cargo Tank Truck Rollovers analyzes the root causes of the major driver factors contributing to cargo tank truck roll- overs and proposes safety, management, and communication practices that can be used to minimize or eliminate driver errors in cargo tank truck operations. The research focuses on three critical areas of practice that can be quickly implemented and will have long-lasting benefits for motor carriers of all sizes across the tank truck industry. These areas of prac- tice, examined through case studies, include (1) rollover-specific driver training and safety programs, with particular attention to a program on heavy vehicle rollover prevention from VicRoads (the state government roads authority in Victoria, Australia), the components of a good overall safety program, and tips for investigating rollovers to prevent their recurrence; (2) the use of behavior management techniques using on-board technology, direct observa- tion (driver ride-along), training, and other tools and methods to manage driver behavior based on a survey of current technology and interviews with operators who demonstrated successful behavior management processes; and (3) the use of fitness-for-duty management practices in fatigue management, general health and wellness, scheduling and dispatching strategies, and distracted driving prevention. While the cargo tank truck industry has one of the best safety records in the trucking indus- try, cargo tank truck rollovers remain a concern. In 2007, the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration published the Cargo Tank Roll Stability Study, which identified four possible approaches to reducing cargo tank truck rollovers: driver training, electronic stability aids, tank truck vehicle design improvement, and highway design improvement. Several major sources of crash data were reviewed, all of which identified “driver error” as the most sig- nificant cause of cargo tank truck rollovers. The Study categorized the “driver errors” under the “driver training” heading. While training is a key factor, it has been suggested that other factors in the driver’s environment could contribute to a rollover, because even experienced drivers have rollovers. To aid in crash reduction, further root cause investigation, coupled with identifying best practices in driver safety, management, and communication prac- tices, could present an efficient approach to reducing driver errors because it can accelerate improvements by eliminating the trial and error process in countermeasure development. Under HMCRP Project 13, Battelle Memorial Institute was asked to (1) review U.S. cargo tank truck rollover crash experience from 2007–2009 to determine the root causes; (2) identify other direct and indirect influences on drivers that could cause cargo tank truck rollovers; (3) identify other industry and international best practices that could be used to minimize or eliminate driver errors in the cargo tank truck industry; and (4) conduct panel- approved case studies that discuss the applicability, outcomes, benefits, challenges, and By William C. Rogers Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

implications of applying the selected best practices. The final result is a report that identifies and evaluates examples of the best safety, management, and communication practices that can be used to minimize or eliminate driver errors in the cargo tank truck industry. The report includes tools that can be readily adopted by fleet operators to aid in implementing the practices.

C O N T E N T S 1 Summary 5 Chapter 1 Introduction 5 1.1 Background 5 1.2 Scope 5 1.3 Approach 7 Chapter 2 Root Causes of Cargo Tank Truck Rollovers 7 2.1 The Crash Data Set 7 2.1.1 TIFA—Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents 8 2.1.2 HMIRS—Hazardous Material Information Resource System 8 2.1.3 MCMIS—Motor Carrier Management Information System 8 2.1.4 PARs—Police Accident Reports 8 2.2 Analysis Framework 10 2.3 Summary of Findings from the Root Cause Analysis 10 2.3.1 PAR Findings 10 2.3.2 TIFA Findings 11 2.3.3 Summary of Key Findings 13 Chapter 3 Driver Cultural and Lifestyle Practices 13 3.1 PAR Analysis Conclusions 13 3.2 TIFA Conclusions 13 3.3 Prior TRB Synthesis Research 18 Chapter 4 Good Practices of the Cargo Tank Truck Industry 18 4.1 Results of the Interviews 18 4.1.1 Opportunities for Improvement 19 4.1.2 Operations 19 4.1.3 Fitness for Duty 20 4.1.4 Hiring and Initial Training 20 4.2 Noteworthy Emerging Practices 22 Chapter 5 Good Practices of Other Industries and Countries 22 5.1 Unique Practices and Circumstances of Overseas Operations 23 5.2 Industries Other than Cargo Tank Motor Vehicles 23 5.2.1 Culture 24 5.2.2 Hiring and Training 24 5.2.3 Operations 25 5.3 Lessons from a Prior Study of Disasters 27 Chapter 6 Case Studies 27 6.1 Case Study 1: Training and Safety Programs 27 6.1.1 Overview 27 6.1.2 Case Study Methodology

28 6.1.3 VicRoads 30 6.1.4 Components of a Good Overall Safety Program 32 6.1.5 Finding the Root Causes of Rollovers 35 6.1.6 List of Available Rollover Training Materials 35 6.1.7 Rollover Crash Location Data 36 6.2 Case Study 2: Behavior Management Processes 37 6.2.1 Case Study Methodology 37 6.2.2 Lessons from Transportation Sectors Other Than Cargo Tank Trucks 38 6.2.3 Identification 38 6.2.4 Tools for Observation 42 6.2.5 Methods of Analysis 43 6.2.6 Approaches to Correction 43 6.2.7 Continued Monitoring 43 6.2.8 Implementing a Behavior Management Process 45 6.3 Case Study 3: Fitness-for-Duty Management Programs 45 6.3.1 Overview 46 6.3.2 Key Industry Initiatives in Fitness-for-Duty Management 48 6.3.3 Good Practices in the Cargo Tank Truck and Other Industries 52 6.3.4 Key Components of the Fitness-for-Duty Program 54 Chapter 7 Conclusions and Recommendations 54 7.1 Root Driver-Related Factors 55 7.2 Best Safety Practices for Drivers and Carriers 56 7.3 Recommendations for Future Work 57 References 59 Glossary 61 Appendices Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.

Next: Summary »
Role of Human Factors in Preventing Cargo Tank Truck Rollovers Get This Book
×
 Role of Human Factors in Preventing Cargo Tank Truck Rollovers
Buy Paperback | $48.00
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

TRB’s Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program (HMCRP) Report 7: Role of Human Factors in Preventing Cargo Tank Truck Rollovers analyzes the causes of the major driver factors contributing to cargo tank truck rollovers and offers safety, management, and communication practices that can be used to help potentially minimize or eliminate driver errors in cargo tank truck operations.

The report focuses on three areas of practice--rollover-specific driver training and safety programs, the use of behavior management techniques, and the use of fitness-for-duty management practices--that could have long-lasting benefits for motor carriers of all sizes across the tank truck industry.

READ FREE ONLINE

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!